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Sökning: WFRF:(Mucci Lorelei)

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1.
  • Sboner, Andrea, et al. (författare)
  • Molecular sampling of prostate cancer: a dilemma for predicting disease progression
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC MEDICAL GENOMICS. - BioMed Central. - 1755-8794. ; 3:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Current prostate cancer prognostic models are based on pre-treatment prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels, biopsy Gleason score, and clinical staging but in practice are inadequate to accurately predict disease progression. Hence, we sought to develop a molecular panel for prostate cancer progression by reasoning that molecular profiles might further improve current clinical models. Methods: We analyzed a Swedish Watchful Waiting cohort with up to 30 years of clinical follow up using a novel method for gene expression profiling. This cDNA-mediated annealing, selection, ligation, and extension (DASL) method enabled the use of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) samples taken at the time of the initial diagnosis. We determined the expression profiles of 6100 genes for 281 men divided in two extreme groups: men who died of prostate cancer and men who survived more than 10 years without metastases (lethals and indolents, respectively). Several statistical and machine learning models using clinical and molecular features were evaluated for their ability to distinguish lethal from indolent cases. Results: Surprisingly, none of the predictive models using molecular profiles significantly improved over models using clinical variables only. Additional computational analysis confirmed that molecular heterogeneity within both the lethal and indolent classes is widespread in prostate cancer as compared to other types of tumors. Conclusions: The determination of the molecularly dominant tumor nodule may be limited by sampling at time of initial diagnosis, may not be present at time of initial diagnosis, or may occur as the disease progresses making the development of molecular biomarkers for prostate cancer progression challenging.
2.
  • Adams, Charleen, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating Metabolic Biomarkers of Screen-Detected Prostate Cancer in the ProtecT Study.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Whether associations between circulating metabolites and prostate cancer are causal is unknown. We report on the largest study of metabolites and prostate cancer (2,291 cases and 2,661 controls) and appraise causality for a subset of the prostate cancer-metabolite associations using two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR).MATERIALS AND METHODS: The case-control portion of the study was conducted in nine UK centres with men aged 50-69 years who underwent prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer within the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Two data sources were used to appraise causality: a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of metabolites in 24,925 participants and a GWAS of prostate cancer in 44,825 cases and 27,904 controls within the Association Group to Investigate Cancer Associated Alterations in the Genome (PRACTICAL) consortium.RESULTS: Thirty-five metabolites were strongly associated with prostate cancer (p <0.0014, multiple-testing threshold). These fell into four classes: i) lipids and lipoprotein subclass characteristics (total cholesterol and ratios, cholesterol esters and ratios, free cholesterol and ratios, phospholipids and ratios, and triglyceride ratios); ii) fatty acids and ratios; iii) amino acids; iv) and fluid balance. Fourteen top metabolites were proxied by genetic variables, but MR indicated these were not causal.CONCLUSIONS: We identified 35 circulating metabolites associated with prostate cancer presence, but found no evidence of causality for those 14 testable with MR. Thus, the 14 MR-tested metabolites are unlikely to be mechanistically important in prostate cancer risk.IMPACT: The metabolome provides a promising set of biomarkers that may aid prostate cancer classification.
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3.
  • Agnarsdóttir, Margrét, 1970-, et al. (författare)
  • MITF as a Prognostic Marker in Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma
  • ????
  • Annan publikation (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Microphthalmia associated transcription factor (MITF) protein has a central role in the differentiation and survival of melanocytes. The aim of the study was to investigate whether MITF can be employed as a prognostic marker in patients operated on for cutaneous malignant melanoma. Methods: A cohort study design based on information collected from population-based registers. For included patients tissue microarrays and immunohistochemistry were employed to study the protein expression of MITF in the primary malignant melanoma tumors by estimating the fraction of positive tumor cells and the staining intensity. Results: The vast majority of tumors expressed MITF in >25% of the tumor cells with a strong staining intensity and looking at these factors individually these patients had a better prognosis. When cell fraction and intensity were combined a high-risk group dying of malignant melanoma was identified as those with 25% -75% of tumor cells staining with weak intensity and those with <25% of tumor cells staining with strong intensity. However, the majority of the deaths occurred in the lower risk groups. Conclusions: Although a high-risk group for death in malignant melanoma was identified we conclude that MITF is not useful as a prognostic marker because of the distribution of that particular expression in the population. Impact: Our results indicate a bi-phasic pattern of MITF expression and although not useful as a prognostic marker these results are in line with other experimental studies and are relevant to explore further.  
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4.
  • Andrén, Ove, 1963-, et al. (författare)
  • MUC-1 gene is associated with prostate cancer death : a 20-year follow-up of a population-based study in Sweden
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - London : Harcourt Publishers. - 0007-0920. ; 97:6, s. 730-734
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Anti-adhesion mucins have proven to play an important part in the biology of several types of cancer. Therefore, we test the hypothesis that altered expression of MUC-1 is associated with prostate cancer progression. We retrieved archival tumour tissue from a population-based cohort of 195 men with localised prostate cancer (T1a-b, Nx, M0) that has been followed for up to 20 years with watchful waiting. Semi-automated, quantitative immunohistochemistry was undertaken to evaluate MUC-1 expression. We modelled prostate cancer-specific death as a function of MUC-1 levels accounting for age, Gleason grade and tumour extent, and calculated age-adjusted and multivariate adjusted hazard ratios (HR). Men that had tumours with an MUC-intensity lower or higher than normal tissue had a higher risk of dying in prostate cancer, independent of tumour extent and Gleason score (HR 5.1 and 4.5, respectively). Adjustment for Gleason grade and tumour stage did not alter the results. Men with a Gleason score >=7 and MUC-1 deviating from the normal had a 17 (RR=17.1 95% confidence interval=2.3–128) times higher risk to die in prostate cancer compared with men with Gleason score <7 and normal MUC-1 intensity. In summary, our data show that MUC-1 is an independent prognostic marker for prostate cancer death.
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6.
  • Arora, Manish, et al. (författare)
  • An exploration of shared genetic risk factors between periodontal disease and cancers : a prospective co-twin study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - Cary, USA : Oxford University Press. - 0002-9262. ; 171:2, s. 253-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Biologic mechanisms underlying associations of periodontal disease with cancers remain unknown. The authors propose that both conditions share common genetic risk factors. They analyzed associations between baseline periodontal disease, measured by questionnaire-recorded tooth mobility, and incident cancers, identified by linkage with national registries, between 1963 and 2004 in 15,333 Swedish twins. The authors used co-twin analyses to control for familial factors and undertook analyses restricted to monozygotic twins to further control for confounding by genetic factors. They observed 4,361 cancer cases over 548,913 person-years. After adjustment for covariates, baseline periodontal disease was associated with increased risk of several cancers ranging from 15% for total cancer (proportional hazard ratio (HR) = 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.32) to 120% for corpus uterine cancer (HR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.16, 4.18). Periodontal disease was also associated with increased risk of colorectal (HR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.13, 2.33), pancreatic (HR = 2.06, 95% CI: 1.14, 3.75), and prostate (HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.07) cancers. In co-twin analyses, dizygotic twins with baseline periodontal disease showed a 50% increase in total cancer risk (HR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.17), but in monozygotic twins this association was markedly attenuated (HR = 1.07, 95% CI: 0.63, 1.81). Similar patterns emerged for digestive tract cancers, suggesting that shared genetic risk factors may partially explain associations between periodontal disease and cancers.
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7.
  • Cnattingius, Sven, et al. (författare)
  • Placental weight and risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer with an early age of onset
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - 1055-9965 .- 1538-7755. ; 17:9, s. 2344-2349
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Epithelial ovarian cancer is associated with reproductive factors, but we lack knowledge if hormonal factors during pregnancy influence the mother's risk. Because pregnancy hormones are primarily produced by the placenta, placental weight may be an indirect marker of hormone exposure during pregnancy. Methods: In a nationwide Swedish cohort study, we included women with singleton births from 1982 to 1989. Women were followed for occurrence of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, death, or emigration through 2004. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) from Cox models were used to estimate associations between pregnancy exposures and epithelial ovarian cancer. Results: Among 395,171 women with information on placental weight in their first recorded birth, 316 women developed invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. Mean age at diagnosis was 44 years. Compared with women with a placental weight of 500 to 699 g, women with a high (>= 700 g) placental weight had an increased risk of developing epithelial ovarian cancer (HR, 1.47, 95% CI, 1.14-1.90). Compared with women with term pregnancies (40-41 weeks), women with post-term (>= 42 weeks) pregnancies had an increased risk of developing epithelial ovarian cancer (HR, 1.48, 95% CI, 1.00-2.19). These associations were slightly stronger when we included information about women's overall first birth, and slightly weaker when we included information about last recorded birth or ever last birth from 1982 to 1989. Conclusions: Because pregnancy hormone levels increase with placental weight, our study supports the hypothesis that hormone exposures during pregnancy influence the risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer among young women.
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8.
  • Dadaev, Tokhir, et al. (författare)
  • Fine-mapping of prostate cancer susceptibility loci in a large meta-analysis identifies candidate causal variants.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prostate cancer is a polygenic disease with a large heritable component. A number of common, low-penetrance prostate cancer risk loci have been identified through GWAS. Here we apply the Bayesian multivariate variable selection algorithm JAM to fine-map 84 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, using summary data from a large European ancestry meta-analysis. We observe evidence for multiple independent signals at 12 regions and 99 risk signals overall. Only 15 original GWAS tag SNPs remain among the catalogue of candidate variants identified; the remainder are replaced by more likely candidates. Biological annotation of our credible set of variants indicates significant enrichment within promoter and enhancer elements, and transcription factor-binding sites, including AR, ERG and FOXA1. In 40 regions at least one variant is colocalised with an eQTL in prostate cancer tissue. The refined set of candidate variants substantially increase the proportion of familial relative risk explained by these known susceptibility regions, which highlights the importance of fine-mapping studies and has implications for clinical risk profiling.
9.
  • Davidsson, Sabina, et al. (författare)
  • Inflammation, Focal Atrophic Lesions, and Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia with Respect to Risk of Lethal Prostate Cancer
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1055-9965. ; 20:10, s. 2280-2287
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: A challenge in prostate cancer (PCa) management is identifying potentially lethal disease at diagnosis. Inflammation, focal prostatic atrophy, and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) are common in prostate tumor specimens, but it is not clear whether these lesions have prognostic significance. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: We conducted a case-control study nested in a cohort of men diagnosed with stage T1a-b PCa through transurethral resection of the prostate in Sweden. Cases are men who died of PCa (n = 228). Controls are men who survived more than 10 years after PCa diagnosis without metastases (n = 387). Slides were assessed for Gleason grade, inflammation, PIN, and four subtypes of focal prostatic atrophy: simple atrophy (SA), postatrophic hyperplasia (PAH), simple atrophy with cyst formation, and partial atrophy. We estimated OR and 95% CI for odds of lethal PCa with multivariable logistic regression. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: Chronic inflammation and PIN were more frequently observed in tumors with PAH, but not SA. No specific type of atrophy or inflammation was significantly associated with lethal PCa overall, but there was a suggestion of a positive association for chronic inflammation. Independent of age, Gleason score, year of diagnosis, inflammation, and atrophy type, men with PIN were 89% more likely to die of PCa (95% CI: 1.04-3.42). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: Our data show that PIN, and perhaps presence of moderate or severe chronic inflammation, may have prognostic significance for PCa. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanImpact: Lesions in tumor adjacent tissue, and not just the tumor itself, may aid in identification of clinically relevant disease.
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10.
  • Dickerman, Barbra A., et al. (författare)
  • Midlife metabolic factors and prostate cancer risk in later life
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - Hoboken, USA : John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 142:6, s. 1166-1173
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Metabolic syndrome is associated with several cancers, but evidence for aggressive prostate cancer is sparse. We prospectively investigated the influence of metabolic syndrome and its components on risk of total prostate cancer and measures of aggressive disease in a cohort of Icelandic men. Men in the Reykjavik Study (n = 9,097, enrolled 1967-1987) were followed for incident (n = 1,084 total; n = 378 advanced; n = 148 high-grade) and fatal (n = 340) prostate cancer until 2014. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for (1) measured metabolic factors at cohort entry (body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, triglycerides, fasting blood glucose) and (2) a metabolic syndrome score (range 0-4) combining the risk factors: BMI ≥30 kg/m2 ; systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥130 or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥85 mm Hg or taking antihypertensives; triglycerides ≥150 mg/dl; fasting blood glucose ≥100 mg/dl or self-reported type 2 diabetes. Hypertension and type 2 diabetes were associated with a higher risk of total, advanced, high-grade, and fatal prostate cancer, independent of BMI. Neither BMI nor triglycerides were associated with prostate cancer risk. Higher metabolic syndrome score (3-4 vs 0) was associated with a higher risk of fatal prostate cancer (HR 1.55; 95% CI: 0.89, 2.69; p trend = 0.08), although this finding was not statistically significant. Our findings suggest a positive association between midlife hypertension and diabetes and risk of total and aggressive prostate cancer. Further, metabolic syndrome as a combination of factors was associated with an increased risk of fatal prostate cancer.
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