Sök i SwePub databas

  Utökad sökning

Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Muscat George) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Muscat George)

  • Resultat 1-4 av 4
Sortera/gruppera träfflistan
  • Lozano, Rafael, et al. (författare)
  • Measuring progress from 1990 to 2017 and projecting attainment to 2030 of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals for 195 countries and territories: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 1474-547X .- 0140-6736. ; , s. 2091-2138
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Efforts to establish the 2015 baseline and monitor early implementation of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) highlight both great potential for and threats to improving health by 2030. To fully deliver on the SDG aim of “leaving no one behind”, it is increasingly important to examine the health-related SDGs beyond national-level estimates. As part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017), we measured progress on 41 of 52 health-related SDG indicators and estimated the health-related SDG index for 195 countries and territories for the period 1990–2017, projected indicators to 2030, and analysed global attainment. Methods: We measured progress on 41 health-related SDG indicators from 1990 to 2017, an increase of four indicators since GBD 2016 (new indicators were health worker density, sexual violence by non-intimate partners, population census status, and prevalence of physical and sexual violence [reported separately]). We also improved the measurement of several previously reported indicators. We constructed national-level estimates and, for a subset of health-related SDGs, examined indicator-level differences by sex and Socio-demographic Index (SDI) quintile. We also did subnational assessments of performance for selected countries. To construct the health-related SDG index, we transformed the value for each indicator on a scale of 0–100, with 0 as the 2·5th percentile and 100 as the 97·5th percentile of 1000 draws calculated from 1990 to 2030, and took the geometric mean of the scaled indicators by target. To generate projections through 2030, we used a forecasting framework that drew estimates from the broader GBD study and used weighted averages of indicator-specific and country-specific annualised rates of change from 1990 to 2017 to inform future estimates. We assessed attainment of indicators with defined targets in two ways: first, using mean values projected for 2030, and then using the probability of attainment in 2030 calculated from 1000 draws. We also did a global attainment analysis of the feasibility of attaining SDG targets on the basis of past trends. Using 2015 global averages of indicators with defined SDG targets, we calculated the global annualised rates of change required from 2015 to 2030 to meet these targets, and then identified in what percentiles the required global annualised rates of change fell in the distribution of country-level rates of change from 1990 to 2015. We took the mean of these global percentile values across indicators and applied the past rate of change at this mean global percentile to all health-related SDG indicators, irrespective of target definition, to estimate the equivalent 2030 global average value and percentage change from 2015 to 2030 for each indicator. Findings: The global median health-related SDG index in 2017 was 59·4 (IQR 35·4–67·3), ranging from a low of 11·6 (95% uncertainty interval 9·6–14·0) to a high of 84·9 (83·1–86·7). SDG index values in countries assessed at the subnational level varied substantially, particularly in China and India, although scores in Japan and the UK were more homogeneous. Indicators also varied by SDI quintile and sex, with males having worse outcomes than females for non-communicable disease (NCD) mortality, alcohol use, and smoking, among others. Most countries were projected to have a higher health-related SDG index in 2030 than in 2017, while country-level probabilities of attainment by 2030 varied widely by indicator. Under-5 mortality, neonatal mortality, maternal mortality ratio, and malaria indicators had the most countries with at least 95% probability of target attainment. Other indicators, including NCD mortality and suicide mortality, had no countries projected to meet corresponding SDG targets on the basis of projected mean values for 2030 but showed some probability of attainment by 2030. For some indicators, including child malnutrition, several infectious diseases, and most violence measures, the annualised rates of change required to meet SDG targets far exceeded the pace of progress achieved by any country in the recent past. We found that applying the mean global annualised rate of change to indicators without defined targets would equate to about 19% and 22% reductions in global smoking and alcohol consumption, respectively; a 47% decline in adolescent birth rates; and a more than 85% increase in health worker density per 1000 population by 2030. Interpretation: The GBD study offers a unique, robust platform for monitoring the health-related SDGs across demographic and geographic dimensions. Our findings underscore the importance of increased collection and analysis of disaggregated data and highlight where more deliberate design or targeting of interventions could accelerate progress in attaining the SDGs. Current projections show that many health-related SDG indicators, NCDs, NCD-related risks, and violence-related indicators will require a concerted shift away from what might have driven past gains—curative interventions in the case of NCDs—towards multisectoral, prevention-oriented policy action and investments to achieve SDG aims. Notably, several targets, if they are to be met by 2030, demand a pace of progress that no country has achieved in the recent past. The future is fundamentally uncertain, and no model can fully predict what breakthroughs or events might alter the course of the SDGs. What is clear is that our actions—or inaction—today will ultimately dictate how close the world, collectively, can get to leaving no one behind by 2030.
  • Joffrin, E., et al. (författare)
  • Overview of the JET preparation for deuterium-tritium operation with the ITER like-wall
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Fusion. - : IOP PUBLISHING LTD. - 0029-5515 .- 1741-4326. ; 59:11
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For the past several years, the JET scientific programme (Pamela et al 2007 Fusion Eng. Des. 82 590) has been engaged in a multi-campaign effort, including experiments in D, H and T, leading up to 2020 and the first experiments with 50%/50% D-T mixtures since 1997 and the first ever D-T plasmas with the ITER mix of plasma-facing component materials. For this purpose, a concerted physics and technology programme was launched with a view to prepare the D-T campaign (DTE2). This paper addresses the key elements developed by the JET programme directly contributing to the D-T preparation. This intense preparation includes the review of the physics basis for the D-T operational scenarios, including the fusion power predictions through first principle and integrated modelling, and the impact of isotopes in the operation and physics of D-T plasmas (thermal and particle transport, high confinement mode (H-mode) access, Be and W erosion, fuel recovery, etc). This effort also requires improving several aspects of plasma operation for DTE2, such as real time control schemes, heat load control, disruption avoidance and a mitigation system (including the installation of a new shattered pellet injector), novel ion cyclotron resonance heating schemes (such as the three-ions scheme), new diagnostics (neutron camera and spectrometer, active Alfven eigenmode antennas, neutral gauges, radiation hard imaging systems...) and the calibration of the JET neutron diagnostics at 14 MeV for accurate fusion power measurement. The active preparation of JET for the 2020 D-T campaign provides an incomparable source of information and a basis for the future D-T operation of ITER, and it is also foreseen that a large number of key physics issues will be addressed in support of burning plasmas.
  • Baek, Sungmin, et al. (författare)
  • The Alternative Splicing Regulator Nova2 Constrains Vascular Erk Signaling to Limit Specification of the Lymphatic Lineage
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Developmental Cell. - : CELL PRESS. - 1534-5807 .- 1878-1551. ; 49:2, s. 279-292
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The correct assignment of cell fate within fields of multipotent progenitors is essential for accurate tissue diversification. The first lymphatic vessels arise from pre-existing veins after venous endothelial cells become specified as lymphatic progenitors. Prox1 specifies lymphatic fate and labels these progenitors; however, the mechanisms restricting Prox1 expression and limiting the progenitor pool remain unknown. We identified a zebrafish mutant that displayed premature, expanded, and prolonged lymphatic specification. The gene responsible encodes the regulator of alternative splicing, Nova2. In zebrafish and human endothelial cells, Nova2 selectively regulates pre-mRNA splicing for components of signaling pathways and phosphoproteins. Nova2-deficient endothelial cells display increased Mapk/Erk signaling, and Prox1 expression is dynamically controlled by Erk signaling. We identify a mechanism whereby Nova2-regulated splicing constrains Erk signaling, thus limiting lymphatic progenitor cell specification. This identifies the capacity of a factor that tunes mRNA splicing to control assignment of cell fate during vascular differentiation.
  • Oh, T. G., et al. (författare)
  • PRMT2 and ROR gamma Expression Are Associated With Breast Cancer Survival Outcomes
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Molecular Endocrinology. - 0888-8809. ; 28:7, s. 1166-1185
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) methylate arginine residues on histones and target transcription factors that play critical roles in many cellular processes, including gene transcription, mRNA splicing, proliferation, and differentiation. Recent studies have linked PRMT-dependent epigenetic marks and modifications to carcinogenesis and metastasis in cancer. However, the role of PRMT2-dependent signaling in breast cancer remains obscure. We demonstrate PRMT2 mRNA expression was significantly decreased in breast cancer relative to normal breast. Gene expression profiling, Ingenuity and protein-protein interaction network analysis after PRMT2-short interfering RNA transfection into MCF-7 cells, revealed that PRMT2-dependent gene expression is involved in cell-cycle regulation and checkpoint control, chromosomal instability, DNA repair, and carcinogenesis. For example, PRMT2 depletion achieved the following: 1) increased p21 and decreased cyclinD1 expression in (several) breast cancer cell lines, 2) decreased cell migration, 3) induced an increase in nucleotide excision repair and homologous recombination DNA repair, and 4) increased the probability of distance metastasis free survival (DMFS). The expression of PRMT2 and retinoid-related orphan receptor-gamma (ROR gamma) is inversely correlated in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and increased ROR gamma expression increases DMFS. Furthermore, we found decreased expression of the PRMT2-dependent signature is significantly associated with increased probability of DMFS. Finally, weighted gene coexpression network analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between PRMT2-dependent genes and cell-cycle checkpoint, kinetochore, and DNA repair circuits. Strikingly, these PRMT2-dependent circuits are correlated with pan-cancer metagene signatures associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition and chromosomal instability. This study demonstrates the role and significant correlation between a histone methyltransferase (PRMT2)-dependent signature, ROR gamma, the cell-cycle regulation, DNA repair circuits, and breast cancer survival outcomes.
Skapa referenser, mejla, bekava och länka
  • Resultat 1-4 av 4
pil uppåt Stäng

Kopiera och spara länken för att återkomma till aktuell vy