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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Mirchi Ali) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Mirchi Ali)

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1.
  • Danaei, Goodarz, et al. (författare)
  • Iran in transition
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 393:10184, s. 1984-2005
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Being the second-largest country in the Middle East, Iran has a long history of civilisation during which several dynasties have been overthrown and established and health-related structures have been reorganised. Iran has had the replacement of traditional practices with modern medical treatments, emergence of multiple pioneer scientists and physicians with great contributions to the advancement of science, environmental and ecological changes in addition to large-scale natural disasters, epidemics of multiple communicable diseases, and the shift towards non-communicable diseases in recent decades. Given the lessons learnt from political instabilities in the past centuries and the approaches undertaken to overcome health challenges at the time, Iran has emerged as it is today. Iran is now a country with a population exceeding 80 million, mainly inhabiting urban regions, and has an increasing burden of non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes, malignancies, mental disorders, substance abuse, and road injuries.
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2.
  • Alborzi, Aneseh, et al. (författare)
  • Climate-informed environmental inflows to revive a drying lake facing meteorological and anthropogenic droughts
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters. - 1748-9326 .- 1748-9326. ; 13:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The rapid shrinkage of Lake Urmia, one of the world's largest saline lakes located in northwestern Iran, is a tragic wake-up call to revisit the principles of water resources management based on the socio-economic and environmental dimensions of sustainable development. The overarching goal of this paper is to set a framework for deriving dynamic, climate-informed environmental inflows for drying lakes considering both meteorological/climatic and anthropogenic conditions. We report on the compounding effects of meteorological drought and unsustainable water resource management that contributed to Lake Urmia's contemporary environmental catastrophe. Using rich datasets of hydrologic attributes, water demands and withdrawals, as well as water management infrastructure (i.e. reservoir capacity and operating policies), we provide a quantitative assessment of the basin's water resources, demonstrating that Lake Urmia reached a tipping point in the early 2000s. The lake level failed to rebound to its designated ecological threshold (1274 m above sea level) during a relatively normal hydro-period immediately after the drought of record (1998-2002). The collapse was caused by a marked overshoot of the basin's hydrologic capacity due to growing anthropogenic drought in the face of extreme climatological stressors. We offer a dynamic environmental inflow plan for different climate conditions (dry, wet and near normal), combined with three representative water withdrawal scenarios. Assuming effective implementation of the proposed 40% reduction in the current water withdrawals, the required environmental inflows range from 2900 million cubic meters per year (mcm yr(-1)) during dry conditions to 5400 mcm yr(-1) during wet periods with the average being 4100 mcm yr(-1). Finally, for different environmental inflow scenarios, we estimate the expected recovery time for re-establishing the ecological level of Lake Urmia.
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3.
  • Ashraf, Samaneh, et al. (författare)
  • Compounding effects of human activities and climatic changes on surface water availability in Iran
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Climatic Change. - 0165-0009 .- 1573-1480. ; 152:3-4, s. 379-391
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • By combining long-term ground-based data on water withdrawal with climate model projections, this study quantifies the compounding effects of human activities and climate change on surface water availability in Iran over the twenty-first century. Our findings show that increasing water withdrawal in Iran, due to population growth and increased agricultural activities, has been the main source of historical water stress. Increased levels of water stress across Iran are expected to continue or even worsen over the next decades due to projected variability and change in precipitation combined with heightened water withdrawals due to increasing population and socio-economic activities. The greatest rate of decreased water storage is expected in the Urmia Basin, northwest of Iran, (varying from -8.3mm/year in 2010-2039 to -61.6mm/year in 2070-2099 compared with an observed rate of 4mm/year in 1976-2005). Human activities, however, strongly dominate the effects of precipitation variability and change. Major shifts toward sustainable land and water management are needed to reduce the impacts of water scarcity in the future, particularly in Iran's heavily stressed basins like Urmia Basin, which feeds the shrinking Lake Urmia.
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4.
  • AghaKouchak, Amir, et al. (författare)
  • Anthropogenic Drought : Definition, Challenges, and Opportunities
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Reviews of geophysics. - 8755-1209 .- 1944-9208. ; 59:2
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Traditional, mainstream definitions of drought describe it as deficit in water-related variables or water-dependent activities (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture, surface and groundwater storage, and irrigation) due to natural variabilities that are out of the control of local decision-makers. Here, we argue that within coupled human-water systems, drought must be defined and understood as a process as opposed to a product to help better frame and describe the complex and interrelated dynamics of both natural and human-induced changes that define anthropogenic drought as a compound multidimensional and multiscale phenomenon, governed by the combination of natural water variability, climate change, human decisions and activities, and altered micro-climate conditions due to changes in land and water management. This definition considers the full spectrum of dynamic feedbacks and processes (e.g., land-atmosphere interactions and water and energy balance) within human-nature systems that drive the development of anthropogenic drought. This process magnifies the water supply demand gap and can lead to water bankruptcy, which will become more rampant around the globe in the coming decades due to continuously growing water demands under compounding effects of climate change and global environmental degradation. This challenge has de facto implications for both short-term and long-term water resources planning and management, water governance, and policymaking. Herein, after a brief overview of the anthropogenic drought concept and its examples, we discuss existing research gaps and opportunities for better understanding, modeling, and management of this phenomenon.Plain Language SummaryThis article reviews research and progress on the notion of anthropogenic drought broadly defined as drought events caused or intensified by human activities. Most commonly used drought definitions are based on deficit in hydrologic/meteorologic drivers such as precipitation and runoff. Within coupled human-water systems, however, drought must be defined and understood as the complex and interrelated dynamics of both natural and human-induced changes. This anthropogenic drought definition considers the full spectrum of dynamic feedbacks and processes (e.g., land-atmosphere interactions and water and energy balance) within human-nature systems. Ideally, anthropogenic drought and the corresponding human interactions should be incorporated in models that include land-atmosphere interactions, water balance, and energy balance. In this article, we review existing research gaps and opportunities for better understanding, modeling, and management of this phenomenon.
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5.
  • Noori, Roohollah, et al. (författare)
  • Anthropogenic depletion of Iran's aquifers
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 118:25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Global groundwater assessments rank Iran among countries with the highest groundwater depletion rate using coarse spatial scales that hinder detection of regional imbalances between renewable groundwater supply and human withdrawals. Herein, we use in situ data from 12,230 piezometers, 14,856 observation wells, and groundwater extraction points to provide ground-based evidence about Iran’s widespread groundwater depletion and salinity problems. While the number of groundwater extraction points increased by 84.9% from 546,000 in 2002 to over a million in 2015, the annual groundwater withdrawal decreased by 18% (from 74.6 to 61.3 km3/y) primarily due to physical limits to fresh groundwater resources (i.e., depletion and/or salinization). On average, withdrawing 5.4 km3/y of nonrenewable water caused groundwater tables to decline 10 to 100 cm/y in different regions, averaging 49 cm/y across the country. This caused elevated annual average electrical conductivity (EC) of groundwater in vast arid/semiarid areas of central and eastern Iran (16 out of 30 subbasins), indicating “very high salinity hazard” for irrigation water. The annual average EC values were generally lower in the wetter northern and western regions, where groundwater EC improvements were detected in rare cases. Our results based on high-resolution groundwater measurements reveal alarming water security threats associated with declining fresh groundwater quantity and quality due to many years of unsustainable use. Our analysis offers insights into the environmental implications and limitations of water-intensive development plans that other water-scarce countries might adopt.
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6.
  • Ashraf, Batool, et al. (författare)
  • Quantifying Anthropogenic Stress on Groundwater Resources
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - 2045-2322. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study explores a general framework for quantifying anthropogenic influences on groundwater budget based on normalized human outflow (h(out)) and inflow (h(in)). The framework is useful for sustainability assessment of groundwater systems and allows investigating the effects of different human water abstraction scenarios on the overall aquifer regime (e.g., depleted, natural flow-dominated, and human flow-dominated). We apply this approach to selected regions in the USA, Germany and Iran to evaluate the current aquifer regime. We subsequently present two scenarios of changes in human water withdrawals and return flow to the system (individually and combined). Results show that approximately one-third of the selected aquifers in the USA, and half of the selected aquifers in Iran are dominated by human activities, while the selected aquifers in Germany are natural flow-dominated. The scenario analysis results also show that reduced human withdrawals could help with regime change in some aquifers. For instance, in two of the selected USA aquifers, a decrease in anthropogenic influences by similar to 20% may change the condition of depleted regime to natural flow-dominated regime. We specifically highlight a trending threat to the sustainability of groundwater in northwest Iran and California, and the need for more careful assessment and monitoring practices as well as strict regulations to mitigate the negative impacts of groundwater overexploitation.
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7.
  • Babbar-Sebens, Meghna, et al. (författare)
  • Training Water Resources Systems Engineers to Communicate : Acting on Observations from On-the-Job Practitioners
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of professional issues in engineering education and practice. - 1052-3928 .- 1943-5541. ; 145:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Engineers face the ongoing challenge to effectively communicate for diverse purposes and audiences across multiple settings. The authors interviewed 10 practicing water resources systems engineers to collect their lived experiences of the use of water resources systems analysis in their workplaces. Thematic analysis was used to identify three key communications hurdles practitioners face: stakeholder influence over the communication process, engineers as central to communication and decision making, and communication as an opportunity to educate stakeholders and engineers. Practitioners recommended classroom activities to overcome these hurdles and better integrate communications training into curricula. Recommendations include (1) expanding the use of case studies, (2) adding opportunities for role plays and team activities, (3) providing students with more practice on how to hold effective discussions, facilitate teamwork, and resolve conflicts, and (4) providing students with the broader contexts for class problems, including how political/institutional constraints, bureaucracies, and social issues may constrain communication and technical solutions. This study shares 22 example activities as online educational resources in a free, open, searchable repository and shows how activities can serve as a bottom-up approach to integrate communications training into the engineering curriculum.
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8.
  • Cheng, Chuntian, et al. (författare)
  • Reform and renewables in China : The architecture of Yunnan's hydropower dominated electricity market
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews. - 1364-0321 .- 1879-0690. ; 94, s. 682-693
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Reforms currently under way in China's electricity markets bear important implications for its decarbonization objectives. The southwestern province of Yunnan is among the provinces piloting the current iteration of power market reforms. As such, lessons from Yunnan will inform future market reform and renewable energy policies in China and potentially elsewhere. The dominance of hydropower in Yunnan's energy portfolio and the particular transmission constraints it faces, offer an interesting case study of the challenges of decarbonization. We report on market architecture reforms and aggregate market data collected from the Yunnan Power Exchange. We review four elements in the reformed market architecture. Market pricing rules, transitional quantity controls, the generation rights market, and inter-provincial trade. The specifics of market reform reflect a compromise between decarbonization, inter-provincial competition, grid security and development objectives and contribute to understanding of how the dual transitions of hydropower decarbonization and market liberalization interact. We conclude on six insights regarding the role of the grid operator, security checks on trade, integration of cascade hydropower, the inclusion of renewables in the generation rights market, price controls, and market participant price uncertainty.
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9.
  • Davtalab, Rahman, et al. (författare)
  • Improving Continuous Hydrologic Modeling of Data-Poor River Basins Using Hydrologic Engineering Center's Hydrologic Modeling System : Case Study of Karkheh River Basin
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of hydrologic engineering. - 1084-0699 .- 1943-5584. ; 22:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper applies HEC-HMS to the Karkheh River basin (KRB), Iran, and facilitates the calibration of a continuous hydrologic model (CHM) with soil moisture accounting (SMA) and snowmelt degree-day parameters. Manual calibration was performed to ensure the physical relevance of HEC-HMS parameter values. Because manual calibration entails changing each parameter value in a user-defined setting, it is often a time-consuming procedure complicated by multitude of interacting parameters. To address this setback, an event-based calibration technique (EBCT) was implemented in KRB and its interior sub-basins whereby the governing parameters of specific fall, spring, and winter events were initially estimated in a precalibration step and used as inputs to facilitate calibration of the CHM. Model performance analyzed based on goodness-of-fit criteria with respect to peak flows, low flows, and hydrograph shape reflects uncertainties associated with streamflow naturalization and use of average annual parameter values for the snowmelt component. Sensitivity analysis provided insights into the basin's snowfall and melt characteristics, distinguishing antecedent temperature index (ATI) cold rate coefficient and baseflow recession coefficient as key parameters affecting hydrograph shape and magnitude of the peak flow, respectively. Results based on goodness of fit metrics suggest that event-based parameter estimation using seasonal characteristics improved the efficiency and accuracy of the continuous HEC-HMS model (CORRL and NSE 0.78-0.87 and 0.5-0.7, respectively) while facilitating application to a large, data-poor river basin with heterogeneous climatic conditions.
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10.
  • Davtalab, Rahman, et al. (författare)
  • Sea Level Rise Effect on Groundwater Rise and Stormwater Retention Pond Reliability
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Water. - 2073-4441 .- 2073-4441. ; 12:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The coastal areas of Florida, United States, are exposed to increasing risk of flooding due to sea level rise as well as severe hurricanes. Florida regulations suggest constructing stormwater retention ponds as an option to retain excess runoff generated by the increased impervious area and to protect the environment by reducing pollutants from new developments. Groundwater level rise can significantly lower the soil storage capacity and infiltration at retention ponds, in turn, reducing the pond's capacity to capture consecutive storms due to longer pond volume recovery time. Partial groundwater inundation can affect retention ponds' ability to decrease peak flow rates and keep the post-development outflow lower than or equal to pre-development conditions. In this paper, the reliability and performance of a retention pond near Tampa Bay, Florida, was evaluated under sea level rise conditions. An integrated surface water and groundwater model was developed, and the groundwater table was projected for future conditions as a function of sea level rise. The results showed that sea level rise could increase the seasonal high water elevation of the retention pond up to 40 cm by mid-21st century. This increase lowered the reliability of the retention pond by about 45%. The pond failed to recover the designed treatment volume within required 72 h because of the high groundwater table, increasing the risk of pollutant discharge. Furthermore, the peak flow and volume of runoff significantly increased under sea level rise and associated groundwater table rise conditions. The study results suggest that it is imperative to consider future sea level rise conditions in stormwater design in low-lying coastal areas of Florida and around the world to prevent poor pond performance and increased risk of flooding in the future.
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