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Sökning: WFRF:(Murphy Adrianna)

  • Resultat 1-8 av 8
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1.
  • Huffman, Mark D, et al. (författare)
  • A cross-sectional study of the microeconomic impact of cardiovascular disease hospitalization in four low- and middle-income countries.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLOS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 6:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To estimate individual and household economic impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in selected low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).BACKGROUND: Empirical evidence on the microeconomic consequences of CVD in LMIC is scarce.METHODS AND FINDINGS: We surveyed 1,657 recently hospitalized CVD patients (66% male; mean age 55.8 years) from Argentina, China, India, and Tanzania to evaluate the microeconomic and functional/productivity impact of CVD hospitalization. Respondents were stratified into three income groups. Median out-of-pocket expenditures for CVD treatment over 15 month follow-up ranged from 354 international dollars (2007 INT$, Tanzania, low-income) to INT$2,917 (India, high-income). Catastrophic health spending (CHS) was present in >50% of respondents in China, India, and Tanzania. Distress financing (DF) and lost income were more common in low-income respondents. After adjustment, lack of health insurance was associated with CHS in Argentina (OR 4.73 [2.56, 8.76], India (OR 3.93 [2.23, 6.90], and Tanzania (OR 3.68 [1.86, 7.26] with a marginal association in China (OR 2.05 [0.82, 5.11]). These economic effects were accompanied by substantial decreases in individual functional health and productivity.CONCLUSIONS: Individuals in selected LMIC bear significant financial burdens following CVD hospitalization, yet with substantial variation across and within countries. Lack of insurance may drive much of the financial stress of CVD in LMIC patients and their families.
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2.
  • Stickley, Andrew, et al. (författare)
  • Binge drinking among adolescents in Russia : Prevalence, risk and protective factors
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Addictive Behaviours. - 0306-4603 .- 1873-6327. ; 38:4, s. 1988-1995
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Despite evidence that alcohol misuse has been having an increasingly detrimental effect on adolescent wellbeing in Russia in recent years this phenomenon has been little researched. Using data from 2112 children from the Arkhangelsk Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) 2003, this study examined which factors acted as 'risk' or 'protective' factors for adolescent binge drinking within three domains we termed the 'family environment', the 'alcohol environment' and 'deviant behaviour'. The results showed that in the presence of comparatively moderate levels of binge drinking among both boys and girls, being able to access alcohol easily, being unaware of the risks of binge drinking and having peers who consumed alcohol increased the risk of adolescent binge drinking - as did playing truant, smoking and marijuana use, while parental warmth was protective against binge drinking for girls. Our finding that risk and protective factors occur across domains suggests that any interventions targeted against adolescent binge drinking may need to simultaneously focus on risk behaviours in different domains, while at the same time, broader social policy should act to limit the availability of alcohol to adolescents in Russia more generally.
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3.
  • Murphy, Adrianna, et al. (författare)
  • A country divided? : Regional variation in mortality in Ukraine
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Public Health. - 1661-8556 .- 1661-8564. ; 58:6, s. 837-844
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We set out to identify the contribution of various causes of death to regional differences in life expectancy in Ukraine. Mortality data by oblast (province) were obtained from the State Statistical Committee of Ukraine. The contribution of various causes of death to differences in life expectancy between East, West and South Ukraine was estimated using decomposition. In 2008, life expectancy for men in South (61.8 years) and East Ukraine (61.2 years) was lower than for men in West Ukraine (64.0 years). A similar pattern was observed among women. This was mostly due to deaths from infectious disease and external causes among young adults, and cardio- and cerebro-vascular deaths among older adults. Deaths from TB among young adults contribute most to differences in life expectancy. Deaths due to infectious disease, especially TB, play an important role in the gap in life expectancy between regions in Ukraine. These deaths are entirely preventable-further research is needed to identify what has 'protected' individuals in Western Ukraine from the burden of deaths experienced by their Southern and Eastern counterparts.
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4.
  • Murphy, Adrianna, et al. (författare)
  • Social Factors Associated with Alcohol Consumption in the Former Soviet Union : A Systematic Review
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Alcohol and Alcoholism. - 0735-0414 .- 1464-3502. ; 47:6, s. 711-718
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: Alcohol consumption is a major cause of premature mortality in countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU). Despite the unique social profile of the region, we could find no published systematic review of studies of social factors and alcohol consumption in formerly Soviet countries. We aim to critically review the current evidence for social factors associated with alcohol consumption in the fSU and to identify key gaps in the literature. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Global Health databases for cross-sectional, case-control, longitudinal or qualitative studies of demographic, socio-economic, psycho-social and contextual factors associated with alcohol consumption, in any language, published from 1991 until 16 December 2011. Additional studies were identified from the references of selected papers and expert consultation. Our review followed PRISMA guidelines for the reporting of systematic reviews. Results: Our search strategy resulted in 26 articles for review. Although there is strong evidence in the literature that males and smokers in the fSU are more likely to engage in hazardous alcohol consumption, findings regarding other social factors were mixed and there were almost no data on the association of contextual factors and alcohol consumption in this region. Conclusion: This review highlights the extremely limited amount of evidence for social factors associated with heavy alcohol consumption in the fSU. Given the unique social environment of countries of the fSU, future research should take these factors into account in order to effectively address the high levels of alcohol-related mortality in this region.
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5.
  • Murphy, Adrianna, et al. (författare)
  • Using multi-level data to estimate the effect of an 'alcogenic' environment on hazardous alcohol consumption in the former Soviet Union.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Health and Place. - : Elsevier. - 1353-8292 .- 1873-2054. ; 27, s. 205-211
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess whether alcohol-related community characteristics act collectively to influence individual-level alcohol consumption in the former Soviet Union (fSU).METHODS AND RESULTS: Using multi-level data from nine countries in the fSU we conducted a factor analysis of seven alcohol-related community characteristics. The association between any latent factors underlying these characteristics and two measures of hazardous alcohol consumption was then analysed using a population average regression modelling approach. Our factor analysis produced one factor with an eigenvalue >1 (EV=1.28), which explained 94% of the variance. This factor was statistically significantly associated with increased odds of CAGE problem drinking (OR=1.40 (1.08-1.82)). The estimated association with EHD was not statistically significant (OR=1.10 (0.85-1.44)).CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a high number of beer, wine and spirit advertisements and high alcohol outlet density may work together to create an 'alcogenic' environment that encourages hazardous alcohol consumption in the fSU.
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6.
  • Roberts, Bayard, et al. (författare)
  • Patterns of Public Support for Price Increases on Alcohol in the Former Soviet Union
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Alcohol and Alcoholism. - 0735-0414 .- 1464-3502. ; 47:4, s. 473-478
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: To measure levels of public support for price increases on beer and spirits in nine former Soviet Union countries and to examine the characteristics influencing such support. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in 2010 with 18,000 respondents aged 18+ in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Descriptive and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used. Results: The lowest level of support for price increases on beer were in Georgia (men 5%, women 9%) and Armenia (men 5%, women 11%); and the highest were in Kyrgyzstan (men 30%, women 38%), Azerbaijan (men 27%, women 37%) and Russia (men 23%, women 34%). The lowest levels of support for price increases on spirits were Armenia (men 8%, women 14%) and Georgia (men 14%, women 21%); and the highest were in Kyrgyzstan (men 38%, 47% women) and Moldova (men 36%, women 43%). Characteristics associated with supporting price increases included gender (women), higher education, good economic situation, lower alcohol consumption and greater knowledge of harmful alcohol behaviour. Conclusion: Alcohol price increases are an effective means to reduce hazardous alcohol use. Despite opposition in some groups, there is evidence of public support for alcohol price increases in the study countries.
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7.
  • Stickley, Andrew, et al. (författare)
  • Binge drinking and eating problems in Russian adolescents
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Alcoholism. - 0145-6008 .- 1530-0277. ; 39:3, s. 540-547
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Binge drinking may be linked to problematic eating behavior, although as yet, little research has been conducted on this association. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between binge drinking and eating problems in Russian adolescents.METHODS: Data were drawn from the Social and Health Assessment, a cross-sectional school-based survey of 6th to 10th grade students (aged 12 to 17 years old) carried out in Arkhangelsk, Russia. Information was collected on various eating problems (worries about weight, feeling fat, excessive eating, fasting and excessive exercise, and purging behaviors) and binge drinking (5 or more drinks in a row). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between binge drinking and eating problems.RESULTS: Among the 2,488 adolescents included in the statistical analysis, nearly 50% of girls expressed worries about their weight, while 35.0 and 41.5% of adolescent boys and girls reported excessive eating, respectively. The prevalence of purging behaviors (vomiting/using laxatives) was, however, much lower among both sexes (females-2.6%; males-3.3%). In a regression model adjusted for demographic factors and depressive symptoms, among girls, binge drinking was associated with 5 of the 6 eating problems with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.21 (upset about weight gain) to 1.68 (excessive eating). For boys, binge drinking was linked to feeling overweight (OR: 1.47, confidence interval [CI]: 1.20 to 1.81) and vomiting/used laxatives (OR: 4.13, CI: 1.58 to 10.80).CONCLUSIONS: Many adolescents in Russia report problematic eating attitudes and behaviors, and eating problems are associated with binge drinking. More research is now needed in this setting to better understand adolescent eating problems and their association with alcohol misuse, so that contextually suitable interventions can be implemented to reduce these behaviors and mitigate their potentially detrimental effects.
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8.
  • Stickley, Andrew, et al. (författare)
  • Male solitary drinking and hazardous alcohol use in nine countries of the former Soviet Union
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Drug And Alcohol Dependence. - 0376-8716 .- 1879-0046. ; 150, s. 105-111
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Despite evidence that many people engage in solitary drinking and that it might be associated with negative consequences, to date, little research has focused on this form of drinking behaviour. This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with solitary drinking, and assessed whether it is linked with hazardous alcohol use among males in nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU).METHODS: Data came from a cross-sectional population-based survey undertaken in 2010/11 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. Information was obtained on the frequency of solitary drinking among male regular drinkers (i.e., those consuming alcoholic drinks at least once a month), and on problem drinking (CAGE) and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables.RESULTS: The prevalence of occasional and frequent solitary drinking ranged from 8.4% (Georgia) to 42.4% (Azerbaijan), and 3.1% (Kazakhstan) to 8.2% (Armenia), respectively. Solitary drinking was associated with being older, divorced/widowed, living alone, having a bad/very bad household financial situation, lower levels of social support, and poor self-rated health. Occasional solitary drinking was linked to problem drinking and HED, while frequent solitary alcohol use was related to problem drinking.CONCLUSIONS: Solitary drinking is relatively common among male regular drinkers in the fSU and is linked to older age, social and economic disadvantage, and hazardous alcohol use.
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