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Sökning: WFRF:(Molau Ulf)

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1.
  • Jägerbrand, Annika K., et al. (författare)
  • Responses of bryophytes to simulated environmental change at Latnjajaure, northern Sweden
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Journal of Bryology. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0373-6687 .- 1743-2820. ; 25:3, s. 163-168
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We simulated a predicted environmental change in a subarctic-alpine plant community to study short-term growth in Hylocomium splendens, and three-year effects in abundance changes of the five most common bryophytes at Latnjajaure, northern Sweden. The experiment had a factorial design with increased temperature and nutrients, alone and in combination. Moss growth was measured during the 1995 growing season, and we measured species abundance before and after three years of environmental perturbation. The combined treatments of fertilizer and temperature enhancement caused a decreased growth in length and dry weight in H. splendens. There was a significant decrease in abundance of Rhytidium rugosum in the combined temperature and fertilizer treatment. The other four common bryophyte species (Aulacomnium turgidum, Dicranum groenlandicum, Hylocomium splendens, and Ptilidium ciliare) showed weaker, but not significant trends in the same direction. As the bryophytes are an important component of arctic and subarctic vegetation, we expect that they will play a key role in the impact of anticipated Global Change on the ecosystems.
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2.
  • Vowles, Tage, et al. (författare)
  • The impact of shrub browsing by mountain hare and reindeer in subarctic Sweden
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Plant Ecology and Diversity. - 1755-0874 .- 1755-1668. ; 9:4, s. 421-428
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Climate warming has been causing an increase in tall shrub cover around the Arctic, however, mammalian herbivory has been shown to inhibit shrub expansion. Though the effect of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) and many other mammals has been widely studied in this context, the role of the mountain hare (Lepus timidus) in subarctic Scandinavia remains unknown. Aims: To quantify browsing from mountain hare and reindeer on tall shrubs in different vegetation types and to investigate differences in shrub preference between the two. Methods: In the summers of 2013 and 2014, we counted signs of browsing by hare and reindeer on tall shrub species in 31 study plots at three alpine locations in the Scandes range, Sweden. Results: Hare browsing was significantly more frequent than that by reindeer in two (dry-mesic heath and dry meadow) out of seven vegetation types studied. Reindeer browsing was significantly higher in the low herb meadow and Långfjället shrub heath. Two shrub species, Betula nana and Salix hastata, were significantly more browsed by hare, while reindeer browsing was significantly higher on S. phylicifolia and S. lapponum. Conclusions: Our results show that mountain hares can cause extensive damage to tall shrubs in the subarctic and may have a stronger impact on shrub communities than previously recognised.
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3.
  • Walker, M. D., et al. (författare)
  • Plant community responses to experimental warming across the tundra biome
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 103:5, s. 1342-1346
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent observations of changes in some tundra ecosystems appear to be responses to a warming climate. Several experimental studies have shown that tundra plants and ecosystems can respond strongly to environmental change, including warming; however, most studies were limited to a single location and were of short duration and based on a variety of experimental designs. In addition, comparisons among studies are difficult because a variety of techniques have been used to achieve experimental warming and different measurements have been used to assess responses. We used metaanalysis on plant community measurements from standardized warming experiments at 11 locations across the tundra biome involved in the International Tundra Experiment. The passive warming treatment increased plant-level air temperature by 1-3 degrees C, which is in the range of predicted and observed warming for tundra regions. Responses were rapid and detected in whole plant communities after only two growing seasons. Overall, warming increased height and cover of deciduous shrubs and graminoids, decreased cover of mosses and lichens, and decreased species diversity and evenness. These results predict that warming will cause a decline in biodiversity across a wide variety of tundra, at least in the short term. They also provide rigorous experimental evidence that recently observed increases in shrub cover in many tundra regions are in response to climate warming. These changes have important implications for processes and interactions within tundra ecosystems and between tundra and the atmosphere.
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4.
  • Abbott, Benjamin W., et al. (författare)
  • Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire : an expert assessment
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters. - : IOP Publishing: Open Access Journals / IOP Publishing. - 1748-9326 .- 1748-9326. ; 11:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • As the permafrost region warms, its large organic carbon pool will be increasingly vulnerable to decomposition, combustion, and hydrologic export. Models predict that some portion of this release will be offset by increased production of Arctic and boreal biomass; however, the lack of robust estimates of net carbon balance increases the risk of further overshooting international emissions targets. Precise empirical or model-based assessments of the critical factors driving carbon balance are unlikely in the near future, so to address this gap, we present estimates from 98 permafrost-region experts of the response of biomass, wildfire, and hydrologic carbon flux to climate change. Results suggest that contrary to model projections, total permafrost-region biomass could decrease due to water stress and disturbance, factors that are not adequately incorporated in current models. Assessments indicate that end-of-the-century organic carbon release from Arctic rivers and collapsing coastlines could increase by 75% while carbon loss via burning could increase four-fold. Experts identified water balance, shifts in vegetation community, and permafrost degradation as the key sources of uncertainty in predicting future system response. In combination with previous findings, results suggest the permafrost region will become a carbon source to the atmosphere by 2100 regardless of warming scenario but that 65%-85% of permafrost carbon release can still be avoided if human emissions are actively reduced.
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5.
  • Alatalo, Juha M., et al. (författare)
  • Bryophyte cover and richness decline after 18 years of experimental warming in Alpine Sweden
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • 1. Bryophytes in the Arctic and Alpine regions are important in terms of biodiversity, cover and biomass. However, climate change and widespread shrubification of alpine and arctic tundra is predicted to increase in the future, with potentially large impacts on bryophyte communities.2. We studies the impact of 18 years of experimental warming with open top chambers (OTCs) on bryophyte cover, richness and diversity in an alpine mesic meadow and a heath plant community in Northern Sweden. In addition we investigated the relationship between deciduous shrubs and bryophytes.3. Cover and richness of bryophytes both declined due to long-term warming, while diversity did not show any significant responses. After 18 years, bryophyte cover had decreased by 71% and 26 in the heath and meadow, while richness declined by 39% and 26%, respectively.4. Synthesis. Decline in total bryophyte cover in both communities in response to long-term warming was driven by a general decline in many species, with only two individual species showing significant declines. Although most of the species included in the individual analyses did not show any detectable changes, the cumulative change in all species was significant. In addition, species loss was slower than the general decline in bryophyte abundance. As hypothesized, we found significant negative relationship between deciduous shrub cover and bryophyte cover, but not bryophyte richness, in both plant communities. This is likely due to a more delayed decline in species richness compared to abundance, similar to what was observed in response to long-term warming.
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6.
  • Alatalo, J. M., et al. (författare)
  • Climate change and climatic events: community-, functional- and species-level responses of bryophytes and lichens to constant, stepwise, and pulse experimental warming in an alpine tundra
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Alpine Botany. - : Springer. - 1664-2201 .- 1664-221X. ; 124:2, s. 81-91
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We experimentally imposed three different kinds of warming scenarios over 3 years on an alpine meadow community to identify the differential effects of climate warming and extreme climatic events on the abundance and biomass of bryophytes and lichens. Treatments consisted of (a) a constant level of warming with open top chambers (an average temperature increase of 1.87 A degrees C), (b) a yearly stepwise increase of warming (average temperature increases of 1.0; 1.87 and 3.54 A degrees C, consecutively), and (c) a pulse warming, i.e., a single first year pulse event of warming (average temperature increase of 3.54 A degrees C only during the first year). To our knowledge, this is the first climate change study that attempts to distinguish between the effects of constant, stepwise and pulse warming on bryophyte and lichen communities. We hypothesised that pulse warming would have a significant short-term effect compared to the other warming treatments, and that stepwise warming would have a significant mid-term effect compared to the other warming treatments. Acrocarpous bryophytes as a group increased in abundance and biomass to the short-term effect of pulse warming. We found no significant effects of mid-term (third-year) stepwise warming. However, one pleurocarpous bryophyte species, Tomentypnum nitens, generally increased in abundance during the warm year 1997 but decreased in control plots and in response to the stepwise warming treatment. Three years of experimental warming (all treatments as a group) did have a significant impact at the community level, yet changes in abundance did not translate into significant changes in the dominance hierarchies at the functional level (for acrocarpous bryophytes, pleurocarpous bryophytes, Sphagnum or lichens), or in significant changes in other bryophyte or lichen species. The results suggest that bryophytes and lichens, both at the functional group and species level, to a large extent are resistant to the different climate change warming simulations that were applied.
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7.
  • Alatalo, Juha M., 1900, et al. (författare)
  • Dominance hierarchies, diversity and species richness of vascular plants in an alpine meadow: Contrasting short and medium termresponses to simulated global change
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PeerJ. - : PeerJ Inc.. - 2167-8359. ; 2014:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We studied the impact of simulated global change on a high alpine meadow plant community. Specifically, we examined whether short-term (5 years) responses are good predictors for medium-term (7 years) changes in the system by applying a factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to 20 plots in Latnjajaure, subarctic Sweden. Seven years of experimental warming and nutrient enhancement caused dramatic shifts in dominance hierarchies in response to the nutrient and the combined warming and nutrient enhancement treatments. Dominance hierarchies in the meadow moved from a community being dominated by cushion plants, deciduous, and evergreen shrubs to a community being dominated by grasses, sedges, and forbs. Short-termresponses were shown to be inconsistent in their ability to predict medium-term responses for most functional groups, however, grasses showed a consistent and very substantial increase in response to nutrient addition over the seven years. The non-linear responses over time point out the importance of longer-term studies with repeated measurements to be able to better predict future changes. Forecasted changes to temperature and nutrient availability have implications for trophic interactions, and may ultimately influence the access to and palatability of the forage for grazers. Depending on what anthropogenic change will be most pronounced in the future (increase in nutrient deposits, warming, or a combination of them both), different shifts in community dominance hierarchies may occur. Generally, this study supports the productivity-diversity relationship found across arctic habitats, with community diversity peaking in mid-productivity systems and degrading as nutrient availability increases further. This is likely due the increasing competition in plant-plant interactions and the shifting dominance structure with grasses taking over the experimental plots, suggesting that global change could have high costs to biodiversity in the Arctic. © 2014 Alatalo et al.
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8.
  • Alatalo, J. M., et al. (författare)
  • Impacts of different climate change regimes and extreme climatic events on an alpine meadow community
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Macmillan Publishers Ltd.. - 2045-2322. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Climate variability is expected to increase in future but there exist very few experimental studies that apply different warming regimes on plant communities over several years. We studied an alpine meadow community under three warming regimes over three years. Treatments consisted of (a) a constant level of warming with open-top chambers (ca. 1.9 degrees C above ambient), (b) yearly stepwise increases in warming (increases of ca. 1.0, 1.9 and 3.5 degrees C), and (c) pulse warming, a single first-year pulse event of warming (increase of ca. 3.5 degrees C). Pulse warming and stepwise warming was hypothesised to cause distinct first-year and third-year effects, respectively. We found support for both hypotheses; however, the responses varied among measurement levels (whole community, canopy, bottom layer, and plant functional groups), treatments, and time. Our study revealed complex responses of the alpine plant community to the different experimentally imposed climate warming regimes. Plant cover, height and biomass frequently responded distinctly to the constant level of warming, the stepwise increase in warming and the extreme pulse-warming event. Notably, we found that stepwise warming had an accumulating effect on biomass, the responses to the different warming regimes varied among functional groups, and the short-term perturbations had negative effect on species richness and diversity
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9.
  • Alatalo, J. M., et al. (författare)
  • Responses of lichen communities to 18 years of natural and experimental warming
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Annals of Botany. - : Oxford University Press. - 0305-7364 .- 1095-8290. ; 120:1, s. 159-170
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Aims Climate change is expected to have major impacts on high alpine and arctic ecosystems in the future, but empirical data on the impact of long-term warming on lichen diversity and richness are sparse. This study report the effects of 18 years of ambient and experimental warming on lichens and vascular plant cover in two alpine plant communities, a dry heath with sparse canopy cover (54 %) and a mesic meadow with a more developed (67 %) canopy cover, in sub-arctic Sweden. Methods The effects of long-term passive experimental warming using open top chambers (OTCs) on lichens and total vascular plant cover, and the impact of plant cover on lichen community parameters, were analysed. Key Results Between 1993 and 2013, mean annual temperature increased about 2 degrees C. Both site and experimental warming had a significant effect on cover, species richness, effective number of species evenness of lichens, and total plant canopy cover. Lichen cover increased in the heath under ambient conditions, and remained more stable under experimental warming. The negative effect on species richness and effective number of species was driven by a decrease in lichens under experimental warming in the meadow. Lichen cover, species richness, effective number of species evenness were negatively correlated with plant canopy cover. There was a significant negative impact on one species and a non-significant tendency of lower abundance of the most common species in response to experimental warming. Conclusions The results from the long-term warming study imply that arctic and high alpine lichen communities are likely to be negatively affected by climate change and an increase in plant canopy cover. Both biotic and abiotic factors are thus important for future impacts of climate change on lichens.
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10.
  • Alatalo, Juha M., et al. (författare)
  • Seven years of experimental warming and nutrient addition causes decline of bryophytes and lichens in alpine meadow and heath communities
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Global change is predicted to have large and rapid impact on polar and alpine regions. Bryophytes and lichens increase their importance in terms of biomass, carbon/nutrient cycling, cover and ecosystem functioning at higher latitudes/altitudes. Here we report from a seven year factorial experiment with nutrient addition and warming on the abundance of bryophytes and lichens in an alpine meadow and heath community. Treatments had significant negative effect on relative change of total abundance bryophytes and lichens, the largest decline to the nutrient addition and the combined nutrient addition and warming treatments, bryophytes decreasing most in the meadow, lichens most in the heath. Nutrient addition, and the combined nutrient addition and warming brought rapid decrease in both bryophytes and lichens, while warming had a delayed negative impact. Of sixteen species that were included the statistical analyses, we found significant negative effects on seven species. We show that impact of simulated global change on bryophytes and lichens differ in in time and magnitude among treatments and plant communities. Our results underscore the importance of longer-term studies to improve the quality of climate change models, as short-term studies are poor predictors of longer-term responses of bryophytes and lichens, similar to what have been shown for vascular plants. Species-specific responses may differ in time, and this will likely cause changes in the dominance structures of bryophytes and lichens over time.
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