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Sökning: WFRF:(Nacmias B.)

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1.
  • Munn-Chernoff, M. A., et al. (författare)
  • Shared genetic risk between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes: Evidence from genome-wide association studies
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Addiction Biology. - 1355-6215.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Eating disorders and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Twin studies reveal shared genetic variance between liabilities to eating disorders and substance use, with the strongest associations between symptoms of bulimia nervosa and problem alcohol use (genetic correlation [r(g)], twin-based = 0.23-0.53). We estimated the genetic correlation between eating disorder and substance use and disorder phenotypes using data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Four eating disorder phenotypes (anorexia nervosa [AN], AN with binge eating, AN without binge eating, and a bulimia nervosa factor score), and eight substance-use-related phenotypes (drinks per week, alcohol use disorder [AUD], smoking initiation, current smoking, cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence, cannabis initiation, and cannabis use disorder) from eight studies were included. Significant genetic correlations were adjusted for variants associated with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Total study sample sizes per phenotype ranged from similar to 2400 to similar to 537 000 individuals. We used linkage disequilibrium score regression to calculate single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlations between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes. Significant positive genetic associations emerged between AUD and AN (r(g) = 0.18; false discovery rate q = 0.0006), cannabis initiation and AN (r(g) = 0.23; q < 0.0001), and cannabis initiation and AN with binge eating (r(g) = 0.27; q = 0.0016). Conversely, significant negative genetic correlations were observed between three nondiagnostic smoking phenotypes (smoking initiation, current smoking, and cigarettes per day) and AN without binge eating (r(gs) = -0.19 to -0.23; qs < 0.04). The genetic correlation between AUD and AN was no longer significant after co-varying for major depressive disorder loci. The patterns of association between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes highlights the potentially complex and substance-specific relationships among these behaviors.
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  • Watson, H. J., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies eight risk loci and implicates metabo-psychiatric origins for anorexia nervosa
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 51:8, s. 1207-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Characterized primarily by a low body-mass index, anorexia nervosa is a complex and serious illness(1), affecting 0.9-4% of women and 0.3% of men(2-4), with twin-based heritability estimates of 50-60%(5). Mortality rates are higher than those in other psychiatric disorders(6), and outcomes are unacceptably poor(7). Here we combine data from the Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative (ANGI)(8,9) and the Eating Disorders Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC-ED) and conduct a genome-wide association study of 16,992 cases of anorexia nervosa and 55,525 controls, identifying eight significant loci. The genetic architecture of anorexia nervosa mirrors its clinical presentation, showing significant genetic correlations with psychiatric disorders, physical activity, and metabolic (including glycemic), lipid and anthropometric traits, independent of the effects of common variants associated with body-mass index. These results further encourage a reconceptualization of anorexia nervosa as a metabo-psychiatric disorder. Elucidating the metabolic component is a critical direction for future research, and paying attention to both psychiatric and metabolic components may be key to improving outcomes.
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  • Ferrari, Raffaele, et al. (författare)
  • Frontotemporal dementia and its subtypes: a genome-wide association study.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - Lancet Ltd. - 1474-4465. ; 13:7, s. 686-699
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a complex disorder characterised by a broad range of clinical manifestations, differential pathological signatures, and genetic variability. Mutations in three genes-MAPT, GRN, and C9orf72-have been associated with FTD. We sought to identify novel genetic risk loci associated with the disorder.
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  • Sudre, Carole H, et al. (författare)
  • White matter hyperintensities in progranulin-associated frontotemporal dementia: A longitudinal GENFI study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. Clinical. - 2213-1582. ; 24, s. 102077
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders with both sporadic and genetic forms. Mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN) are a common cause of genetic FTD, causing either a behavioural presentation or, less commonly, language impairment. Presence on T2-weighted images of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) has been previously shown to be more commonly associated with GRN mutations rather than other forms of FTD. The aim of the current study was to investigate the longitudinal change in WMH and the associations of WMH burden with grey matter (GM) loss, markers of neurodegeneration and cognitive function in GRN mutation carriers. 336 participants in the Genetic FTD Initiative (GENFI) study were included in the analysis: 101 presymptomatic and 32 symptomatic GRN mutation carriers, as well as 203 mutation-negative controls. 39 presymptomatic and 12 symptomatic carriers, and 73 controls also had longitudinal data available. Participants underwent MR imaging acquisition including isotropic 1 mm T1-weighted and T2-weighted sequences. WMH were automatically segmented and locally subdivided to enable a more detailed representation of the pathology distribution. Log-transformed WMH volumes were investigated in terms of their global and regional associations with imaging measures (grey matter volumes), biomarker concentrations (plasma neurofilament light chain, NfL, and glial fibrillary acidic protein, GFAP), genetic status (TMEM106B risk genotype) and cognition (tests of executive function). Analyses revealed that WMH load was higher in both symptomatic and presymptomatic groups compared with controls and this load increased over time. In particular, lesions were seen periventricularly in frontal and occipital lobes, progressing to medial layers over time. However, there was variability in the WMH load across GRN mutation carriers - in the symptomatic group 25.0% had none/mild load, 37.5% had medium and 37.5% had a severe load - a difference not fully explained by disease duration. GM atrophy was strongly associated with WMH load both globally and in separate lobes, and increased WMH burden in the frontal, periventricular and medial regions was associated with worse executive function. Furthermore, plasma NfL and to a lesser extent GFAP concentrations were seen to be associated with increased lesion burden. Lastly, the presence of the homozygous TMEM106B rs1990622 TT risk genotypic status was associated with an increased accrual of WMH per year. In summary, WMH occur in GRN mutation carriers and accumulate over time, but are variable in their severity. They are associated with increased GM atrophy and executive dysfunction. Furthermore, their presence is associated with markers of WM damage (NfL) and astrocytosis (GFAP), whilst their accrual is modified by TMEM106B genetic status. WMH load may represent a target marker for trials of disease modifying therapies in individual patients but the variability across the GRN population would prevent use of such markers as a global outcome measure across all participants in a trial.
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  • Duncan, Laramie, et al. (författare)
  • Significant Locus and Metabolic Genetic Correlations Revealed in Genome-Wide Association Study of Anorexia Nervosa
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: The American journal of psychiatry. - 1535-7228. ; 174:9, s. 850-858
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The authors conducted a genome-wide association study of anorexia nervosa and calculated genetic correlations with a series of psychiatric, educational, and metabolic phenotypes.Following uniform quality control and imputation procedures using the 1000 Genomes Project (phase 3) in 12 case-control cohorts comprising 3,495 anorexia nervosa cases and 10,982 controls, the authors performed standard association analysis followed by a meta-analysis across cohorts. Linkage disequilibrium score regression was used to calculate genome-wide common variant heritability (single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP]-based heritability [h(2)SNP]), partitioned heritability, and genetic correlations (rg) between anorexia nervosa and 159 other phenotypes.Results were obtained for 10,641,224 SNPs and insertion-deletion variants with minor allele frequencies >1% and imputation quality scores >0.6. The h(2)SNP of anorexia nervosa was 0.20 (SE=0.02), suggesting that a substantial fraction of the twin-based heritability arises from common genetic variation. The authors identified one genome-wide significant locus on chromosome 12 (rs4622308) in a region harboring a previously reported type 1 diabetes and autoimmune disorder locus. Significant positive genetic correlations were observed between anorexia nervosa and schizophrenia, neuroticism, educational attainment, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and significant negative genetic correlations were observed between anorexia nervosa and body mass index, insulin, glucose, and lipid phenotypes.Anorexia nervosa is a complex heritable phenotype for which this study has uncovered the first genome-wide significant locus. Anorexia nervosa also has large and significant genetic correlations with both psychiatric phenotypes and metabolic traits. The study results encourage a reconceptualization of this frequently lethal disorder as one with both psychiatric and metabolic etiology.
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  • Bonham, Luke W., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variation across RNA metabolism and cell death gene networks is implicated in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Scientific reports. - 2045-2322. ; 9:1, s. 10854
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA) is a clinical syndrome characterized by neurodegeneration and progressive loss of semantic knowledge. Unlike many other forms of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), svPPA has a highly consistent underlying pathology composed of TDP-43 (a regulator of RNA and DNA transcription metabolism). Previous genetic studies of svPPA are limited by small sample sizes and a paucity of common risk variants. Despite this, svPPA’s relatively homogenous clinicopathologic phenotype makes it an ideal investigative model to examine genetic processes that may drive neurodegenerative disease. In this study, we used GWAS metadata, tissue samples from pathologically confirmed frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and in silico techniques to identify and characterize protein interaction networks associated with svPPA risk. We identified 64 svPPA risk genes that interact at the protein level. The protein pathways represented in this svPPA gene network are critical regulators of RNA metabolism and cell death, such as SMAD proteins and NOTCH1. Many of the genes in this network are involved in TDP-43 metabolism. Contrary to the conventional notion that svPPA is a clinical syndrome with few genetic risk factors, our analyses show that svPPA risk is complex and polygenic in nature. Risk for svPPA is likely driven by multiple common variants in genes interacting with TDP-43, along with cell death,x` working in combination to promote neurodegeneration. © 2019, The Author(s).
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