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Sökning: WFRF:(Moreau Yves)

  • Resultat 1-8 av 8
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1.
  • Clermont, Gilles, et al. (författare)
  • Bridging the gap between systems biology and medicine
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Genome Medicine. - 1756-994X. ; 1:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ABSTRACT : Systems biology has matured considerably as a discipline over the last decade, yet some of the key challenges separating current research efforts in systems biology and clinically useful results are only now becoming apparent. As these gaps are better defined, the new discipline of systems medicine is emerging as a translational extension of systems biology. How is systems medicine defined? What are relevant ontologies for systems medicine? What are the key theoretic and methodologic challenges facing computational disease modeling? How are inaccurate and incomplete data, and uncertain biologic knowledge best synthesized in useful computational models? Does network analysis provide clinically useful insight? We discuss the outstanding difficulties in translating a rapidly growing body of data into knowledge usable at the bedside. Although core-specific challenges are best met by specialized groups, it appears fundamental that such efforts should be guided by a roadmap for systems medicine drafted by a coalition of scientists from the clinical, experimental, computational, and theoretic domains.
2.
  • Andersson, Claes, 1978- (författare)
  • Fusing Domain Knowledge with Data Applications in Bioinformatics
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Massively parallel measurement techniques can be used for generating hypotheses about the molecular underpinnings of a biological systems. This thesis investigates how domain knowledge can be fused to data from different sources in order to generate more sophisticated hypotheses and improved analyses. We find our applications in the related fields of cell cycle regulation and cancer chemotherapy. In our cell cycle studies we design a detector of periodic expression and use it to generate hypotheses about transcriptional regulation during the course of the cell cycle in synchronized yeast cultures as well as investigate if domain knowledge about gene function can explain whether a gene is periodically expressed or not. We then generate hypotheses that suggest how periodic expression that depends on how the cells were perturbed into synchrony are regulated. The hypotheses suggest where and which transcription factors bind upstreams of genes that are regulated by the cell cycle. In our cancer chemotherapy investigations we first study how a method for identifiyng co-regulated genes associated with chemoresponse to drugs in cell lines is affected by domain knowledge about the genetic relationships between the cell lines. We then turn our attention to problems that arise in microarray based predictive medicine, were there typically are few samples available for learning the predictor and study two different means of alleviating the inherent trade-off betweeen allocation of design and test samples. First we investigate whether independent tests on the design data can be used for improving estimates of a predictors performance without inflicting a bias in the estimate. Then, motivated by recent developments in microarray based predictive medicine, we propose an algorithm that can use unlabeled data for selecting features and consequently improve predictor performance without wasting valuable labeled data.</p>
3.
  • Clermont, Gilles, et al. (författare)
  • Bridging the gap between systems biology and medicine
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Genome Medicine. - BioMed Central. - 1756-994X .- 1756-994X. ; 1:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Systems biology has matured considerably as a discipline over the last decade, yet some of the key challenges separating current research efforts in systems biology and clinically useful results are only now becoming apparent. As these gaps are better defined, the new discipline of systems medicine is emerging as a translational extension of systems biology. How is systems medicine defined? What are relevant ontologies for systems medicine? What are the key theoretic and methodologic challenges facing computational disease modeling? How are inaccurate and incomplete data, and uncertain biologic knowledge best synthesized in useful computational models? Does network analysis provide clinically useful insight? We discuss the outstanding difficulties in translating a rapidly growing body of data into knowledge usable at the bedside. Although core-specific challenges are best met by specialized groups, it appears fundamental that such efforts should be guided by a roadmap for systems medicine drafted by a coalition of scientists from the clinical, experimental, computational, and theoretic domains.</p>
4.
  • Fayers, Peter M., et al. (författare)
  • Thalidomide for previously untreated elderly patients with multiple myeloma: meta-analysis of 1685 individual patient data from 6 randomized clinical trials
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Blood. - American Society of Hematology. - 1528-0020. ; 118:5, s. 1239-1247
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The role of thalidomide for previously untreated elderly patients with multiple myeloma remains unclear. Six randomized controlled trials, launched in or after 2000, compared melphalan and prednisone alone (MP) and with thalidomide (MPT). The effect on overall survival (OS) varied across trials. We carried out a meta-analysis of the 1685 individual patients in these trials. The primary endpoint was OS, and progression-free survival (PFS) and 1-year response rates were secondary endpoints. There was a highly significant benefit to OS from adding thalidomide to MP (hazard ratio = 0.83; 95% confidence interval 0.73-0.94, P = .004), representing increased median OS time of 6.6 months, from 32.7 months (MP) to 39.3 months (MPT). The thalidomide regimen was also associated with superior PFS (hazard ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.61-0.76, P < .0001) and better 1-year response rates (partial response or better was 59% on MPT and 37% on MP). Although the trials differed in terms of patient baseline characteristics and thalidomide regimens, there was no evidence that treatment affected OS differently according to levels of the prognostic factors. We conclude that thalidomide added to MP improves OS and PFS in previously untreated elderly patients with multiple myeloma, extending the median survival time by on average 20%. (Blood. 2011;118(5):1239-1247)
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5.
  • Guala, Dimitri, 1979- (författare)
  • Functional association networks for disease gene prediction
  • 2017
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Mapping of the human genome has been instrumental in understanding diseasescaused by changes in single genes. However, disease mechanisms involvingmultiple genes have proven to be much more elusive. Their complexityemerges from interactions of intracellular molecules and makes them immuneto the traditional reductionist approach. Only by modelling this complexinteraction pattern using networks is it possible to understand the emergentproperties that give rise to diseases.The overarching term used to describe both physical and indirect interactionsinvolved in the same functions is functional association. FunCoup is oneof the most comprehensive networks of functional association. It uses a naïveBayesian approach to integrate high-throughput experimental evidence of intracellularinteractions in humans and multiple model organisms. In the firstupdate, both the coverage and the quality of the interactions, were increasedand a feature for comparing interactions across species was added. The latestupdate involved a complete overhaul of all data sources, including a refinementof the training data and addition of new class and sources of interactionsas well as six new species.Disease-specific changes in genes can be identified using high-throughputgenome-wide studies of patients and healthy individuals. To understand theunderlying mechanisms that produce these changes, they can be mapped tocollections of genes with known functions, such as pathways. BinoX wasdeveloped to map altered genes to pathways using the topology of FunCoup.This approach combined with a new random model for comparison enables BinoXto outperform traditional gene-overlap-based methods and other networkbasedtechniques.Results from high-throughput experiments are challenged by noise and biases,resulting in many false positives. Statistical attempts to correct for thesechallenges have led to a reduction in coverage. Both limitations can be remediedusing prioritisation tools such as MaxLink, which ranks genes using guiltby association in the context of a functional association network. MaxLink’salgorithm was generalised to work with any disease phenotype and its statisticalfoundation was strengthened. MaxLink’s predictions were validatedexperimentally using FRET.The availability of prioritisation tools without an appropriate way to comparethem makes it difficult to select the correct tool for a problem domain.A benchmark to assess performance of prioritisation tools in terms of theirability to generalise to new data was developed. FunCoup was used for prioritisationwhile testing was done using cross-validation of terms derived fromGene Ontology. This resulted in a robust and unbiased benchmark for evaluationof current and future prioritisation tools. Surprisingly, previously superiortools based on global network structure were shown to be inferior to a localnetwork-based tool when performance was analysed on the most relevant partof the output, i.e. the top ranked genes.This thesis demonstrates how a network that models the intricate biologyof the cell can contribute with valuable insights for researchers that study diseaseswith complex genetic origins. The developed tools will help the researchcommunity to understand the underlying causes of such diseases and discovernew treatment targets. The robust way to benchmark such tools will help researchersto select the proper tool for their problem domain.</p>
6.
  • Lage, Kasper, et al. (författare)
  • A human phenome-interactome network of protein complexes implicated in genetic disorders
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nature Biotechnology. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1696. ; 25:3, s. 309-316
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We performed a systematic, large-scale analysis of human protein complexes comprising gene products implicated in many different categories of human disease to create a phenome-interactome network. This was done by integrating quality-controlled interactions of human proteins with a validated, computationally derived phenotype similarity score, permitting identification of previously unknown complexes likely to be associated with disease. Using a phenomic ranking of protein complexes linked to human disease, we developed a Bayesian predictor that in 298 of 669 linkage intervals correctly ranks the known disease-causing protein as the top candidate, and in 870 intervals with no identified disease-causing gene, provides novel candidates implicated in disorders such as retinitis pigmentosa, epithelial ovarian cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer disease, type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. Our publicly available draft of protein complexes associated with pathology comprises 506 complexes, which reveal functional relationships between disease-promoting genes that will inform future experimentation.
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7.
  • Ripatti, Samuli, et al. (författare)
  • GENESTAT : an information portal for design and analysis of genetic association studies
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - 1018-4813 .- 1476-5438. ; 17:4, s. 533-536
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We present the rationale, the background and the structure for version 2.0 of the GENESTAT information portal (www.genestat.org) for statistical genetics. The fast methodological advances, coupled with a range of standalone software, makes it difficult for expert as well as non-expert users to orientate when designing and analysing their genetic studies. The ultimate ambition of GENESTAT is to guide on statistical methodology related to the broad spectrum of research in genetic epidemiology. GENESTAT 2.0 focuses on genetic association studies. Each entry provides a summary of a topic and gives links to key papers, websites and software. The flexibility of the internet is utilised for cross-referencing and for open editing. This paper gives an overview of GENESTAT and gives short introductions to the current main topics in GENESTAT, with additional entries on the website. Methods and software developers are invited to contribute to the portal, which is powered by a Wikipedia-type engine and allows easy additions and editing.</p>
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