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  • Andersson, I., et al. (författare)
  • Human MxA Protein Inhibits the Replication of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Virology. - 0022-538X .- 1098-5514. ; 78:8, s. 4323-4329
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) belongs to the genus Nairovirus within the family Bunyaviridae and is the causative agent of severe hemorrhagic fever. Despite increasing knowledge about hemorrhagic fever viruses, the factors determining their pathogenicity are still poorly understood. The interferon-induced MxA protein has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on several members of the Bunyaviridae family, but the effect of MxA against CCHFV has not previously been studied. Here, we report that human MxA has antiviral activity against CCHFV. The yield of progeny virus in cells constitutively expressing MxA was reduced up to 1,000-fold compared with control cells, and accumulation of viral genomes was blocked. Confocal microscopy revealed that MxA colocalizes with the nucleocapsid protein (NP) of CCHFV in the perinuclear regions of infected cells. Furthermore, we found that MxA interacted with NP by using a coimmunoprecipitation assay. We also found that an amino acid substitution (E645R) within the C-terminal domain of MxA resulted in a loss of MxA antiviral activity and, concomitantly, in the capacity to interact with CCHFV NP. These results suggest that MxA, by interacting with a component of the nucleocapsid, prevents replication of CCHFV viral RNA and thereby inhibits the production of new infectious virus particles.
  • Appelberg, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Dysregulation in Akt/mTOR/HIF-1 signaling identified by proteo-transcriptomics of SARS-CoV-2 infected cells
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Emerging Microbes & Infections. - 2222-1751. ; 9:1, s. 1748-1760
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • How severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections engage cellular host pathways and innate immunity in infected cells remains largely elusive. We performed an integrative proteo-transcriptomics analysis in SARS-CoV-2 infected Huh7 cells to map the cellular response to the invading virus over time. We identified four pathways, ErbB, HIF-1, mTOR and TNF signaling, among others that were markedly modulated during the course of the SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. Western blot validation of the downstream effector molecules of these pathways revealed a dose-dependent activation of Akt, mTOR, S6K1 and 4E-BP1 at 24 hours post infection (hpi). However, we found a significant inhibition of HIF-1α through 24hpi and 48hpi of the infection, suggesting a crosstalk between the SARS-CoV-2 and the Akt/mTOR/HIF-1 signaling pathways. Inhibition of the mTOR signaling pathway using Akt inhibitor MK-2206 showed a significant reduction in virus production. Further investigations are required to better understand the molecular sequelae in order to guide potential therapy in the management of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients.
  • Jaaskelainen, Anne J., et al. (författare)
  • Development and Evaluation of a Real-Time RT-qPCR for Detection of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Representing Different Genotypes
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. - : Mary Ann Liebert. - 1530-3667 .- 1557-7759. ; 14:12, s. 870-872
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic disease caused by a nairovirus belonging to family Bunyaviridae. The CCHF virus (CCHFV) can be transmitted to humans by Hyalomma ticks as well as by direct contact with infected body fluids or tissues from viremic livestock or humans. Our aim was to set up a fast RT-qPCR for detection of the different CCHFV genotypes in clinical samples, including an inactivation step to make the sample handling possible in lower biosafety levels (BSL) than BSL-4. This method was evaluated against commercial reference assays and international External Quality Assessment (EQA) samples. The analytical limit of detection for the developed CCHFV-S RT-qPCR was 11 CCHFV genomes per reaction. After exclusion of four dubious samples, we studied 38 CCHFV-positive samples (using reference tests) of which 38 were found positive by CCHFV-S RT-qPCR, suggesting a sensitivity of 100%. CCHFV-S RT q-PCR detected all eight different CCHFV strains representing five different CCHFV genotypes. In conclusion, the CCHFV-S RT-qPCR described in this study was evaluated using various sources of CCHFV samples and shown to be an accurate tool to detect human CCHFV infection caused by different genotypes of the virus.
  • Molinas, Andrea, et al. (författare)
  • Protective role of host aquaporin 6 against Hazara virus, a model for Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infection
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: FEMS Microbiology Letters. - : Oxford University Press. - 0378-1097 .- 1574-6968. ; 363:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is an arthropod-borne pathogen that causes infectious disease with severe hemorrhagic manifestations in vascular system in humans. The proper function of the cells in the vascular system is critically regulated by aquaporins (AQP), water channels that facilitate fluxes of water and small solutes across membranes. With Hazara virus as a model for CCHFV, we investigated the effects of viruses on AQP6 and the impact of AQP6 on virus infectivity in host cells, using transiently expressed GFP-AQP6 cells, immunofluorescent assay for virus detection, epifluorescent imaging of living cells and confocal microscopy. In GFP-AQP6 expressing cells, Hazara virus reduced both the cellular and perinuclear AQP6 distribution and changed the cell area. Infection of human cell with CCHFV strain IbAR 10200 downregulated AQP6 expression at mRNA level. Interestingly, the overexpression of AQP6 in host cells decreased the infectivity of Hazara virus, speaking for a protective role of AQP6. We suggest the possibility for AQP6 being a novel player in the virus–host interactions, which may lead to less severe outcomes of an infection.
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