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Sökning: WFRF:(Munshi Farzana 1968)

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1.
  • Bigsten, Arne, 1947, et al. (författare)
  • Globalisation and Inter-occupational Inequality: Empirical Evidence from OECD Countries
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The World Economy. - 0378-5920 .- 1467-9701. ; 37:3, s. 501-510
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • How does globalisation affect inter-occupational wage inequality within countries? This paper examines this by focusing on two dimensions of globalisation: openness to trade and openness to capital flows, using a relatively new data set on occupational wages. Estimates from a dynamic model for 15 OECD countries spanning the period 1983–2003 suggest that increased openness increases occupational wage inequality in poorer OECD countries as predicted by the Heckscher–Ohlin–Samuelson model, but for the more advanced OECD countries, we find no significant effect. The absence of the expected result for the latter category can be due to a rapid increase in the supply of skilled labour, to outsourcing of skilled jobs or because changes in the trade flows are too small to have any significant effect in those countries.
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2.
  • Bigsten, Arne, 1947, et al. (författare)
  • Offshoring and Occupational Wages: Some empirical evidence
  • 2008
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Offshoring has changed the pattern of international competition; labor in specific occupations rather than whole firms and sectors are now facing competition. Accordingly, wages in offshorable occupations are affected in new ways. In this paper we investigate the effects of offshoring of electronically traded services on relative occupational wages in 13 countries in the 1990-2003 period. Our findings show that increased exports of IT-related services lead to higher relative wages in offshorable occupations, whereas increased imports of such service reduce them. There is also some evidence that the impact of offshoring on relative wages is larger the lower the level GDP per capita.
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3.
  • Bigsten, Arne, 1947, et al. (författare)
  • Offshoring and Occupational Wages: Some empirical evidence
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of International Trade and Economic Development. - 0963-8199. ; 21:2, s. 253-269
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Offshoring has changed the pattern of international competition; labor in specific occupations rather than whole firms and sectors are now facing competition. Accordingly, wages in offshorable occupations are affected in new ways. In this article, we investigate the effects of offshoring on relative occupational wages in 13 countries for 1990–2003. Our findings show that offshoring competiveness is associated with higher relative wages in offshorable occupations, and that export growth of IT-related services leads to higher relative wages in offshorable occupations, whereas import growth of such services reduces them.
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4.
  • Durevall, Dick, 1954, et al. (författare)
  • Trade Liberalization and Wage Inequality: Empirical Evidence from Bangladesh
  • 2006
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This paper explores the relationship between trade liberalization and skilled-unskilled wage inequality in the Bangladesh cotton textile industry. A dynamic two-equation model is estimated for wages of skilled and unskilled workers over the period 1973-2002, using four different openness measures. In no case does opening up affect unskilled wages differently than skilled wages, implying that openness per se has not contributed to changes in wage inequality. Our findings also suggest that openness increased real wages for both skilled and unskilled workers.
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5.
  • Durevall, Dick, 1954, et al. (författare)
  • Trade Liberalization and Wage Inequality: Empirical Evidence from Bangladesh
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Bangladesh Studies. - 1529-0905. ; 16:1-2, s. 13-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The prediction of standard economic theory that trade liberalization reduces income inequality in developing countries has been challenged by several studies during recent decades. This paper explores this issue by analyzing the relationship between trade liberalization and skilled-unskilled wage inequality in the Bangladesh cotton textile industry. First cointegration analysis is used to test for long-run relationships between real wages and trade liberalization over the period 1971-2010, and then a two-equation error correction model is estimated for wages of skilled and unskilled workers. Trade liberalization, proxied by the evolution of Bangladesh’s international trade, is associated with increased real wages for both skilled and unskilled workers. The relative skilled-unskilled workers’ wage fluctuates over the study period, but it has no trend and is not related to increased openness. Trade liberalization thus seems to have increased labor productivity in the cotton textile industry without any noticeable effects on wage inequality.
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6.
  • Munshi, Farzana, 1968 (författare)
  • Does openness reduce wage inequality in developing countries? A panel data analysis
  • 2006
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This paper provides panel data evidence on openness and wage inequality in Bangladesh. In particular, wage equations for skilled and unskilled workers were estimated using several static and dynamic models. The results from all the estimated models indicate that openness increased real wages of unskilled workers more than that of skilled workers, suggesting a reduction in wage inequality.
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7.
  • Munshi, Farzana, 1968 (författare)
  • Essays on Globalization and Occupational Wages
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • This thesis evaluates empirically how globalization has affected occupational wages in both developing and developed countries. Three aspects of globalization – openness to trade, openness to capital and offshore-outsourcing – are examined in four self-contained essays. The first two essays evaluate the effects of increased trade liberalization on the wage gaps between skilled and unskilled workers in the Bangladesh manufacturing sector. The third and the fourth essays analyze the effects of globalization on occupational wages in both developing and developed countries. The first essay is a time series analysis using data from the Bangladesh cotton textile industry covering the 1973-2002 period. A dynamic two-equation model is estimated for real wages of skilled and unskilled workers. The findings suggest that while openness to trade increased both skilled and unskilled real wages, it did not affect them differently, implying that openness per se did not contribute to changes in wage inequality. Essay 2 further investigates the issues in Essay 1, but performs a panel data analysis using data from five manufacturing industries (Jute, Cotton textile, Match, Engineering, and Mustard oil) covering the 1975-2002 period. Several standard models are used to estimate wage equations for skilled and unskilled workers. The results, particularly the estimates from a dynamic fixed effects model, provide some weak evidence that trade liberalization did contribute to a reduction in wage inequality. Consistent with the findings in Essay 1, the results also suggest that it increased wages for both skilled and unskilled workers. The third essay empirically examines how globalization affects inter-occupational wage inequality within countries. It focuses on two dimensions of globalization, openness to trade and openness to capital, using a relatively new dataset on occupational wages. Estimates from dynamic models for 52 countries over the 1983-2002 period suggest that openness to trade contributes to an increase in occupational wage inequality within developed countries, but that the effect diminishes with an increased level of development. In terms of developing countries, the results show that the effect of openness to trade on wage inequality is insignificant and does not vary with the level of development. The results furthermore suggest that openness to capital does not affect occupational wage inequality in either developed or developing countries. Offshoring has changed the pattern of international competition; labor in specific occupations rather than in firms and sectors are now facing competition. Accordingly, wages in offshorable occupations are affected in new ways. The fourth essay investigates the effects of offshoring of electronically traded services on relative occupational wages in 13 countries in the 1990-2003 period. The findings suggest that in developing countries, increased exports of IT-related services lead to higher relative wages in offshorable occupations, whereas increased imports of such services reduce relative wages. In the most developed countries, however, relative wages were not significantly affected.
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8.
  • Munshi, Farzana, 1968 (författare)
  • Globalization and Inter-occupational Inequality in a Panel of Countries: 1983-2003
  • 2008
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • How does globalization affect inter-occupational wage inequality within countries? This paper empirically examines this issue by focusing on two dimensions of globalization, openness to trade and openness to capital, using a relatively new dataset on occupational wages. Estimates from dynamic models for 52 countries for the 1983-2002 period suggest that openness to trade contributes to an increase in occupational wage inequality within developed countries, but that the effect diminishes with an increased level of development. In the context of developing countries, the results suggest that the effect of openness to trade on wage inequality is insignificant and does not vary with the level of development. Our results also suggest that openness to capital does not affect occupational wage inequality in either developed or developing countries.
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