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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Motsinger Reif Alison) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Motsinger Reif Alison)

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1.
  • Agler, Caryline, et al. (författare)
  • Canine Hereditary Ataxia in Old English Sheepdogs and Gordon Setters Is Associated with a Defect in the Autophagy Gene Encoding RAB24
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLOS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 10:2, s. e1003991-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Old English Sheepdogs and Gordon Setters suffer from a juvenile onset, autosomal recessive form of canine hereditary ataxia primarily affecting the Purkinje neuron of the cerebellar cortex. The clinical and histological characteristics are analogous to hereditary ataxias in humans. Linkage and genome-wide association studies on a cohort of related Old English Sheepdogs identified a region on CFA4 strongly associated with the disease phenotype. Targeted sequence capture and next generation sequencing of the region identified an A to C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located at position 113 in exon 1 of an autophagy gene, RAB24, that segregated with the phenotype. Genotyping of six additional breeds of dogs affected with hereditary ataxia identified the same polymorphism in affected Gordon Setters that segregated perfectly with phenotype. The other breeds tested did not have the polymorphism. Genome-wide SNP genotyping of Gordon Setters identified a 1.9 MB region with an identical haplotype to affected Old English Sheepdogs. Histopathology, immunohistochemistry and ultrastructural evaluation of the brains of affected dogs from both breeds identified dramatic Purkinje neuron loss with axonal spheroids, accumulation of autophagosomes, ubiquitin positive inclusions and a diffuse increase in cytoplasmic neuronal ubiquitin staining. These findings recapitulate the changes reported in mice with induced neuron-specific autophagy defects. Taken together, our results suggest that a defect in RAB24, a gene associated with autophagy, is highly associated with and may contribute to canine hereditary ataxia in Old English Sheepdogs and Gordon Setters. This finding suggests that detailed investigation of autophagy pathways should be undertaken in human hereditary ataxia. Author Summary Neurodegenerative diseases are one of the most important causes of decline in an aging population. An important subset of these diseases are known as the hereditary ataxias, familial neurodegenerative diseases that affect the cerebellum causing progressive gait disturbance in both humans and dogs. We identified a mutation in RAB24, a gene associated with autophagy, in Old English Sheepdogs and Gordon Setters with hereditary ataxia. Autophagy is a process by which cell proteins and organelles are removed and recycled and its critical role in maintenance of the continued health of cells is becoming clear. We evaluated the brains of affected dogs and identified accumulations of autophagosomes within the cerebellum, suggesting a defect in the autophagy pathway. Our results suggest that a defect in the autophagy pathway results in neuronal death in a naturally occurring disease in dogs. The autophagy pathway should be investigated in human hereditary ataxia and may represent a therapeutic target in neurodegenerative diseases.
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2.
  • Cobb, Jeff, et al. (författare)
  • α-Hydroxybutyric acid is a selective metabolite biomarker of impaired glucose tolerance
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Care. - : American Diabetes Association. - 0149-5992. ; 39:6, s. 988-995
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE Plasma metabolites that distinguish isolated impaired glucose tolerance (iIGT) from isolated impaired fasting glucose (iIFG) may be useful biomarkers to predict IGT, a high-risk state for the development of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Targeted metabolomics with 23 metabolites previously associated with dysglycemia was performed with fasting plasma samples from subjects without diabetes at time 0 of an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in two observational cohorts: RISC (Relationship Between Insulin Sensitivity and Cardiovascular Disease) and DMVhi (Diabetes Mellitus and Vascular Health Initiative). Odds ratios (ORs) for a one-SD change in the metabolite level were calculated using multiple logistic regression models controlling for age, sex, and BMI to test for associations with iIGT or iIFG versus normal. Selective biomarkers of iIGT were further validated in the Botnia study. RESULTS α-Hydroxybutyric acid (α-HB) was most strongly associated with iIGT in RISC (OR 2.54 [95% CI 1.86-3.48], P value 5E-9) and DMVhi (2.75 [1.81-4.19], 4E-5) while having no significant association with iIFG. In Botnia, a-HB was selectively associated with iIGT (2.03 [1.65-2.49], 3E-11) and had no significant association with iIFG. Linoleoyl-glycerophosphocholine (L-GPC) and oleic acid were also found to be selective biomarkers of iIGT. In multivariate IGT prediction models, addition of α-HB, L-GPC, and oleic acid to age, sex, BMI, and fasting glucose significantly improved area under the curve in all three cohorts. CONCLUSIONS α-HB, L-GPC, and oleic acid were shown to be selective biomarkers of iIGT, independent of age, sex, BMI, and fasting glucose, in 4,053 subjects without diabetes from three European cohorts. These biomarkers can be used in predictive models to identify subjects with IGT without performing an OGTT.
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3.
  • Limdi, Nita A., et al. (författare)
  • Warfarin pharmacogenetics : a single VKORC1 polymorphism is predictive of dose across three racial groups
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Blood. - 0006-4971 .- 1528-0020. ; 115:18, s. 3827-3834
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Warfarin dosing algorithms incorporating CYP2C9 and VKORC1-1639G>A improve dose prediction compared to algorithms based solely on clinical and demographic factors. However these algorithms better capture dose variability among Whites compared to Asians or Blacks. Herein we evaluate whether other VKORC1 polymorphisms and haplotypes explain additional variation in warfarin dose beyond that explained by VKORC1-1639G>A among Asians (n=1103), Blacks (n=670) and Whites (n=3113). Participants were recruited from 11 countries as part of the International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium effort. Evaluation of the effects of individual VKORC1 SNPs and haplotypes on warfarin dose employed both univariate and multivariable linear regression. VKORC1-1639G>A and 1173C>T individually explained the greatest variance in dose in all three racial groups. Incorporation of additional VKORC1 SNPs or haplotypes did not further improve dose prediction. VKORC1 explained greater variability in dose among Whites as compared to Blacks and Asians. Differences in the percent variance in dose explained by VKORC1 across race was largely accounted for by the frequency of the -1639 A (or 1173 T) allele. Thus, clinicians should recognize that although at a population level, the contribution of VKORC1 towards dose requirements is higher in Whites compared to non-whites; genotype predicts similar dose requirements across racial groups.
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4.
  • Thomas, Rachael, et al. (författare)
  • Genomic profiling reveals extensive heterogeneity in somatic DNA copy number aberrations of canine hemangiosarcoma
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Chromosome Research. - 0967-3849 .- 1573-6849. ; 22:3, s. 305-319
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Canine hemangiosarcoma is a highly aggressive vascular neoplasm associated with extensive clinical and anatomical heterogeneity and a grave prognosis. Comprehensive molecular characterization of hemangiosarcoma may identify novel therapeutic targets and advanced clinical management strategies, but there are no published reports of tumor-associated genome instability and disrupted gene dosage in this cancer. We performed genome-wide microarray-based somatic DNA copy number profiling of 75 primary intra-abdominal hemangiosarcomas from five popular dog breeds that are highly predisposed to this disease. The cohort exhibited limited global genomic instability, compared to other canine sarcomas studied to date, and DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs) were predominantly of low amplitude. Recurrent imbalances of several key cancer-associated genes were evident; however, the global penetrance of any single CNA was low and no distinct hallmark aberrations were evident. Copy number gains of dog chromosomes 13, 24, and 31, and loss of chromosome 16, were the most recurrent CNAs involving large chromosome regions, but their relative distribution within and between cases suggests they most likely represent passenger aberrations. CNAs involving CDKN2A, VEGFA, and the SKI oncogene were identified as potential driver aberrations of hemangiosarcoma development, highlighting potential targets for therapeutic modulation. CNA profiles were broadly conserved between the five breeds, although subregional variation was evident, including a near twofold lower incidence of VEGFA gain in Golden Retrievers versus other breeds (22 versus 40 %). These observations support prior transcriptional studies suggesting that the clinical heterogeneity of this cancer may reflect the existence of multiple, molecularly distinct subtypes of canine hemangiosarcoma.
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5.
  • Thomas, Rachael, et al. (författare)
  • Refining tumor-associated aneuploidy through 'genomic recoding' of recurrent DNA copy number aberrations in 150 canine non-Hodgkin lymphomas
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Leukemia and Lymphoma. - 1042-8194 .- 1029-2403. ; 52:7, s. 1321-1335
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Identification of the genomic regions most intimately associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) pathogenesis is confounded by the genetic heterogeneity of human populations. We hypothesize that the restricted genetic variation of purebred dogs, combined with the contrasting architecture of the human and canine karyotypes, will increase the penetrance of fundamental NHL-associated chromosomal aberrations in both species. We surveyed non-random aneuploidy in 150 canine NHL cases, revealing limited genomic instability compared to their human counterparts and no evidence for CDKN2A/B deletion in canine B-cell NHL. 'Genomic recoding' of canine NHL data into a 'virtual human' chromosome format showed remarkably few regions of copy number aberration (CNA) shared between both species, restricted to regions of dog chromosomes 13 and 31, and human chromosomes 8 and 21. Our data suggest that gene discovery in NHL may be enhanced through comparative studies exploiting the less complex association between CNAs and tumor pathogenesis in canine patients.
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