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2.
  • Blennow, Kaj, 1958, et al. (författare)
  • No association between the alpha2-macroglobulin (A2M) deletion and Alzheimer's disease, and no change in A2M mRNA, protein, or protein expression.
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996). - : Springer. - 0300-9564. ; 107:8-9, s. 1065-79
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A polymorphism consisting of a deletion near the 5' splice site of exon 18 on the alpha2-macroglobulin (A2M) gene (A2M-2) has been suggested to be associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in family-based studies. We studied the A2M-2 allele together with the ApoE alleles in a large series on patients with AD (n = 449) and age-matched controls (n = 349). Neuropathologically confirmed diagnoses were available in 199 cases (94 AD and 107 control cases). We found no increase in A2M-2 genotype or allele frequencies in AD (27.5% and 14.6%) versus controls (26.4% and 14.9%). In contrast, a marked increase (p < 0.0001) in ApoE epsilon4 genotype or allele frequencies was found in AD (66.6% and 41.2%) as compared with controls (29.8% and 16.5%), suggesting sufficient statistical power in our sample. No relation was found between the A2M-2 and the ApoE epsilon4 allele. No change in A2M exon 17-18 mRNA size or sequence or A2M protein size was found in cases carrying the A2M-2 deletion, suggesting that there is no biological consequences of the A2M intronic deletion. No change in A2M protein level in cerebrospinal fluid was found in AD, suggesting that the A2M-2 allele does not effect the A2M protein expression in the brain. The lack of an association between the A2M-2 allele and AD in the present study, and the lack of abnormalities in the A2M mRNA or protein suggest that the A2M-2 allele is not associated with AD.
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3.
  • Dybjer, E., et al. (författare)
  • Incretin hormones, insulin, glucagon and advanced glycation end products in relation to cognitive function in older people with and without diabetes, a population-based study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Diabetic Medicine. - : WILEY. - 0742-3071 .- 1464-5491. ; 37:7, s. 1157-1166
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim The aim of this observational study was to investigate relationships between physiological levels of glucometabolic biomarkers and cognitive test results in a population-based setting. Methods Cross-sectional data were obtained from the Swedish population-based Malmo Diet and Cancer Study Re-examination 2007-2012 comprising 3001 older people (mean age 72 years). Through oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT), fasting and post-load levels of serum insulin, plasma glucagon, serum glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured. Insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity levels were calculated. In 454 participants, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were estimated through skin autofluorescence. Associations between biomarkers and two cognitive tests, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and A Quick Test of Cognitive Speed (AQT) respectively, were explored in multiple regression analyses. Results Positive associations following adjustments for known prognostic factors were found between MMSE scores and insulin sensitivity (B = 0.822, P = 0.004), 2-h plasma glucagon (B = 0.596, P = 0.026), 2-h serum GIP (B = 0.581, P = 0.040) and 2-h plasma GLP-1 (B = 0.585, P = 0.038), whereas negative associations were found between MMSE scores and insulin resistance (B = -0.734, P = 0.006), fasting plasma GLP-1 (B = -0.544, P = 0.033) and AGEs (B = -1.459, P = 0.030) were found. Conclusions Higher levels of insulin sensitivity, GIP and GLP-1 were associated with better cognitive outcomes, but AGEs were associated with worse outcomes, supporting evidence from preclinical studies. Glucagon was linked to better outcomes, which could possibly reflect neuroprotective properties similar to the related biomarker GLP-1 which has similar intracellular properties. Longitudinal and interventional studies are needed to further evaluate neuromodulating effects of these biomarkers. presented at the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) 2019, Barcelona, Spain
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4.
  • Ferreira, Daniel, et al. (författare)
  • The interactive effect of demographic and clinical factors on hippocampal volume : A multicohort study on 1958 cognitively normal individuals
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Hippocampus. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 1050-9631 .- 1098-1063. ; 27:6, s. 653-667
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer's disease is characterized by hippocampal atrophy. Other factors also influence the hippocampal volume, but their interactive effect has not been investigated before in cognitively healthy individuals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the interactive effect of key demographic and clinical factors on hippocampal volume, in contrast to previous studies frequently investigating these factors in a separate manner. Also, to investigate how comparable the control groups from ADNI, AIBL, and AddNeuroMed are with five population-based cohorts. In this study, 1958 participants were included (100 AddNeuroMed, 226 ADNI, 155 AIBL, 59 BRC, 295 GENIC, 279 BioFiNDER, 398 PIVUS, and 446 SNAC-K). ANOVA and random forest were used for testing between-cohort differences in demographic-clinical variables. Multiple regression was used to study the influence of demographic-clinical variables on hippocampal volume. ANCOVA was used to analyze whether between-cohort differences in demographic-clinical variables explained between-cohort differences in hippocampal volume. Age and global brain atrophy were the most important variables in explaining variability in hippocampal volume. These variables were not only important themselves but also in interaction with gender, education, MMSE, and total intracranial volume. AddNeuroMed, ADNI, and AIBL differed from the population-based cohorts in several demographic-clinical variables that had a significant effect on hippocampal volume. Variability in hippocampal volume in individuals with normal cognition is high. Differences that previously tended to be related to disease mechanisms could also be partly explained by demographic and clinical factors independent from the disease. Furthermore, cognitively normal individuals especially from ADNI and AIBL are not representative of the general population. These findings may have important implications for future research and clinical trials, translating imaging biomarkers to the general population, and validating current diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease and predementia stages.
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6.
  • Hansson, Oskar, et al. (författare)
  • Midlife physical activity is associated with lower incidence of vascular dementia but not Alzheimer's disease
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy. - : BMC. - 1758-9193. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Physical activity might reduce the risk of developing dementia. However, it is still unclear whether the protective effect differs depending on the subtype of dementia. We aimed to investigate if midlife physical activity affects the development of vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) differently in two large study populations with different designs.Methods: Using a prospective observational design, we studied whether long-distance skiers of the Swedish Vasaloppet (n = 197,685) exhibited reduced incidence of VaD or AD compared to matched individuals from the general population (n = 197,684) during 21 years of follow-up (median 10, interquartile range (IQR) 5-15 years). Next, we studied the association between self-reported physical activity, stated twice 5 years apart, and incident VaD and AD in 20,639 participants in the Swedish population-based Malmo Diet and Cancer Study during 18 years of follow-up (median 15, IQR 14-17 years). Finally, we used a mouse model of AD and studied brain levels of amyloid-beta, synaptic proteins, and cognitive function following 6 months of voluntary wheel running.Results Vasaloppet skiers (median age 36.0 years [IQR 29.0-46.0], 38% women) had lower incidence of all-cause dementia (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.63, 95% CI 0.52-0.75) and VaD (adjusted HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.33-0.73), but not AD, compared to non-skiers. Further, faster skiers exhibited a reduced incidence of VaD (adjusted HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.16-0.95), but not AD or all-cause dementia compared to slower skiers. In the Malmo Diet and Cancer Study (median age 57.5 years [IQR 51.0-63.8], 60% women), higher physical activity was associated with reduced incidence of VaD (adjusted HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.49-0.87), but not AD nor all-cause dementia. These findings were also independent of APOE-epsilon 4 genotype. In AD mice, voluntary running did not improve memory, amyloid-beta, or synaptic proteins.Conclusions: Our results indicate that physical activity in midlife is associated with lower incidence of VaD. Using three different study designs, we found no significant association between physical activity and subsequent development of AD.
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7.
  • Holm, H, et al. (författare)
  • Beta-blocker therapy and risk of vascular dementia : A population-based prospective study
  • Ingår i: Vascular Pharmacology. - : Elsevier. - 1537-1891 .- 1879-3649. ; 125-126
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There are a few studies that report cognitive impairment as a complication of treatment with beta- blockers. We aimed to evaluate the longitudinal association between use of beta-blockers, as a class, and incident risk of all-cause dementia, vascular dementia, Alzheimer's and mixed dementia in the prospective population-based Malmö Preventive Project. We included 18,063 individuals (mean age 68.2, males 63.4%) followed up for 84,506 person-years. Dementia cases were retrieved from the Swedish National Patient Register and validated by review of medical records and neuroimaging data. We performed propensity score matching analysis, resulting in 3720 matched pairs of beta-blocker users and non-users at baseline, and multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression. Overall, 122 study participants (1.6%) were diagnosed with dementia during the follow-up. Beta-blocker therapy was independently associated with increased risk of developing vascular dementia, regardless of confounding factors (HR: 1.72, 95%CI 1.01-3.78; p = .048). Conversely, treatment with beta-blockers was not associated with increased risk of all-cause, Alzheimer's and mixed dementia (HR:1.15; 95%CI 0.80-1.66; p = .44; HR:0.85; 95%CI 0.48-1.54; P = .59 and HR:1.35; 95%CI 0.56-3.27; p = .50, respectively). We observed that use of beta-blockers, as a class, is associated with increased longitudinal risk of vascular dementia in the general elderly population, regardless of cardiovascular risk factors, prevalent or incident history of atrial fibrillation, stroke, coronary events and heart failure. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings in the general population and to explore the mechanisms underlying the relationship between use of beta- blockers and increased risk of vascular dementia.
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8.
  • Holm, H, et al. (författare)
  • High circulating levels of midregional proenkephalin A predict vascular dementia : a population-based prospective study
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Midregional Pro-enkephalin A (MR-PENK A) and N-terminal Protachykinin A (NT-PTA) have been associated with vascular dementia. However, the longitudinal relationship between these biomarkers and incident dementia has not been fully investigated. In the population-based Malmö Preventive Project, circulating levels of MR-PENK A and NT-PTA were determined in a random sample of 5,323 study participants (mean age: 69 ± 6 years) who were followed-up over a period of 4.6 ± 1.6 years. The study sample included 369 patients (7%) who were diagnosed in the same period with dementia. We analyzed relationship of MR-PENK A and NT-PTA with the risk of developing dementia by using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models adjusted for traditional risk factors. Increased plasma levels of MR-PENK A were associated with higher risk of incident vascular dementia whereas no associations were found with all-cause or Alzheimer dementia. The risk of vascular dementia was mainly conferred by the highest quartile of MR-PENK as compared with lower quartiles. Elevated levels of NT-PTA yielded significant association with all-cause dementia or dementia subtypes. Elevated plasma concentration of MR-PENK A independently predicts vascular dementia in the general population. MR-PENK A may be used as an additional tool for identifying vascular subtype in ambiguous dementia cases.
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10.
  • Kalldalen, Anette, et al. (författare)
  • Occupational Performance Problems in 85-Year-Old Women and Men in Sweden
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: OTJR (Thorofare, N.J.). - : Slack. - 1539-4492 .- 1938-2383. ; 32:2, s. 30-38
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An area of concern for occupational therapy is to increase preventive interventions among relatively healthy elderly individuals. The purpose of this study was to explore occupational performance problems among 85-year-old women and men in relation to demographic data, mental health, and health-related quality of life. Participants completed a postal questionnaire including the EuroQoL health-related quality of life measurement. Instruments used during a home visit were the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, the Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Geriatric Depression scale. The sample comprised 380 individuals. Women experienced poorer health and more occupational performance problems in community management, household management, and quiet leisure than men. Impaired cognitive function, lower self-rated health, and higher risk of depression correlated with a larger number of occupational performance problems. Intervention planning should be based on individual perceptions of meaningful occupations and environmental considerations.
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