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Sökning: WFRF:(Nahi Hareth)

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  • Blimark, Cecilie, et al. (författare)
  • Outcome and survival of myeloma patients diagnosed 2008-2015. Real-world data on 4904 patients from the Swedish Myeloma Registry
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Haematologica. - : FERRATA STORTI FOUNDATION. - 0390-6078 .- 1592-8721. ; 103:3, s. 506-513
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Epidemiology and outcome of myeloma are mainly reported from large university centers and collaborative groups, and do not represent 'real-world' patients. The Swedish Myeloma Registry is a prospective population-based registry documenting characteristics, treatment and outcome in newly diagnosed myeloma, including asymptomatic and localized forms, with the purpose of improving disease management and outcome. This report presents information on patients diagnosed between 2008 and 2015, including data on first-line treatment in patients diagnosed up to 2014, with a follow up until December 2016. We present age-adjusted incidence, patients' characteristics at baseline, treatment, response, and survival. Baseline data were available with a 97% coverage in 4904 patients (median age 71 years, males 70 years, females 73 years; 72% were 65 years or older), and at 1-year follow up in 3558 patients with symptomatic disease (92% of patients initially reported). The age-adjusted incidence was 6.8 myeloma cases per 100,000 inhabi-ants per year. Among initially symptomatic patients (n= 3988), 77% had osteolytic lesions or compression fractures, 49% had anemia, 18% impaired kidney function, and 13% hypercalcemia. High-dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation was given to 77% of patients aged up to 66 years, and to 22% of patients aged 66-70 years. In the study period, 68% received bortezomib, thalidomide, and/or lenalidomide as part of the first-line treatment, rising from 31% in 2008 to 81% in 2014. In active myeloma, the median relative survival of patients aged 65 years or under was 7.7 years, and 3.4 years in patients aged 66 years and over. Patients diagnosed with myeloma in more recent years were associated with significantly higher rates of complete or very good partial remission (P<0.05), and with a significantly higher survival, with a Hazard Ratio (HR) of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.77-0.92; P<0.05). There was a small, but significant survival benefit in patients treated at university hospitals (HR 0.93; 95% CI: 0.87-0.99; P<0.05). We report here on a near complete 'real-world' population of myeloma patients during an 8-year period; a period in which newer drugs were implemented into standard practice. The overall incidence and median age were both higher than in most previous studies, indicating a more complete coverage of older patients. Myeloma survival in Sweden is comparable to other large registry studies, and responses and survival improved during the study period.
  • Nahi, Hareth, et al. (författare)
  • An investigation into whether deletions in 9p reflect prognosis in adult precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia : a multi-center study of 381 patients
  • Ingår i: Haematologica. - Pavia : Ferrata Storti Foundation. - 1592-8721 .- 0390-6078. ; 93:11, s. 8-1734
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In acute lymphoblastic leukemia, besides age and white cell count at diagnosis, the cytogenetic abnormalities t(9;22)/BCR-ABL and t(4;11)/MLL-AF4 are important prognostic markers and are often included in the treatment stratification of patients with adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Deletions in 9p are seen in about 9% of cases of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but their prognostic impact has been controversial. Cytogenetic data from 381 patients diagnosed with B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia were reviewed. Chromosomal analysis was successful in 240 cases. Of these cases, 18 (8%) had abnormalities in 9p and they were compared with patients with normal karyotypes and patients with t(9;22)/BCR-ABL. Patients with abnormalities of chromosome 9 showed significantly shorter overall survival compared with patients with normal karyotypes. In fact, overall survival was similar to that in the poor prognosis t(9;22)/BCR-ABL-positive group. Our data suggest that chromosomal abnormalities involving 9p may have a significant negative impact on survival in adult B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Ali, Mina, et al. (författare)
  • The multiple myeloma risk allele at 5q15 lowers ELL2 expression and increases ribosomal gene expression
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recently, we identified ELL2 as a susceptibility gene for multiple myeloma (MM). To understand its mechanism of action, we performed expression quantitative trait locus analysis in CD138+ plasma cells from 1630 MM patients from four populations. We show that the MM risk allele lowers ELL2 expression in these cells (P combined = 2.5 × 10-27; β combined = -0.24 SD), but not in peripheral blood or other tissues. Consistent with this, several variants representing the MM risk allele map to regulatory genomic regions, and three yield reduced transcriptional activity in plasmocytoma cell lines. One of these (rs3777189-C) co-locates with the best-supported lead variants for ELL2 expression and MM risk, and reduces binding of MAFF/G/K family transcription factors. Moreover, further analysis reveals that the MM risk allele associates with upregulation of gene sets related to ribosome biogenesis, and knockout/knockdown and rescue experiments in plasmocytoma cell lines support a cause-effect relationship. Our results provide mechanistic insight into MM predisposition.
  • Alzrigat, Mohammad, et al. (författare)
  • EZH2 inhibition in multiple myeloma downregulates myeloma associated oncogenes and upregulates microRNAs with potential tumor suppressor functions.
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: OncoTarget. - 1949-2553 .- 1949-2553. ; 8:6, s. 10213-10224
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell tumor localized to the bone marrow (BM). Despite the fact that current treatment strategies have improved patients' median survival time, MM remains incurable. Epigenetic aberrations are emerging as important players in tumorigenesis making them attractive targets for therapy in cancer including MM. Recently, we suggested the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) as a common denominator of gene silencing in MM and presented the PRC2 enzymatic subunit enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) as a potential therapeutic target in MM. Here we further dissect the anti-myeloma mechanisms mediated by EZH2 inhibition and show that pharmacological inhibition of EZH2 reduces the expression of MM-associated oncogenes; IRF-4, XBP-1, PRDM1/BLIMP-1 and c-MYC. We show that EZH2 inhibition reactivates the expression of microRNAs with tumor suppressor functions predicted to target MM-associated oncogenes; primarily miR-125a-3p and miR-320c. ChIP analysis reveals that miR-125a-3p and miR-320c are targets of EZH2 and H3K27me3 in MM cell lines and primary cells. Our results further highlight that polycomb-mediated silencing in MM includes microRNAs with tumor suppressor activity. This novel role strengthens the oncogenic features of EZH2 and its potential as a therapeutic target in MM.
  • Borg, Sixten, et al. (författare)
  • Cost effectiveness of pomalidomide in patients with relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma in Sweden
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncologica. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0284-186X. ; 55:5, s. 554-560
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Multiple myeloma (MM) patients who have progressed following treatment with both bortezomib and lenalidomide have a poor prognosis. In this late stage, other effective alternatives are limited, and patients in Sweden are often left with best supportive care. Pomalidomide is a new anti-angiogenic and immunomodulatory drug for the treatment of MM. Our objective was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of pomalidomide as an add-on to best supportive care in patients with relapsed and refractory MM in Sweden. Material and methods: We developed a health-economic discrete event simulation model of a patient’s course through stable disease and progressive disease, until death. It estimates life expectancy, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs from a societal perspective. Effectiveness data and utilities were taken from the MM-003 trial comparing pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone with high-dose dexamethasone (HIDEX). Cost data were taken from official Swedish price lists, government sources and literature. Results: The model estimates that, if a patient is treated with HIDEX, life expectancy is 1.12 years and the total cost is SEK 179 976 (€19 100), mainly indirect costs. With pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone, life expectancy is 2.33 years, with a total cost of SEK 767 064 (€81 500), mainly in drug and indirect costs. Compared to HIDEX, pomalidomide treatment gives a QALY gain of 0.7351 and an incremental cost of SEK 587 088 (€62 400) consisting of increased drug costs (59%), incremental indirect costs (33%) and other healthcare costs (8%). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio is SEK 798 613 (€84 900) per QALY gained. Conclusion: In a model of late-stage MM patients with a poor prognosis in the Swedish setting, pomalidomide is associated with a relatively high incremental cost per QALY gained. This model was accepted by the national Swedish reimbursement authority TLV, and pomalidomide was granted reimbursement in Sweden.
  • Deneberg, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Prognostic DNA methylation patterns in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia are predefined by stem cell chromatin marks
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Blood. - : American Society of Hematology. - 0006-4971 .- 1528-0020. ; 118:20, s. 5573-5582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) comprise between forty and fifty percent of all adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases. In this clinically diverse group molecular aberrations such as FLT3ITD, NPM1 and CEBPA mutations recently have added to the prognostic accuracy. Aberrant DNA methylation is a hallmark of cancer including AML. We investigated in total 118 CN-AML samples in a test and a validation cohort for genome-wide promoter DNA methylation with Illumina Methylation Bead arrays and compared them to normal myeloid precursors and global gene expression. IDH and NPM1 mutations were associated with different methylation patterns (p=0.0004 and 0.04, respectively). Genome-wide methylation levels were elevated in IDH mutated samples (p=0.006). We observed a negative impact of DNA methylation on transcription. Genes targeted by Polycomb group (PcG) proteins and genes associated with bivalent histone marks in stem cells showed increased aberrant methylation in AML (p<0.0001). Furthermore, high methylation levels of PcG target genes were independently associated with better progression free (OR 0.47, p=0.01) and overall survival (OR 0.36, p=0.001). In summary, genome wide methylation patterns show preferential methylation of PcG targets with prognostic impact in CN-AML.
  • Dimopoulos, Meletios A., et al. (författare)
  • All-oral ixazomib, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone for transplant-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - : Elsevier. - 0959-8049. ; 106, s. 89-98
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Novel efficacious treatments with long-term tolerability are needed for transplant-ineligible, newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) patients. This phase 2 study evaluated the safety and efficacy of all-oral ixazomib-cyclophosphamide-dexamethasone (ICd) followed by single-agent ixazomib maintenance. Patients and methods: Patients were randomised (1:1) to receive 4.0 mg of ixazomib, 300 (Arm A) or 400 (Arm B) mg/m2 of cyclophosphamide (days 1, 8, and 15), and 40 mg of dexamethasone (days 1, 8, 15, and 22) as induction (up to 13 × 28-day cycles), followed by single-agent ixazomib maintenance (28-day cycles) until progressive disease, death, or unacceptable toxicity. Primary end-point was complete response (CR) + very good partial response (VGPR) rate for ICd induction. Results: Seventy patients were enrolled (n = 36 Arm A; n = 34 Arm B); median age was 73 years (range, 61–87). At data cut-off, 66% of patients had completed 13 induction cycles followed by ixazomib maintenance. Median overall treatment duration was 19 cycles (range, 1–29); 21% of patients discontinued treatment during induction and 3% during maintenance due to adverse events (AEs). During induction, among 67 response-evaluable patients, CR+VGPR rate was 25%, and overall response rate (ORR) was 73%. Including the maintenance phase, CR+VGPR rate was 33%, and ORR was 76%. Median progression-free survival was 23.5 months (median follow-up: 26.1 months). The most common all-grade AE was neutropenia (31%). Grade ≥3 AEs were reported by 73% of patients. Five on-study deaths occurred (not treatment-related). Conclusions: ICd treatment followed by ixazomib maintenance is tolerable and active in elderly, transplant-ineligible NDMM patients. Trial registration number: NCT02046070.
  • Falk, Ingrid Jakobsen, et al. (författare)
  • Decreased survival in normal karyotype AML with single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding the AraC metabolizing enzymes cytidine deaminase and 5 '-nucleotidase
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Hematology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0361-8609 .- 1096-8652. ; 88:12, s. 1001-1006
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • De novo acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype (NK-AML) comprises a large group of patients with no common cytogenetic alterations and with a large variation in treatment response. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related to the metabolism of the nucleoside analogue AraC, the backbone in AML treatment, might affect drug sensitivity and treatment outcome. Therefore, SNPs may serve as prognostic biomarkers aiding clinicians in individualized treatment decisions, with the aim of improving patient outcomes. We analyzed polymorphisms in genes encoding cytidine deaminase (CDA 79A> C rs2072671 and 2451C> T rs532545), 50-nucleotidase (cN-II 7A> G rs10883841), and deoxycytidine kinase (DCK 30UTR 948T> C rs4643786) in 205 de novo NK-AML patients. In FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD)-positive patients, the CDA 79C/C and 2451T/T genotypes were associated with shorter overall survival compared to other genotypes (5 vs. 24 months, P< 0.001 and 5 vs. 23 months, P50.015, respectively), and this was most pronounced in FLT3-ITD-positive/NPM1-positive patients. We observed altered in vitro sensitivity to topoisomerase inhibitory drugs, but not to nucleoside analogues, and a decrease in global DNA methylation in cells carrying both CDA variant alleles. A shorter survival was also observed for the cN-II variant allele, but only in FLT3-ITD-negative patients (25 vs. 31 months, P50.075). Our results indicate that polymorphisms in genes related to nucleoside analog drug metabolism may serve as prognostic markers in de novo NK-AML.
  • Falk, Ingrid Jakobsen, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of ABCB1 single nucleotide polymorphisms 1236C>T and 2677G>T on overall survival in FLT3 wild-type de novo AML patients with normal karyotype
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Haematology. - : Wiley. - 0007-1048 .- 1365-2141. ; 167:5, s. 671-680
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Drug resistance is a clinically relevant problem in the treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We have previously reported a relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of ABCB1, encoding the multi-drug transporter P-glycoprotein, and overall survival (OS) in normal karyotype (NK)-AML. Here we extended this material, enabling subgroup analysis based on FLT3 and NPM1 status, to further elucidate the influence of ABCB1 SNPs. De novo NK-AML patients (n = 201) were analysed for 1199G>A, 1236C>T, 2677G>T/A and 3435C>T, and correlations to outcome were investigated. FLT3 wild-type 1236C/C patients have significantly shorter OS compared to patients carrying the variant allele; medians 20 vs. 49 months, respectively, P = 0.017. There was also an inferior outcome in FLT3 wild-type 2677G/G patients compared to patients carrying the variant allele, median OS 20 vs. 35 months, respectively, P = 0.039. This was confirmed in Cox regression analysis. Our results indicate that ABCB1 1236C>T and 2677G>T may be used as prognostic markers to distinguish relatively high risk patients in the intermediate risk FLT3 wild-type group, which may contribute to future individualizing of treatment strategies.
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