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Sökning: WFRF:(Narita Zui)

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1.
  • Stickley, Andrew, et al. (författare)
  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and perceived mental health discrimination in adults in the general population
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European psychiatry. - : Elsevier. - 0924-9338 .- 1778-3585. ; 56, s. 91-96
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The experience of discrimination is common in individuals with mental health problems and has been associated with a range of negative outcomes. As yet, however, there has been an absence of research on this phenomenon in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study examined the association between ADHD symptoms and mental health discrimination in the general adult population. Methods: The analytic sample comprised 7274 individuals aged 18 and above residing in private households in England that were drawn from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007. Information on ADHD was obtained with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener. A single-item question was used to assess mental health discrimination experienced in the previous 12 months. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. Results: The prevalence of discrimination increased as ADHD symptoms increased but was especially elevated in those with the most severe ADHD symptoms (ASRS score 18–24). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis that was adjusted for a variety of covariates including common mental disorders, ADHD symptoms (ASRS ≥ 14) were associated with almost 3 times higher odds for experiencing mental health discrimination (odds ratio: 2.81, 95% confidence interval: 1.49–5.31). Conclusion: ADHD symptoms are associated with higher odds for experiencing mental health discrimination and this association is especially elevated in those with the most severe ADHD symptoms. Interventions to inform the general public about ADHD may be important for reducing the stigma and discrimination associated with this disorder in adults. 
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2.
  • Inagawa, Takuma, et al. (författare)
  • A Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Multisession Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Cognition in Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience. - : Sage Publications. - 1550-0594 .- 2169-5202. ; 50:4, s. 273-282
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There have been increasing efforts to investigate the effects of neuromodulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), on cognitive impairment in dementia and related conditions. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we assessed the efficacy of multisession anodal tDCS compared with sham stimulation for improving global cognition and specific cognitive domains in both Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Eight articles meeting the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis were selected. Five studies used the Mini-Mental State Examination to examine mild cognitive impairment and dementia. In a fixed-effect model, there was a mean difference in the change score of -0.13 points. Three trials for dementia using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognition showed a mean difference of -0.53 points. At present, there is a lack of clear evidence concerning the efficacy of multisession anodal tDCS due to the small number of studies and different measures used. This underscores the need for further investigations using larger samples and common outcome measures.
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3.
  • Stickley, Andrew, et al. (författare)
  • Childhood neglect and suicidal behavior : Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect. - : Elsevier. - 0145-2134 .- 1873-7757. ; 103
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Although child neglect is common, there has been comparatively little research on it or its specific forms and their effects on mental health in adulthood.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the association between exposure to different forms of childhood neglect and lifetime suicidal behavior among a nationally representative sample of adults in the U.S. general population.METHODS: Data were analyzed from 5665 adults that were drawn from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Information was obtained on 'care', 'supervisory' and 'medical' neglect in childhood and lifetime suicidal behavior (ideation, plan, attempt). Lifetime psychiatric disorders were based on the World Mental Health - Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations.RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, any neglect was associated with significantly increased odds for all forms of suicidal behavior (suicidal ideation, odds ratio [OR]: 1.80, 95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.42-2.29; plan, OR: 2.27, 95 % CI: 1.78-2.91; attempt, OR: 2.05, 95 % CI: 1.63-2.59, all p < 0.001). In unadjusted analyses all individual forms of neglect were significantly associated with all forms of suicidal behavior. However, when all forms of neglect were included together in the fully adjusted models, care neglect was no longer significantly associated with any form of suicidal behavior.CONCLUSION: Different forms of childhood neglect are associated with suicidal behavior in adults independent of common mental disorders. Future studies should focus on childhood neglect subtypes in order to better understand the effects of neglect on adult mental health.
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4.
  • Stickley, Andrew, et al. (författare)
  • Childhood physical neglect and psychotic experiences : Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Early Intervention in Psychiatry. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1751-7885 .- 1751-7893. ; 15:2, s. 256-262
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: Childhood adversities have been linked to an increased risk for psychosis. However, as yet, there has been comparatively little research on the effects of neglect. This study examined the association between childhood physical neglect and psychotic experiences (PEs) in a general population sample.METHODS: Data were analysed from 2308 individuals collected during the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Information on lifetime PEs was collected with the WHO-CIDI Psychosis Screen. Respondents also reported on five forms of childhood neglect (went hungry, went without necessities, went unsupervised, lacked medical care, chores too difficult/dangerous). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations.RESULTS: In models adjusted for sociodemographic and psychiatric disorder variables, aggregated physical neglect scores (continuous/dichotomized) were associated with significantly increased odds for any lifetime PEs. All individual forms of neglect except went without necessities (odds ratio [OR]: 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.98-1.50) were significantly associated with PEs with ORs ranging from 1.28 (95% CI: 1.08-1.51, went unsupervised) to 1.53 (95% CI: 1.19-1.97, went without medical care). In models that were further adjusted for co-occurring forms of neglect and childhood physical abuse, doing chores that were too difficult/dangerous continued to be associated with significantly increased odds for PEs (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.03-1.61).CONCLUSIONS: Childhood physical neglect is associated with significantly increased odds for PEs in the general population. Screening for childhood adversities and PEs among potential patients may be important for the early detection of individuals at high risk for psychosis, as well as for formulating comprehensive and effective treatment plans.
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5.
  • Stickley, Andrew, et al. (författare)
  • Perceived discrimination and psychological distress in nine countries of the former Soviet Union
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Social Psychiatry. - : Sage Publications. - 0020-7640 .- 1741-2854. ; 55:2, s. 158-168
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:: Perceived discrimination has been linked to worse mental health. However, little is known about this association in the countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU).AIM:: To address this deficit, this study examined the link between perceived discrimination and psychological distress in nine fSU countries.METHODS:: Data were analyzed from 18,000 adults aged ⩾18 years obtained during the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) survey undertaken in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine in 2010 and 2011. A single-item measure was used to assess discrimination. Psychological distress was measured with a 12-item scale. Logistic regression analysis and meta-analysis were used to examine associations.RESULTS:: After adjusting for all potential confounders, when using none/little discrimination as the reference category, moderate and strong discrimination were associated with significantly increased odds for psychological distress in the total population and in men and women separately with odds ratios ranging from 1.93 to 2.64. Meta-analysis based on country-wise estimates showed that the level of between-country heterogeneity was negligible.CONCLUSION:: Perceived discrimination is associated with psychological distress in countries throughout the fSU. Quantitative and qualitative research is now warranted to determine its specific forms and impact on population health in individual fSU countries.
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6.
  • Stickley, Andrew, et al. (författare)
  • Perceived discrimination and psychotic experiences in the English general population
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: European psychiatry. - : Elsevier. - 0924-9338 .- 1778-3585. ; 62, s. 50-57
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Perceived discrimination has been linked to psychotic experiences (PEs). However, as yet, information is lacking on the relationship between different forms of discrimination and PEs. This study examined this association in the English general population.METHODS: Nationally representative, cross-sectional data were analyzed from 7363 adults aged 16 and above that came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey, 2007. Self-reported information was obtained on six forms of discrimination (ethnicity, sex, religious beliefs, age, physical health problems/disability, sexual orientation), while PEs were assessed with the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations.RESULTS: In a fully adjusted logistic regression analysis, any discrimination was significantly associated with PEs (odds ratio [OR]: 2.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.75-3.48). All individual forms of discrimination were significantly associated with PEs except sexual orientation. Multiple forms of discrimination were associated with higher odds for PEs in a monotonic fashion with those experiencing ≥ 3 forms of discrimination having over 5 times higher odds for any PE. In addition, experiencing any discrimination was associated with significantly increased odds for all individual forms of PE with ORs ranging from 2.16 (95%CI: 1.40-3.35) for strange experience to 3.36 (95%CI: 1.47-7.76) for auditory hallucination.CONCLUSION: Different forms of discrimination are associated with PEs in the general population. As discrimination is common at the societal level, this highlights the importance of public policy and evidence-based interventions to reduce discrimination and improve population mental health.
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7.
  • Stickley, Andrew, et al. (författare)
  • Psychotic experiences and accidents, injuries, and poisonings among adults in the United States
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Psychiatry Research. - : Elsevier. - 0165-1781 .- 1872-7123. ; 282
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Psychotic experiences (PEs) have been linked to an increased risk for accidents and injuries. However, this association remains little researched in many countries. To address this research gap, the current study used cross-sectional data from the United States to examine the association between PEs and accidents, injuries, and poisoning in a general population sample. Data were analyzed from 2274 individuals who completed the psychosis screen as part of the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Information was obtained on PEs (hallucinations and delusions) and the experience of past 12-month accidents, injuries, and poisoning. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association while adjusting for demographic variables and common mental disorders (CMDs). In a fully adjusted model past 12-month PEs were associated with almost three times higher odds for reporting accidents, injuries, and poisoning (odds ratio [OR]: 2.97, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-7.74). The results of this study indicate that PEs are associated with higher odds for accidents and injuries among adults in the United States. Research is now needed to determine the direction of this association and the factors linked to it.
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