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Sökning: WFRF:(Mueller Myhsok Bertram)

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1.
  • Thompson, P. M., et al. (författare)
  • The ENIGMA Consortium : large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BRAIN IMAGING BEHAV. - 1931-7557. ; 8:2, s. 153-182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA's first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way.
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2.
  • Adams, Hieab H. H., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 19:12, s. 1569-1582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (rho(genetic) = 0.748), which indicates a similar genetic background and allowed us to identify four additional loci through meta-analysis (N-combined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling. These findings identify the biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and their link to physiological and pathological traits.
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3.
  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836. ; 520:7546, s. 224-U216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume(5) and intracranial volume(6). These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 X 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.
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4.
  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (r(g) = -0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness.
5.
  • Ripke, Stephan, et al. (författare)
  • Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836. ; 511:7510, s. 421-427
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder. Genetic risk is conferred by a large number of alleles, including common alleles of small effect that might be detected by genome-wide association studies. Here we report a multi-stage schizophrenia genome-wide association study of up to 36,989 cases and 113,075 controls. We identify 128 independent associations spanning 108 conservatively defined loci that meet genome-wide significance, 83 of which have not been previously reported. Associations were enriched among genes expressed in brain, providing biological plausibility for the findings. Many findings have the potential to provide entirely new insights into aetiology, but associations at DRD2 and several genes involved in glutamatergic neurotransmission highlight molecules of known and potential therapeutic relevance to schizophrenia, and are consistent with leading pathophysiological hypotheses. Independent of genes expressed in brain, associations were enriched among genes expressed in tissues that have important roles in immunity, providing support for the speculated link between the immune system and schizophrenia.
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6.
  • Siddiq, Afshan, et al. (författare)
  • A meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of breast cancer identifies two novel susceptibility loci at 6q14 and 20q11
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906. ; 21:24, s. 5373-5384
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of breast cancer defined by hormone receptor status have revealed loci contributing to susceptibility of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative subtypes. To identify additional genetic variants for ER-negative breast cancer, we conducted the largest meta-analysis of ER-negative disease to date, comprising 4754 ER-negative cases and 31 663 controls from three GWAS: NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) (2188 ER-negative cases; 25 519 controls of European ancestry), Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC) (1562 triple negative cases; 3399 controls of European ancestry) and African American Breast Cancer Consortium (AABC) (1004 ER-negative cases; 2745 controls). We performed in silico replication of 86 SNPs at P 1 10(-5) in an additional 11 209 breast cancer cases (946 with ER-negative disease) and 16 057 controls of Japanese, Latino and European ancestry. We identified two novel loci for breast cancer at 20q11 and 6q14. SNP rs2284378 at 20q11 was associated with ER-negative breast cancer (combined two-stage OR 1.16; P 1.1 10(8)) but showed a weaker association with overall breast cancer (OR 1.08, P 1.3 10(6)) based on 17 869 cases and 43 745 controls and no association with ER-positive disease (OR 1.01, P 0.67) based on 9965 cases and 22 902 controls. Similarly, rs17530068 at 6q14 was associated with breast cancer (OR 1.12; P 1.1 10(9)), and with both ER-positive (OR 1.09; P 1.5 10(5)) and ER-negative (OR 1.16, P 2.5 10(7)) disease. We also confirmed three known loci associated with ER-negative (19p13) and both ER-negative and ER-positive breast cancer (6q25 and 12p11). Our results highlight the value of large-scale collaborative studies to identify novel breast cancer risk loci.
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7.
  • Bellenguez, Celine, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies a variant in HDAC9 associated with large vessel ischemic stroke
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 44:3, s. 141-328
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genetic factors have been implicated in stroke risk, but few replicated associations have been reported. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for ischemic stroke and its subtypes in 3,548 affected individuals and 5,972 controls, all of European ancestry. Replication of potential signals was performed in 5,859 affected individuals and 6,281 controls. We replicated previous associations for cardioembolic stroke near PITX2 and ZFHX3 and for large vessel stroke at a 9p21 locus. We identified a new association for large vessel stroke within HDAC9 (encoding histone deacetylase 9) on chromosome 7p21.1 (including further replication in an additional 735 affected individuals and 28,583 controls) (rs11984041; combined P = 1.87 x 10(-11); odds ratio (OR) = 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.28-1.57). All four loci exhibited evidence for heterogeneity of effect across the stroke subtypes, with some and possibly all affecting risk for only one subtype. This suggests distinct genetic architectures for different stroke subtypes.
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8.
  • de Jong, Simone, et al. (författare)
  • Applying polygenic risk scoring for psychiatric disorders to a large family with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Communications Biology. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2399-3642. ; 1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Psychiatric disorders are thought to have a complex genetic pathology consisting of interplay of common and rare variation. Traditionally, pedigrees are used to shed light on the latter only, while here we discuss the application of polygenic risk scores to also highlight patterns of common genetic risk. We analyze polygenic risk scores for psychiatric disorders in a large pedigree (n ~ 260) in which 30% of family members suffer from major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder. Studying patterns of assortative mating and anticipation, it appears increased polygenic risk is contributed by affected individuals who married into the family, resulting in an increasing genetic risk over generations. This may explain the observation of anticipation in mood disorders, whereby onset is earlier and the severity increases over the generations of a family. Joint analyses of rare and common variation may be a powerful way to understand the familial genetics of psychiatric disorders.
9.
  • Hemminki, Kari, et al. (författare)
  • Low-risk variants FGFR2, TNRC9 and LSP1 in German familial breast cancer patients
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 126:12, s. 2858-2862
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To validate common low-risk variants predisposing for breast cancer (BC) in a large set of BRCA1/2 negative familial or genetically enriched cases from Germany, we genotyped 1,415 cases and 1,830 healthy women by MALDI-TOF in 105 candidate SNPs. Significantly higher ORs than previously reported for heterozygous unselected cases were found for the minor allele in FGFR2 (OR = 1.43, 95% Cl 1.30-1.59, p-value = 1.24 x 10(-12)) and for TNRC9 (OR = 1.33, 95% Cl 1.19-1.46, p-value = 1.54 x 10(-7)). Most intriguing, however, were the ORs for homozygous carriers from high-risk families for FGFR2 (OR = 2.05, 95% Cl 1.68-2.51, LSP1 (OR = 0.49, 95% Cl 0.28-0.86) and TNRC9 (OR = 1.62, 95% Cl 1.27-2.07). Moreover, the additional validation of 99 CGEMS-SNPs identified putative novel susceptibility alleles within the LSP1 gene (OR = 0.73, 95% Cl 0.61-0.87, p-value = 5.23 x 10(-4)). Finally, we provide evidence for the first time that a low-risk variant located at 6q22.33 (rs6569479) is associated with estrogen receptor negative BC in familial cases (OR = 1.33, 95% Cl 1.06-1.66; p-value = 0.012). Our data confirm the impact of the previously identified susceptibility loci and provide preliminary evidence for novel susceptibility loci in familial BC cases and correlate them to specific histopathological subtypes defined by estrogen receptor status.
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10.
  • Musliner, Katherine L., et al. (författare)
  • Association of Polygenic Liabilities for Major Depression, Bipolar Disorder, and Schizophrenia With Risk for Depression in the Danish Population
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: JAMA psychiatry. - Chicago : American Medical Association. - 2168-6238. ; 76:5, s. 516-525
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • IMPORTANCE: Although the usefulness of polygenic risk scores as a measure of genetic liability for major depression (MD) has been established, their association with depression in the general population remains relatively unexplored.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether polygenic risk scores for MD, bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia (SZ) are associated with depression in the general population and explore whether these polygenic liabilities are associated with heterogeneity in terms of age at onset and severity at the initial depression diagnosis.DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants were drawn from the Danish iPSYCH2012 case-cohort study, a representative sample drawn from the population of Denmark born between May 1, 1981, and December 31, 2005. The hazard of depression was estimated using Cox regressions modified to accommodate the case-cohort design. Case-only analyses were conducted using linear and multinomial regressions. The data analysis was conducted from February 2017 to June 2018.EXPOSURES: Polygenic risk scores for MD, BD, and SZ trained using the most recent genome-wide association study results from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The main outcome was first depressive episode (international Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision [ICD-10] code F32) treated in hospital-based psychiatric care. Severity at the initial diagnosis was measured using the ICD-10 code severity specifications (mild, moderate, severe without psychosis, and severe with psychosis) and treatment setting (inpatient, outpatient, and emergency).RESULTS: Of 34 573 participants aged 10 to 31 years at censoring, 68% of those with depression were female compared with 48.9% of participants without depression. Each SD increase in polygenic liability for MD, BD, and SZ was associated with 30% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.30; 95% CI, 1.27-1.33), 5% (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.07), and 12% (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.09-1.15) increases in the hazard of depression, respectively. Among cases, a higher polygenic liability for BD was associated with earlier depression onset (beta =-.07; SE =.02; P =.002).CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Polygenic ability for MD is associated with first depress on in the general population, which supports the idea that these scores tap into an underlying liability for developing the disorder. The fact that polygenic risk for BD and polygenic risk for SZ also were associated with depression is consistent with prior evidence that these disorders share some common genetic overlap. Variations in polygenic liability may contribute slightly to heterogeneity in clinical presentation, but these associations appear minimal.
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