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Sökning: WFRF:(Muller Heiko)

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  • Ghoussaini, Maya, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association analysis identifies three new breast cancer susceptibility loci
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 44:3, s. 312-318
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. To date, 22 common breast cancer susceptibility loci have been identified accounting for ~8% of the heritability of the disease. We attempted to replicate 72 promising associations from two independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in ~70,000 cases and ~68,000 controls from 41 case-control studies and 9 breast cancer GWAS. We identified three new breast cancer risk loci at 12p11 (rs10771399; P = 2.7 × 10−35), 12q24 (rs1292011; P = 4.3 × 10−19) and 21q21 (rs2823093; P = 1.1 × 10−12). rs10771399 was associated with similar relative risks for both estrogen receptor (ER)-negative and ER-positive breast cancer, whereas the other two loci were associated only with ER-positive disease. Two of the loci lie in regions that contain strong plausible candidate genes: PTHLH (12p11) has a crucial role in mammary gland development and the establishment of bone metastasis in breast cancer, and NRIP1 (21q21) encodes an ER cofactor and has a role in the regulation of breast cancer cell growth.
  • Kenne, Ellinor, et al. (författare)
  • Neutrophils engage the kallikrein-kinin system to open up the endothelial barrier in acute inflammation
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. - The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. - 1530-6860. ; 33:2, s. 2599-2609
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neutrophil recruitment and plasma exudation are key elements in the immune response to injury or infection. Activated neutrophils stimulate opening of the endothelial barrier; however, the underlying mechanisms have remained largely unknown. In this study, we identified a pivotal role of the proinflammatory kallikrein-kinin system and consequent formation of bradykinin in neutrophil-evoked vascular leak. In mouse and hamster models of acute inflammation, inhibitors of bradykinin generation, and signaling markedly reduced plasma exudation in response to chemoattractant activation of neutrophils. The neutrophil-driven leak was likewise suppressed in mice deficient in either the bradykinin B2 receptor or factor XII (initiator of the kallikrein-kinin system). In human endothelial cell monolayers, material secreted from activated neutrophils induced cytoskeletal rearrangement, leading to paracellular gap formation in a bradykinin-dependent manner. As a mechanistic basis, we found that a neutrophil-derived heparin-binding protein (HBP/azurocidin) displaced the bradykinin precursor high-molecular-weight kininogen from endothelial cells, thereby enabling proteolytic processing of kininogen into bradykinin by neutrophil and plasma proteases. These data provide novel insight into the signaling pathway by which neutrophils open up the endothelial barrier and identify the kallikrein-kinin system as a target for therapeutic interventions in acute inflammatory reactions.-Kenne, E., Rasmuson, J., Renné, T., Vieira, M. L., Müller-Esterl, W., Herwald, H., Lindbom, L. Neutrophils engage the kallikrein-kinin system to open up the endothelial barrier in acute inflammation.
  • Ben Nasr, Abdelhakim, et al. (författare)
  • Absorption of kininogen from human plasma by Streptococcus pyogenes is followed by the release of bradykinin
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - Portland Press Limited. - 0264-6021. ; 326:3, s. 657-660
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • H-kininogen (high-molecular-mass kininogen, HK) is the precursor of the vasoactive peptide hormone bradykinin (BK). Previous work has demonstrated that HK binds to Streptococcus pyogenes through M-proteins, fibrous surface proteins and important virulence factors of these bacteria. Here we find that M-protein-expressing bacteria absorb HK from human plasma. The HK bound to the bacteria was found to be cleaved, and analysis of the degradation pattern suggested that the cleavage of HK at the bacterial surface is associated with the release of BK. Moreover, addition of activated plasma prekallikrein to bacteria preincubated with human plasma, resulted in BK release. This mechanism, by which a potent vasoactive and proinflammatory peptide is generated at the site of infection, should influence the host-parasite relationship during S. pyogenes infections.
  • Ben Nasr, Abdelhakim, et al. (författare)
  • Human kininogens interact with M protein, a bacterial surface protein and virulence determinant.
  • 1995
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - Portland Press Limited. - 0264-6021. ; 305:1, s. 80-173
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Streptococcus pyogenes, the most significant streptococcal species in clinical medicine, expresses surface proteins with affinity for several human plasma proteins. Here we report that kininogens, the precursors to the vasoactive kinins, bind to the surface of S. pyogenes. M protein, a surface molecule and a major virulence factor-in these bacteria, occurs in > 80 different serotypes. Among 49 strains of S. pyogenes, all of different M serotypes, 41 bound radiolabelled kininogens, whereas 6 M protein-negative mutant strains showed no affinity. M protein of most serotypes bind fibrinogen, and among the 55 strains tested, binding of kininogens was closely correlated to fibrinogen binding (r = 0.88, P < 0.0001). Western blotting, slot binding and enzyme immunoassay experiments demonstrated that M proteins isolated from S. pyogenes of three different M protein serotypes (M1, M6 and M46) bound kininogens. The affinity between kininogens and M1 protein was determined to be 5 x 10(7) M-1 and < or = 10(6) M-1 for high molecular weight (H-kininogen) and low molecular weight kininogen, respectively. The kininogen binding site was tentatively mapped to the N-terminal portion of M1 protein, and this site does not overlap the specific and separate binding sites for albumin, IgG and fibrinogen using monoclonal antibodies to, and synthetic peptides of, the kininogen sequence, the major M protein-binding site(s) was mapped to the C-terminal portion of the H-kininogen light chain. We anticipate that the kininogen-M protein interaction contributes to the host-parasite relationship in S. pyogenes infections.
  • Brenner, David, et al. (författare)
  • Hot-spot KIF5A mutations cause familial ALS
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Brain. - Oxford University Press. - 0006-8950. ; 141, s. 688-697
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Heterozygous missense mutations in the N-terminal motor or coiled-coil domains of the kinesin family member 5A (KIF5A) gene cause monogenic spastic paraplegia (HSP10) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2). Moreover, heterozygous de novo frame-shift mutations in the C-terminal domain of KIF5A are associated with neonatal intractable myoclonus, a neurodevelopmental syndrome. These findings, together with the observation that many of the disease genes associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disrupt cytoskeletal function and intracellular transport, led us to hypothesize that mutations in KIF5A are also a cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Using whole exome sequencing followed by rare variant analysis of 426 patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 6137 control subjects, we detected an enrichment of KIF5A splice-site mutations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (2/426 compared to 0/6137 in controls; P = 4.2 x 10-3), both located in a hot-spot in the C-terminus of the protein and predicted to affect splicing exon 27. We additionally show co-segregation with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis of two canonical splice-site mutations in two families. Investigation of lymphoblast cell lines from patients with KIF5A splice-site mutations revealed the loss of mutant RNA expression and suggested haploinsufficiency as the most probable underlying molecular mechanism. Furthermore, mRNA sequencing of a rare non-synonymous missense mutation (predicting p. Arg1007Gly) located in the C-terminus of the protein shortly upstream of the splice donor of exon 27 revealed defective KIF5A pre-mRNA splicing in respective patient-derived cell lines owing to abrogation of the donor site. Finally, the non-synonymous single nucleotide variant rs113247976 (minor allele frequency = 1.00% in controls, n = 6137), also located in the C-terminal region [p.(Pro986Leu) in exon 26], was significantly enriched in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients (minor allele frequency = 3.40%; P = 1.28 x 10-7). Our study demonstrates that mutations located specifically in a C-terminal hotspot of KIF5A can cause a classical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis phenotype, and underline the involvement of intracellular transport processes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathogenesis.
  • Fortmann, Jutta, et al. (författare)
  • Demo Hour
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Interactions. - Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). - 1072-5520. ; 22:1, January + February 2015, s. 6-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • NordiCHI'14 conference attendees got hands-on experience with a number of great new interactive systems. Among the accepted poster, video, and demo submissions, we selected the following four prototypes to illustrate the high-quality design research displayed during the conference, which was held in Helsinki, Finland, October 26--30, 2014.
  • Herwald, Heiko, et al. (författare)
  • Isolation and characterization of the kininogen-binding protein p33 from endothelial cells : Identity with the gClq receptor
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - ASBMB. - 0021-9258. ; 271:22, s. 13040-13047
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Kininogens, the precursor proteins of the vasoactive kinins, bind specifically, reversibly, and saturably to platelets, neutrophils, and endothelial cells. Two domains of the kininogens expose major cell binding sites: domain D3 that is shared by H- and L-kininogen and domain D5H that is exclusively present in H-kininogen. Previously we have mapped the kininogen cell binding sites to 27 residues of D3 ("LDC27") and 20 residues of D5H ("HKH20"), respectively (Herwald, H., Hasan, A. A. K., Godovac-Zimmermann, J., Schmaler, A. H., and MÜller-Esterl, W. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 14634-14642; Hasan, A. A. K., Cines, D. B., Herwald, H., Schmaler, A. H., and Müller-Esterl, W. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 19256-19261). The corresponding kininogen acceptor site(s) exposed by the cell surfaces are still poorly defined. Using a non-ionic detergent, Nonidet P-40, we have been able to solubilize kininogen binding sites from an endothelial cell line, EA.hy926, in their functionally active form. Affinity chromatography of the solubilized kininogen binding sites on HKH20, a synthetic peptide representing the D5H cell binding site, allowed us to isolate a 33-kDa protein ("p33") that binds specifically and reversibly to H-kininogen with a KD (apparent dissociation constant) of 9 ±2 nM. Preparative SDS electrophoresis followed by NH2-terminal amino acid sequence analysis identified the kininogen-binding protein p33 as the gC1q receptor ("gC1qR"), an extrinsic membrane protein that interacts with the globular domains of the complement component C1q. The purified p33 binds C1q with moderate affinity, KD = 240 ±10 nM. Recombinant expression of the corresponding cDNA in Eacherichia coli demonstrated that p33 binds H-kininogen, but not L-kininogen. Peptide HKH20 but not peptide LDC27 inhibited binding of H-kininogen to the recombinant p33 in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that H-kininogen binds to p33 via domain D5H. Recombinant p33 efficiently inhibited the binding of H-kininogen to EA.hy926 cells. Factor XII, but not prekallikrein, competed with H-kininogen binding to p33. These findings suggest that an endothelial binding protein mediates the assembly of critical components of the kinin-generating pathway on the surface of endothelial cells, thereby linking the early events of kinin formation and complement activation.
  • Herwald, Heiko, et al. (författare)
  • Mapping of the discontinuous kininogen binding site of prekallikrein : A distal binding segment is located in the heavy chain domain A4
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Journal of Biological Chemistry. - ASBMB. - 0021-9258. ; 271:22, s. 13061-13067
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prekallikrein, the precursor to the serine proteinase kailikrein, circulates in plasma in an equimolar complex with H-kininogen. The binding to H-kininogen is mediated by the kallikrein heavy chain consisting of four "apple" domains, A1-A4, which attaches to H-kininogen with high specificity and affinity (KD = 83 UM). At least two distinct portions of the kallikrein heavy chain form this H-kininogen binding site: a proximal segment located in the NH2-terminal fragment of the heavy chain encompassing A1, and distal segment(s) located in COOH-terminal fragment spanning domains A2-A4. The proximal binding segment has been located to amino acid positions 56-86 of A1. To precisely map the distal binding segment, we have identified monoclonal antibodies directed to the COOH-terminal fragment which interfere with the H-kininogen-prekallikrein complex formation. Monoclonal antibody 13G11 binds to recombinant apple domain A4 but not to domain A3 of the prekallikrein heavy chain. Deletion mutagenesis of domain A4 narrowed down the target epitope of 13G11 to the center portion of domain A4, positions 284-331. Direct binding studies of H-kininogen to various domain A4 constructs revealed that the distal H-kininogen binding portion is located on a segment of 48 residues, which overlaps the 13G11 epitope. Hence the tight interaction of H-kininogen and prekallikrein is mediated by at least two separate sequence segments located in domains A1 and A4, respectively, of the prekallikrein heavy chain. The isolated distal binding segment significantly prolongs the partial thromboplastin time of reconstituted Williams plasma thus stressing the critical role of the prekallikrein-H-kininogen complex formation in the initiation of the endogenous blood coagulation cascade.
  • Herwald, Heiko, et al. (författare)
  • Streptococcal cysteine proteinase releases kinins: a novel virulence mechanism
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Journal of Experimental Medicine. - Rockefeller University Press. - 1540-9538. ; 184:2, s. 665-673
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous work has indicated a crucial role for the extracellular cysteine proteinase of Streptococcus pyogenes in the pathogenicity and virulence of this important human pathogen. Here we find that the purified streptococcal cysteine proteinase releases biologically active kinins from their purified precursor protein, H-kininogen, in vitro, and from kininogens present in the human plasma, ex vivo. Kinin liberation in the plasma is due to the direct action of the streptococcal proteinase on the kininogens, and does not involve the previous activation of plasma prekallikrein, the physiological plasma kininogenase. Judged from the amount of released plasma kinins the bacterial proteinase is highly efficient in its action. This is also the case in vivo. Injection of the purified cysteine proteinase into the peritoneal cavity of mice resulted in a progressive cleavage of plasma kininogens and the concomitant release of kinins over a period of 5 h. No kininogen degradation was seen in mice when the cysteine proteinase was inactivated by the specific inhibitor, Z-Leu-Val-Gly-CHN2, before administration. Intraperitoneal administration into mice of living S. pyogenes bacteria producing the cysteine proteinase induced a rapid breakdown of endogenous plasma kininogens and release of kinins. Kinins are hypotensive, they increase vascular permeability, contract smooth muscle, and induce fever and pain. The release of kinins by the cysteine proteinase of S. pyogenes could therefore represent an important and previously unknown virulence mechanism in S. pyogenes infections.
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