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Sökning: WFRF:(Monteith S.)

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  • Bauer, M., et al. (författare)
  • Solar insolation in springtime influences age of onset of bipolar I disorder
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. - 0001-690X. ; 136:6, s. 571-582
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To confirm prior findings that the larger the maximum monthly increase in solar insolation in springtime, the younger the age of onset of bipolar disorder. Method: Data were collected from 5536 patients at 50 sites in 32 countries on six continents. Onset occurred at 456 locations in 57 countries. Variables included solar insolation, birth-cohort, family history, polarity of first episode and country physician density. Results: There was a significant, inverse association between the maximum monthly increase in solar insolation at the onset location, and the age of onset. This effect was reduced in those without a family history of mood disorders and with a first episode of mania rather than depression. The maximum monthly increase occurred in springtime. The youngest birth-cohort had the youngest age of onset. All prior relationships were confirmed using both the entire sample, and only the youngest birth-cohort (all estimated coefficients P < 0.001). Conclusion: A large increase in springtime solar insolation may impact the onset of bipolar disorder, especially with a family history of mood disorders. Recent societal changes that affect light exposure (LED lighting, mobile devices backlit with LEDs) may influence adaptability to a springtime circadian challenge.
  • Bauer, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Association between solar insolation and a history of suicide attempts in bipolar I disorder.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of psychiatric research. - 1879-1379. ; 113, s. 1-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In many international studies, rates of completed suicide and suicide attempts have a seasonal pattern that peaks in spring or summer. This exploratory study investigated the association between solar insolation and a history of suicide attempt in patients with bipolar I disorder. Solar insolation is the amount of electromagnetic energy from the Sun striking a surface area on Earth. Data were collected previously from 5536 patients with bipolar I disorder at 50 collection sites in 32 countries at a wide range of latitudes in both hemispheres. Suicide related data were available for 3365 patients from 310 onset locations in 51 countries. 1047 (31.1%) had a history of suicide attempt. There was a significant inverse association between a history of suicide attempt and the ratio of mean winter solar insolation/mean summer solar insolation. This ratio is smallest near the poles where the winter insolation is very small compared to the summer insolation. This ratio is largest near the equator where there is relatively little variation in the insolation over the year. Other variables in the model that were positively associated with suicide attempt were being female, a history of alcohol or substance abuse, and being in a younger birth cohort. Living in a country with a state-sponsored religion decreased the association. (All estimated coefficients p < 0.01). In summary, living in locations with large changes in solar insolation between winter and summer may be associated with increased suicide attempts in patients with bipolar disorder. Further investigation of the impacts of solar insolation on the course of bipolar disorder is needed.
  • Björnerås, C., et al. (författare)
  • Widespread Increases in Iron Concentration in European and North American Freshwaters
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Global Biogeochemical Cycles. - American Geophysical Union. - 0886-6236. ; 31:10, s. 1488-1500
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent reports of increasing iron (Fe) concentrations in freshwaters are of concern, given the fundamental role of Fe in biogeochemical processes. Still, little is known about the frequency and geographical distribution of Fe trends or about the underlying drivers. We analyzed temporal trends of Fe concentrations across 340 water bodies distributed over 10 countries in northern Europe and North America in order to gain a clearer understanding of where, to what extent, and why Fe concentrations are on the rise. We found that Fe concentrations have significantly increased in 28% of sites, and decreased in 4%, with most positive trends located in northern Europe. Regions with rising Fe concentrations tend to coincide with those with organic carbon (OC) increases. Fe and OC increases may not be directly mechanistically linked, but may nevertheless be responding to common regional-scale drivers such as declining sulfur deposition or hydrological changes. A role of hydrological factors was supported by covarying trends in Fe and dissolved silica, as these elements tend to stem from similar soil depths. A positive relationship between Fe increases and conifer cover suggests that changing land use and expanded forestry could have contributed to enhanced Fe export, although increases were also observed in nonforested areas. We conclude that the phenomenon of increasing Fe concentrations is widespread, especially in northern Europe, with potentially significant implications for wider ecosystem biogeochemistry, and for the current browning of freshwaters.
  • Hoppa, M B, et al. (författare)
  • Multivesicular exocytosis in rat pancreatic beta cells
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - Springer. - 1432-0428. ; 55:4, s. 1001-1012
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To establish the occurrence, modulation and functional significance of compound exocytosis in insulin-secreting beta cells. Exocytosis was monitored in rat beta cells by electrophysiological, biochemical and optical methods. The functional assays were complemented by three-dimensional reconstruction of confocal imaging, transmission and block face scanning electron microscopy to obtain ultrastructural evidence of compound exocytosis. Compound exocytosis contributed marginally (< 5% of events) to exocytosis elicited by glucose/membrane depolarisation alone. However, in beta cells stimulated by a combination of glucose and the muscarinic agonist carbachol, 15-20% of the release events were due to multivesicular exocytosis, but the frequency of exocytosis was not affected. The optical measurements suggest that carbachol should stimulate insulin secretion by similar to 40%, similar to the observed enhancement of glucose-induced insulin secretion. The effects of carbachol were mimicked by elevating [Ca2+](i) from 0.2 to 2 mu mol/l Ca2+. Two-photon sulforhodamine imaging revealed exocytotic events about fivefold larger than single vesicles and that these structures, once formed, could persist for tens of seconds. Cells exposed to carbachol for 30 s contained long (1-2 mu m) serpentine-like membrane structures adjacent to the plasma membrane. Three-dimensional electron microscopy confirmed the existence of fused multigranular aggregates within the beta cell, the frequency of which increased about fourfold in response to stimulation with carbachol. Although contributing marginally to glucose-induced insulin secretion, compound exocytosis becomes quantitatively significant under conditions associated with global elevation of cytoplasmic calcium. These findings suggest that compound exocytosis is a major contributor to the augmentation of glucose-induced insulin secretion by muscarinic receptor activation.
  • Monteith, Albert, 1990-, et al. (författare)
  • Calibration of a ground-based array radar for tomographic imaging of natural media
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Remote Sensing. - 2072-4292. ; 11:24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ground-based tomographic radar measurements provide valuable knowledge about the electromagnetic scattering mechanisms and temporal variations of an observed scene and are essential in preparation for space-borne tomographic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) missions. Due to the short range between the radar antennas and a scene being observed, the tomographic radar observations are affected by several systematic errors. This article deals with the modelling and calibration of three systematic errors: mutual antenna coupling, magnitude and phase errors and the pixel-variant impulse response of the tomographic image. These errors must be compensated for so that the tomographic images represent an undistorted rendering of the scene reflectivity. New calibration methods were described, modelled and validated using experimental data. The proposed methods will be useful for future ground-based tomographic radar experiments in preparation for space-borne SAR missions. © 2019 by the authors.
  • Ulander, Lars, 1962-, et al. (författare)
  • Borealscat: A tower experiment for understanding temporal changes in P- and L-band backscattering from a Boreal forest
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Space Agency, (Special Publication). Living Planet Symposium 2016, Prague, Czech Republic, 9-13 May 2016. - 0379-6566. - 978-929221305-3 ; 740
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper describes the tower-based radar BorealScat, which is being developed for polarimetric, tomographic and Doppler measurements at the hemi-boreal forest test site in Remningstorp, Sweden. The facility consists of a 50-m high tower equipped with an antenna array at the top of the tower, a 20-port vector network analyser (VNA), 20 low-loss cables for interconnection, and a calibration loop with a switching network. The first version of BorealScat will perform the full set of measurements in the frequency range 0.4-1.4 GHz, i.e. P-band and L-band. The tower is currently under construction at a forest stand dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The mature stand has an above-ground dry biomass of 300 tons/ha. Data collections are planned to commence in autumn 2016.
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