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Sökning: WFRF:(Nestor Peter J.)

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  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy in higher eukaryotes
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8627 .- 1554-8635. ; 4:2, s. 151-175
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,1 and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.2,3 There are many useful and convenient methods that can be used to monitor macroautophagy in yeast, but relatively few in other model systems, and there is much confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure macroautophagy in higher eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers of autophagosomes versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway; thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from fully functional autophagy that includes delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of the methods that can be used by investigators who are attempting to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as by reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that investigate these processes. This set of guidelines is not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to verify an autophagic response.
  • Smith, Bradley N., et al. (författare)
  • The C9ORF72 expansion mutation is a common cause of ALS+/-FTD in Europe and has a single founder
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - London : Nature Publishing Group. - 1018-4813 .- 1476-5438. ; 21:1, s. 102-108
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A massive hexanucleotide repeat expansion mutation (HREM) in C9ORF72 has recently been linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Here we describe the frequency, origin and stability of this mutation in ALS+/-FTD from five European cohorts (total n = 1347). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms defining the risk haplotype in linked kindreds were genotyped in cases (n = 434) and controls (n = 856). Haplotypes were analysed using PLINK and aged using DMLE+. In a London clinic cohort, the HREM was the most common mutation in familial ALS+/-FTD: C9ORF72 29/112 (26%), SOD1 27/112 (24%), TARDBP 1/112 (1%) and FUS 4/112 (4%) and detected in 13/216 (6%) of unselected sporadic ALS cases but was rare in controls (3/856, 0.3%). HREM prevalence was high for familial ALS+/-FTD throughout Europe: Belgium 19/22 (86%), Sweden 30/41 (73%), the Netherlands 10/27 (37%) and Italy 4/20 (20%). The HREM did not affect the age at onset or survival of ALS patients. Haplotype analysis identified a common founder in all 137 HREM carriers that arose around 6300 years ago. The haplotype from which the HREM arose is intrinsically unstable with an increased number of repeats (average 8, compared with 2 for controls, P<10(-8)). We conclude that the HREM has a single founder and is the most common mutation in familial and sporadic ALS in Europe.
  • Gustafsson, Mika, et al. (författare)
  • Modules, networks and systems medicine for understanding disease and aiding diagnosis
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Genome Medicine. - : BioMed Central. - 1756-994X .- 1756-994X. ; 6:82
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Many common diseases, such as asthma, diabetes or obesity, involve altered interactions between thousands of genes. High-throughput techniques (omics) allow identification of such genes and their products, but functional understanding is a formidable challenge. Network-based analyses of omics data have identified modules of disease-associated genes that have been used to obtain both a systems level and a molecular understanding of disease mechanisms. For example, in allergy a module was used to find a novel candidate gene that was validated by functional and clinical studies. Such analyses play important roles in systems medicine. This is an emerging discipline that aims to gain a translational understanding of the complex mechanisms underlying common diseases. In this review, we will explain and provide examples of how network-based analyses of omics data, in combination with functional and clinical studies, are aiding our understanding of disease, as well as helping to prioritize diagnostic markers or therapeutic candidate genes. Such analyses involve significant problems and limitations, which will be discussed. We also highlight the steps needed for clinical implementation.
  • Kenny, Kate P, et al. (författare)
  • What are the important outcomes in traumatic dental injuries? An international approach to the development of a core outcome set.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Dental Traumatology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1600-4469 .- 1600-9657. ; 34:1, s. 4-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/Aims: There are numerous treatment options following traumatic dental injury (TDI). Systematic reviews of different treatments are challenging owing to the diversity of outcomes reported between clinical studies. This issue could be addressed through the development and implementation of a agreed and standardized collection of outcomes known as a core outcome set (COS). The aim of this study was to develop a COS for TDI in children and adults. The secondary aim was to establish what, how, when and by whom these outcomes should be measured. Materials and Method: The project was registered with Core Outcomes Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET). A web‐based survey was developed to capture the opinions of dentists globally as to which outcomes should be recorded. A list of outcomes was entered into a Delphi Survey and scored by an Expert Working Group (EWG). The scoring was repeated, followed by conference calls to discuss, refine and finalize the COS. The EWG split into small groups of subject‐specific experts to determine how, when and by whom each outcome would be measured. Results: The questionnaire was completed by 1476 dentists. The EWG identified 13 core outcomes to be recorded for all TDI's. An additional 10 injury‐specific outcomes were identified. A table has been produced for each outcome detailing what, when, and how each outcome should be recorded. Conclusions: A robust consensus process was used to develop an international COS for TDI in children and adults. This includes both generic and injury‐specific outcomes across all identified domains.
  • Spotorno, Nicola, et al. (författare)
  • Diffusion tensor MRI to distinguish progressive supranuclear palsy from a-synucleinopathies
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Radiology. - : Radiological Society of North America. - 0033-8419. ; 293:3, s. 646-653
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The differential diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Lewy body disorders, which include Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies, is often challenging due to the overlapping symptoms. Purpose: To develop a diagnostic tool based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to distinguish between PSP and Lewy body disorders at the individual-subject level. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, skeletonized DTI metrics were extracted from two independent data sets: the discovery cohort from the Swedish BioFINDER study and the validation cohort from the Penn Frontotemporal Degeneration Center (data collected between 2010 and 2018). Based on previous neuroimaging studies and neuropathologic evidence, a combination of regions hypothesized to be sensitive to pathologic features of PSP were identified (ie, the superior cerebellar peduncle and frontal white matter) and fractional anisotropy (FA) was used to compute an FA score for each individual. Classification performances were assessed by using logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: In the discovery cohort, 16 patients with PSP (mean age 6 standard deviation, 73 years 6 5; eight women, eight men), 34 patients with Lewy body disorders (mean age, 71 years 6 6; 14 women, 20 men), and 44 healthy control participants (mean age, 66 years 6 8; 26 women, 18 men) were evaluated. The FA score distinguished between clinical PSP and Lewy body disorders with an area under the curve of 0.97 6 0.04, a specificity of 91% (31 of 34), and a sensitivity of 94% (15 of 16). In the validation cohort, 34 patients with PSP (69 years 6 7; 22 women, 12 men), 25 patients with Lewy body disorders (70 years 6 7; nine women, 16 men), and 32 healthy control participants (64 years 6 7; 22 women, 10 men) were evaluated. The accuracy of the FA score was confirmed (area under the curve, 0.96 6 0.04; specificity, 96% [24 of 25]; and sensitivity, 85% [29 of 34]). Conclusion: These cross-validated findings lay the foundation for a clinical test to distinguish progressive supranuclear palsy from Lewy body disorders.
  • Höglinger, Günter U, et al. (författare)
  • Clinical diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy : The movement disorder society criteria
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Movement Disorders. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0885-3185. ; 32:6, s. 853-864
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: PSP is a neuropathologically defined disease entity. Clinical diagnostic criteria, published in 1996 by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke/Society for PSP, have excellent specificity, but their sensitivity is limited for variant PSP syndromes with presentations other than Richardson's syndrome. Objective: We aimed to provide an evidence- and consensus-based revision of the clinical diagnostic criteria for PSP. Methods: We searched the PubMed, Cochrane, Medline, and PSYCInfo databases for articles published in English since 1996, using postmortem diagnosis or highly specific clinical criteria as the diagnostic standard. Second, we generated retrospective standardized clinical data from patients with autopsy-confirmed PSP and control diseases. On this basis, diagnostic criteria were drafted, optimized in two modified Delphi evaluations, submitted to structured discussions with consensus procedures during a 2-day meeting, and refined in three further Delphi rounds. Results: Defined clinical, imaging, laboratory, and genetic findings serve as mandatory basic features, mandatory exclusion criteria, or context-dependent exclusion criteria. We identified four functional domains (ocular motor dysfunction, postural instability, akinesia, and cognitive dysfunction) as clinical predictors of PSP. Within each of these domains, we propose three clinical features that contribute different levels of diagnostic certainty. Specific combinations of these features define the diagnostic criteria, stratified by three degrees of diagnostic certainty (probable PSP, possible PSP, and suggestive of PSP). Clinical clues and imaging findings represent supportive features. Conclusions: Here, we present new criteria aimed to optimize early, sensitive, and specific clinical diagnosis of PSP on the basis of currently available evidence.
  • Kolbeck, Roland, et al. (författare)
  • MEDI-563, a humanized anti-IL-5 receptor alpha mAb with enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity function
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - : Elsevier. - 1097-6825. ; 125:6, s. 1344-1353
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Peripheral blood eosinophilia and lung mucosal eosinophil infiltration are hallmarks of bronchial asthma. IL-5 is a critical cytokine for eosinophil maturation, survival, and mobilization. Attempts to target eosinophils for the treatment of asthma by means of IL-5 neutralization have only resulted in partial removal of airway eosinophils, and this warrants the development of more effective interventions to further explore the role of eosinophils in the clinical expression of asthma. Objective: We sought to develop a novel humanized anti IL-5 receptor alpha (IL-5R alpha) mAb with enhanced effector function (MEDI-563) that potently depletes circulating and tissue. resident eosinophils and basophils for the treatment of asthma. Methods: We used surface plasmon resonance to determine the binding affinity of MEDI-563 to Fc gamma RIII alpha. Primary human eosinophils and basophils were used to demonstrate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. The binding epitope of MEDI-563 on IL-5R alpha was determined by using site-directed mutagenesis. The consequences of MEDI-563 administration on peripheral blood and bone marrow eosinophil depletion was investigated in nonhuman primates. Results: MEDI-563 binds to an epitope on IL-5R alpha that is in close proximity to the IL-5 binding site, and it inhibits IL-5 mediated cell proliferation. MEDI-563 potently induces antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity of both eosinophils (half-maximal effective concentration = 0.9 pmol/L) and basophils (half-maximal effective concentration = 0.5 pmol/L) in vitro. In nonhuman primates MEDI-563 depletes blood eosinophils and eosinophil precursors in the bone marrow. Conclusions: MEDI-563 might provide a novel approach for the treatment of asthma through active antibody-dependent cell-mediated depletion of eosinophils and basophils rather than through passive removal of IL-5. (J Allergy Clin Immunol 2010;125:1344-53.)
  • Respondek, Gesine, et al. (författare)
  • Which ante mortem clinical features predict progressive supranuclear palsy pathology?
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Movement Disorders. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0885-3185. ; 32:7, s. 995-1005
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neuropathologically defined disease presenting with a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes. Objective: To identify clinical features and investigations that predict or exclude PSP pathology during life, aiming at an optimization of the clinical diagnostic criteria for PSP. Methods: We performed a systematic review of the literature published since 1996 to identify clinical features and investigations that may predict or exclude PSP pathology. We then extracted standardized data from clinical charts of patients with pathologically diagnosed PSP and relevant disease controls and calculated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of key clinical features for PSP in this cohort. Results: Of 4166 articles identified by the database inquiry, 269 met predefined standards. The literature review identified clinical features predictive of PSP, including features of the following 4 functional domains: ocular motor dysfunction, postural instability, akinesia, and cognitive dysfunction. No biomarker or genetic feature was found reliably validated to predict definite PSP. High-quality original natural history data were available from 206 patients with pathologically diagnosed PSP and from 231 pathologically diagnosed disease controls (54 corticobasal degeneration, 51 multiple system atrophy with predominant parkinsonism, 53 Parkinson's disease, 73 behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia). We identified clinical features that predicted PSP pathology, including phenotypes other than Richardson's syndrome, with varying sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions: Our results highlight the clinical variability of PSP and the high prevalence of phenotypes other than Richardson's syndrome. The features of variant phenotypes with high specificity and sensitivity should serve to optimize clinical diagnosis of PSP.
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  • Resultat 1-8 av 8

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