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Sökning: WFRF:(Moller Pal)

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1.
  • Arason, Adalgeir, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide search for breast cancer linkage in large Icelandic non-BRCA1/2 families
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research. - BioMed Central. - 1465-5411. ; 12:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: A significant proportion of high-risk breast cancer families are not explained by mutations in known genes. Recent genome-wide searches (GWS) have not revealed any single major locus reminiscent of BRCA1 and BRCA2, indicating that still unidentified genes may explain relatively few families each or interact in a way obscure to linkage analyses. This has drawn attention to possible benefits of studying populations where genetic heterogeneity might be reduced. We thus performed a GWS for linkage on nine Icelandic multiple-case non-BRCA1/2 families of desirable size for mapping highly penetrant loci. To follow up suggestive loci, an additional 13 families from other Nordic countries were genotyped for selected markers. Methods: GWS was performed using 811 microsatellite markers providing about five centiMorgan (cM) resolution. Multipoint logarithm of odds (LOD) scores were calculated using parametric and nonparametric methods. For selected markers and cases, tumour tissue was compared to normal tissue to look for allelic loss indicative of a tumour suppressor gene. Results: The three highest signals were located at chromosomes 6q, 2p and 14q. One family contributed suggestive LOD scores (LOD 2.63 to 3.03, dominant model) at all these regions, without consistent evidence of a tumour suppressor gene. Haplotypes in nine affected family members mapped the loci to 2p23.2 to p21, 6q14.2 to q23.2 and 14q21.3 to q24.3. No evidence of a highly penetrant locus was found among the remaining families. The heterogeneity LOD (HLOD) at the 6q, 2p and 14q loci in all families was 3.27, 1.66 and 1.24, respectively. The subset of 13 Nordic families showed supportive HLODs at chromosome 6q (ranging from 0.34 to 1.37 by country subset). The 2p and 14q loci overlap with regions indicated by large families in previous GWS studies of breast cancer. Conclusions: Chromosomes 2p, 6q and 14q are candidate sites for genes contributing together to high breast cancer risk. A polygenic model is supported, suggesting the joint effect of genes in contributing to breast cancer risk to be rather common in non-BRCA1/2 families. For genetic counselling it would seem important to resolve the mode of genetic interaction.
2.
  • Bailey-Wilson, Joan E, et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of Xq27-28 linkage in the international consortium for prostate cancer genetics (ICPCG) families
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC Medical Genetics. - London : BioMed Central. - 1471-2350. ; 13, s. 46
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Genetic variants are likely to contribute to a portion of prostate cancer risk. Full elucidation of the genetic etiology of prostate cancer is difficult because of incomplete penetrance and genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Current evidence suggests that genetic linkage to prostate cancer has been found on several chromosomes including the X; however, identification of causative genes has been elusive.Methods: Parametric and non-parametric linkage analyses were performed using 26 microsatellite markers in each of 11 groups of multiple-case prostate cancer families from the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG). Meta-analyses of the resultant family-specific linkage statistics across the entire 1,323 families and in several predefined subsets were then performed.Results: Meta-analyses of linkage statistics resulted in a maximum parametric heterogeneity lod score (HLOD) of 1.28, and an allele-sharing lod score (LOD) of 2.0 in favor of linkage to Xq27-q28 at 138 cM. In subset analyses, families with average age at onset less than 65 years exhibited a maximum HLOD of 1.8 (at 138 cM) versus a maximum regional HLOD of only 0.32 in families with average age at onset of 65 years or older. Surprisingly, the subset of families with only 2-3 affected men and some evidence of male-to-male transmission of prostate cancer gave the strongest evidence of linkage to the region (HLOD = 3.24, 134 cM). For this subset, the HLOD was slightly increased (HLOD = 3.47 at 134 cM) when families used in the original published report of linkage to Xq27-28 were excluded.Conclusions: Although there was not strong support for linkage to the Xq27-28 region in the complete set of families, the subset of families with earlier age at onset exhibited more evidence of linkage than families with later onset of disease. A subset of families with 2-3 affected individuals and with some evidence of male to male disease transmission showed stronger linkage signals. Our results suggest that the genetic basis for prostate cancer in our families is much more complex than a single susceptibility locus on the X chromosome, and that future explorations of the Xq27-28 region should focus on the subset of families identified here with the strongest evidence of linkage to this region.
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4.
  • Christensen, G Bryce, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide linkage analysis of 1,233 prostate cancer pedigrees from the International Consortium for prostate cancer Genetics using novel sumLINK and sumLOD analyses.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: The Prostate. - 0270-4137. ; 70, s. 735-744
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PC) is generally believed to have a strong inherited component, but the search for susceptibility genes has been hindered by the effects of genetic heterogeneity. The recently developed sumLINK and sumLOD statistics are powerful tools for linkage analysis in the presence of heterogeneity. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of 1,233 PC pedigrees from the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG) using two novel statistics, the sumLINK and sumLOD. For both statistics, dominant and recessive genetic models were considered. False discovery rate (FDR) analysis was conducted to assess the effects of multiple testing. RESULTS: Our analysis identified significant linkage evidence at chromosome 22q12, confirming previous findings by the initial conventional analyses of the same ICPCG data. Twelve other regions were identified with genome-wide suggestive evidence for linkage. Seven regions (1q23, 5q11, 5q35, 6p21, 8q12, 11q13, 20p11-q11) are near loci previously identified in the initial ICPCG pooled data analysis or the subset of aggressive PC pedigrees. Three other regions (1p12, 8p23, 19q13) confirm loci reported by others, and two (2p24, 6q27) are novel susceptibility loci. FDR testing indicates that over 70% of these results are likely true positive findings. Statistical recombinant mapping narrowed regions to an average of 9 cM. CONCLUSIONS: Our results represent genomic regions with the greatest consistency of positive linkage evidence across a very large collection of high-risk PC pedigrees using new statistical tests that deal powerfully with heterogeneity. These regions are excellent candidates for further study to identify PC predisposition genes. Prostate (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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6.
  • Kotsopoulos, Joanne, et al. (författare)
  • Infertility, treatment of infertility, and the risk of breast cancer among women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations : a case-control study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - Springer. - 1573-7225. ; 19:10, s. 9-1111
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Women with a breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) or breast cancer susceptibility gene 2 (BRCA2) mutation are at increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. Various reproductive and hormonal factors have been shown to modify the risk of breast cancer. These studies suggest that estrogen exposure and deprivation are important in the etiology of hereditary cancer. Many patients are interested in the possibility of an adverse effect of fertility treatment on breast cancer risk. It is important to evaluate whether or not infertility per se or exposure to fertility medications increase the risk of breast cancer in genetically predisposed women.METHODS: We conducted a matched case-control study of 1,380 pairs of women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation to determine if a history of infertility, the use of fertility medications, or undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) were associated with and increased the risk of breast cancer.RESULTS: Sixteen percent of the study subjects reported having experienced a fertility problem and 4% had used a fertility medication. Women who had used a fertility medication were not at significantly increased risk of breast cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.81-1.82) compared to non-users. Furthermore, there was no risk associated with a history of use of a fertility medication when the subjects were stratified by parity: (OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 0.83-2.01 for nulliparous women and OR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.30-2.22 for parous women).CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that the use of fertility medications does not adversely affect the risk of breast cancer among BRCA mutation carriers. Given the small sizes of the exposed subgroups, these findings should be interpreted with caution and confirmatory studies are required.
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7.
  • Lu, Lingyi, et al. (författare)
  • Chromosomes 4 and 8 implicated in a genome wide SNP linkage scan of 762 prostate cancer families collected by the ICPCG
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: The Prostate. - 0270-4137. ; 72:4, s. 410-426
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND In spite of intensive efforts, understanding of the genetic aspects of familial prostate cancer (PC) remains largely incomplete. In a previous microsatellite-based linkage scan of 1,233 PC families, we identified suggestive evidence for linkage (i.e., LOD?=?1.86) at 5q12, 15q11, 17q21, 22q12, and two loci on 8p, with additional regions implicated in subsets of families defined by age at diagnosis, disease aggressiveness, or number of affected members. METHODS. In an attempt to replicate these findings and increase linkage resolution, we used the Illumina 6000 SNP linkage panel to perform a genome-wide linkage scan of an independent set of 762 multiplex PC families, collected by 11 International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG) groups. RESULTS. Of the regions identified previously, modest evidence of replication was observed only on the short arm of chromosome 8, where HLOD scores of 1.63 and 3.60 were observed in the complete set of families and families with young average age at diagnosis, respectively. The most significant linkage signals found in the complete set of families were observed across a broad, 37cM interval on 4q13-25, with LOD scores ranging from 2.02 to 2.62, increasing to 4.50 in families with older average age at diagnosis. In families with multiple cases presenting with more aggressive disease, LOD cores over 3.0 were observed at 8q24 in the vicinity of previously identified common PC risk variants, as well as MYC, an important gene in PC biology. CONCLUSIONS. These results will be useful in prioritizing future susceptibility gene discovery efforts in thiscommon cancer. Prostate 72: 410-426, 2012. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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8.
  • McLaughlin, John R, et al. (författare)
  • Reproductive risk factors for ovarian cancer in carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations: a case-control study
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology. - Elsevier. - 1474-5488. ; 8:1, s. 26-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Several of the known risk factors for ovarian cancer are thought to act through their effects on ovulation and the menstrual cycle, such as parity, breastfeeding, and use of oral contraceptives. We aimed to assess the effect of these three risk factors, and of tubal ligation, on the risk of ovarian cancer in women who carry a mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. METHODS: We did a matched case-control study in women who were found to carry a pathogenetic mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Participants were derived from a population-based study of ovarian cancer in Ontario, Canada, and from an international registry of mutation carriers based in Toronto, ON, Canada. All participants completed a written questionnaire that detailed their reproductive history. Women with invasive ovarian cancer and controls were matched on year of birth, country of residence, mutation (BRCA1 or BRCA2), and history of breast cancer. The odds ratios and 95% CI for ovarian cancer were estimated with respect to use of oral contraceptives, parity, breastfeeding, and tubal ligation. FINDINGS: Questionnaires were completed by 799 women with a history of invasive ovarian cancer (670 with BRCA1 mutations, 128 with BRCA2 mutations, and one with a mutation in both genes), and controls were 2424 women without ovarian cancer (2043 with BRCA1 mutations, 380 with BRCA2 mutations, and one with a mutation in both genes). Use of oral contraceptives reduced the risk of ovarian cancer in carriers of BRCA1 mutations (odds ratio 0.56 [95% CI 0.45-0.71]; p<0.0001) and carriers of BRCA2 mutations (0.39 [0.23-0.66]; p=0.0004). Parity was associated with a reduced risk for carriers of BRCA1 mutations (0.67 [0.46-0.96]; p=0.03), but with an increased risk for those with BRCA2 mutations (2.74 [1.18-6.41]; p=0.02). Breastfeeding was associated with a reduced risk for carriers of BRCA1 mutations (0.74 [0.56-0.97]; p=0.03). An effect of similar magnitude was seen for carriers of BRCA2 mutations (0.72 [0.41-1.29]; p=0.27), but this was not statistically significant. The association with tubal ligation was not significant for carriers of BRCA1 mutations (0.80 [0.59-1.08]; p=0.15), or for carriers of BRCA2 mutations (0.63 [0.34-1.15]; p=0.13). INTERPRETATION: Oral contraceptives could be used as a means to prevent ovarian cancer in carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. The possible adverse effect of parity on ovarian-cancer risk in women with a BRCA2 mutation needs further study.
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9.
  • Middeldorp, Christel M, et al. (författare)
  • The Early Growth Genetics (EGG) and EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortia: design, results and future prospects
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European journal of epidemiology. - 1573-7284. ; 34:3, s. 279-300
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The impact of many unfavorable childhood traits or diseases, such as low birth weight and mental disorders, is not limited to childhood and adolescence, as they are also associated with poor outcomes in adulthood, such as cardiovascular disease. Insight into the genetic etiology of childhood and adolescent traits and disorders may therefore provide new perspectives, not only on how to improve wellbeing during childhood, but also how to prevent later adverse outcomes. To achieve the sample sizes required for genetic research, the Early Growth Genetics (EGG) and EArly Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortia were established. The majority of the participating cohorts are longitudinal population-based samples, but other cohorts with data on early childhood phenotypes are also involved. Cohorts often have a broad focus and collect(ed) data on various somatic and psychiatric traits as well as environmental factors. Genetic variants have been successfully identified for multiple traits, for example, birth weight, atopic dermatitis, childhood BMI, allergic sensitization, and pubertal growth. Furthermore, the results have shown that genetic factors also partly underlie the association with adult traits. As sample sizes are still increasing, it is expected that future analyses will identify additional variants. This, in combination with the development of innovative statistical methods, will provide detailed insight on the mechanisms underlying the transition from childhood to adult disorders. Both consortia welcome new collaborations. Policies and contact details are available from the corresponding authors of this manuscript and/or the consortium websites.
10.
  • Thompson, Bryony A, et al. (författare)
  • Application of a 5-tiered scheme for standardized classification of 2,360 unique mismatch repair gene variants in the InSiGHT locus-specific database.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 46, s. 107-115
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The clinical classification of hereditary sequence variants identified in disease-related genes directly affects clinical management of patients and their relatives. The International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours (InSiGHT) undertook a collaborative effort to develop, test and apply a standardized classification scheme to constitutional variants in the Lynch syndrome-associated genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. Unpublished data submission was encouraged to assist in variant classification and was recognized through microattribution. The scheme was refined by multidisciplinary expert committee review of the clinical and functional data available for variants, applied to 2,360 sequence alterations, and disseminated online. Assessment using validated criteria altered classifications for 66% of 12,006 database entries. Clinical recommendations based on transparent evaluation are now possible for 1,370 variants that were not obviously protein truncating from nomenclature. This large-scale endeavor will facilitate the consistent management of families suspected to have Lynch syndrome and demonstrates the value of multidisciplinary collaboration in the curation and classification of variants in public locus-specific databases.
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