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  • Phu, Vu Dinh, et al. (författare)
  • Ventilator-associated respiratory infection in a resource-restricted setting: impact and etiology
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of intensive care. - BioMed Central. - 2052-0492. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ventilator-associated respiratory infection (VARI) is a significant problem in resource-restricted intensive care units (ICUs), but differences in casemix and etiology means VARI in resource-restricted ICUs may be different from that found in resource-rich units. Data from these settings are vital to plan preventative interventions and assess their cost-effectiveness, but few are available.
  • Nguyen Van, Toan, et al. (författare)
  • Fabrication of highly sensitive and selective H2 gas sensor based on SnO2 thin film sensitized with microsized Pd islands
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials. - 0304-3894 .- 1873-3336. ; 301, s. 433-442
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ultrasensitive and selective hydrogen gas sensor is vital component in safe use of hydrogen that requires a detection and alarm of leakage. Herein, we fabricated a H2 sensing devices by adopting a simple design of planar–type structure sensor in which the heater, electrode, and sensing layer were patterned on the front side of a silicon wafer. The SnO2 thin film–based sensors that were sensitized with microsized Pd islands were fabricated at a wafer–scale by using a sputtering system combined with micro–electronic techniques. The thicknesses of SnO2 thin film and microsized Pd islands were optimized to maximize the sensing performance of the devices. The optimized sensor could be used for monitoring hydrogen gas at low concentrations of 25–250 ppm, with a linear dependence to H2 concentration and a fast response and recovery time. The sensor also showed excellent selectivity for monitoring H2 among other gases, such as CO, NH3, and LPG, and satisfactory characteristics for ensuring safety in handling hydrogen. The hydrogen sensing characteristics of the sensors sensitized with Pt and Au islands were also studied to clarify the sensing mechanisms.
  • Li, Jing-Rebecca, et al. (författare)
  • SpinDoctor: a Matlab toolbox for diffusion MRI simulation
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: NeuroImage. - 1053-8119.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The complex transverse water proton magnetization subject to diffusion-encoding magnetic field gradient pulses in a heterogeneous medium can be modeled by the multiple compartment Bloch-Torrey partial differential equation (BTPDE). A mathematical model for the time-dependent apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), called the H-ADC model, was obtained recently using homogenization techniques on the BTPDE. Under the assumption of negligible water exchange between compartments, the H-ADC model produces the ADC of a diffusion medium from the solution of a diffusion equation (DE) subject to a time-dependent Neumann boundary condition. This paper describes a publicly available Matlab toolbox called SpinDoctor that can be used 1) to solve the BTPDE to obtain the dMRI signal (the toolbox provides a way of robustly fitting the dMRI signal to obtain the fitted ADC); 2) to solve the DE of the H-ADC model to obtain the ADC; 3) a short-time approximation formula for the ADC is also included in the toolbox for comparison with the simulated ADC. The PDEs are solved by P 1 finite elements combined with built-in Matlab routines for solving ordinary differential equations. The finite element mesh generation is performed using an external package called Tetgen that is included in the toolbox. SpinDoctor provides built-in options of including 1) spherical cells with a nucleus; 2) cylindrical cells with a myelin layer; 3) an extra-cellular space (ECS) enclosed either a) in a box or b) in a tight wrapping around the cells; 4) deformation of canonical cells by bending and twisting. 5) permeable membranes for the BT-PDE (the H-ADC assumes negligible permeability). Built-in diffusion-encoding pulse sequences include the Pulsed Gradient Spin Echo and the Oscillating Gradient Spin Echo.
  • Hoang-Minh, Thao, et al. (författare)
  • Use of TEM-EDX for structural formula identification of clay minerals a case study of Di Linh bentonite, Vietnam
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of applied crystallography. - International Union of Crystallography. - 0021-8898. ; 52:1, s. 133-147
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Transmission electron microscopy linked with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDX) was applied to characterize mineralogical signals ofweathering processes in the Di Linh bentonite deposit (Vietnam) and to visualize the effects of Na activation on the smectitic phases. Modelling of X ray diffraction patterns (oriented mount) was applied in order to refine the computed structural formula. X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) methods were also applied to verify the TEM-EDX results. An Excel-based routine has been developed in this research to allow fast computation of structural formulae and classification of the investigated clay particles. This routine supports the acquirement of 100 300 TEM-EDX analyses as a representative set of individual particles for each sample. The Excel-based routine involves end members of different clay mineral groups and interstratifications with two or three members (e.g. illite smectite interstratifications – IS-ml; dioctahedral vermiculite–smectite interstratifications – diVS-ml; and kaolinite–montmorillonite–dioctahedral vermiculite interstratifications – KSV-ml). The routine is now freely available. According to the identification procedure, the <2 mm fraction of the Di Linh bentonite (Vietnam) is composed mainly of K- and charge-deficient illite smectite interstratifications (or diVS-ml): montmorillonite-rich randomly ordered (R0) type and illite-rich regularly ordered (R1) type. Additionally, Fe-poor KSV-ml was identified.Industrial Na activation of the Di Linh bentonite resulted in an increase of theR1 diVS-ml portion and dissolution of a large part of the smectite-rich phases.The TEM-EDX approach also gave analytical proof of a sedimentary processfor Di Linh smectite. The parent muscovite was altered in two different environments: (i) K-leaching and layer-wise alteration into kaolinite (weathering), and (ii) further edge-controlled alteration of mica into lath-like montmorillonite particles associated with a dissolution of kaolinite layers from the former kaolinite–mica intergrowths by heat impact (basalt flow).
  • Minh, Thao Hoang-, et al. (författare)
  • Mineralogical Characterization of Di Linh Bentonite, Vietnam A Methodological Approach of X-ray Diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of 13th International Symposium on Mineral Exploration (ISME-XIII) : Toward Sustainable Society with Natural Resources - Frontiers in Earth Resources Technologies and Environmental Conservation. - Hanoi : Vietnam National University Press, Hanoi. - 978-604-62-1540-0 ; s. 143-148
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Vietnam has decided to establish nuclear power as further energy option. In order to develop a Vietnamese reference bentonite as potential barrier in a final repository for high radioactive waste, a detailed mineralogical investigation of Di Linh bentonite (Lam Dong province), lacustrine clay, was carried out by different methods especially transmission electron microscopy (TEM) linked with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). From a sample homogenized from 5 tones of the bentonite, mineral formulae of clay particles was calculated The calculation also focuses on randomly interstratifications of two and three members. The fraction <2 μm of Di Linh bentonite is composed mainly by montmorillonite (Ca0.06Mg0.03Na0.09K0.03Al1.39Fe0.25Mg0.26(OH)2 Si3.96Al0.04O10) and regular ordering (R1) illite-smectite interstratifications with K- and charge-deficiency (Ca0.04Mg0.07Na0.18K0.16Al1.76Fe0.08Mg0.16(OH)2Si3.62Al0.38O10). Additionally, Fe-poor kaolinite-smectite-vermiculite interstratifications and trace of Fe-rich chloritesmectite- vermiculite interstatifications were identified. TEM-investigations showed analytical proofs of the sedimentary character of smectite formation in the Di Linh deposit. Parent muscovite was weathered in several steps in two different environments: (i) K-leaching and layer-wise alteration into kaolinite; (ii) further edge- controlled alteration of mica into lathlike montmorillonite particles under dissolution of kaolinite layers from former kaolinite-mica intergrowths. Mineralogical composition of the Di Linh bentonite with mainly montmorillonite and illite-rich illite-smectite interstratifications shows that the Di Linh bentonite can be a suitable barrier candidate in final repositories.
  • Tran, Dien M., et al. (författare)
  • High prevalence of colonisation with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae among patients admitted to Vietnamese hospitals : Risk factors and burden of disease
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Infection. - Saunders Elsevier. - 0163-4453. ; 79:2, s. 115-122
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundCarbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is an increasing problem worldwide, but particularly problematic in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) due to limitations of resources for surveillance of CRE and infection prevention and control (IPC).MethodsA point prevalence survey (PPS) with screening for colonisation with CRE was conducted on 2233 patients admitted to neonatal, paediatric and adult care at 12 Vietnamese hospitals located in northern, central and southern Vietnam during 2017 and 2018. CRE colonisation was determined by culturing of faecal specimens on selective agar for CRE. Risk factors for CRE colonisation were evaluated. A CRE admission and discharge screening sub-study was conducted among one of the most vulnerable patient groups; infants treated at an 80-bed Neonatal ICU from March throughout June 2017 to assess CRE acquisition, hospital-acquired infection (HAI) and treatment outcome.ResultsA total of 1165 (52%) patients were colonised with CRE, most commonly Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=805), Escherichia coli (n=682) and Enterobacter spp. (n=61). Duration of hospital stay, HAI and treatment with a carbapenem were independent risk factors for CRE colonisation. The PPS showed that the prevalence of CRE colonisation increased on average 4.2 % per day and mean CRE colonisation rates increased from 13% on the day of admission to 89% at day 15 of hospital stay. At the NICU CRE colonisation increased from 32% at admission to 87% at discharge, mortality was significantly associated (OR 5•5, P &lt; 0•01) with CRE colonisation and HAI on admission.ConclusionThese data indicate that there is an epidemic spread of CRE in Vietnamese hospitals with rapid transmission to hospitalised patients.
  • Bengtsson, Linus, et al. (författare)
  • Implementation of Web-Based Respondent-Driven Sampling among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Vietnam
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 7:11, s. e49417
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Lack of representative data about hidden groups, like men who have sex with men (MSM), hinders an evidence-based response to the HIV epidemics. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was developed to overcome sampling challenges in studies of populations like MSM for which sampling frames are absent. Internet-based RDS (webRDS) can potentially circumvent limitations of the original RDS method. We aimed to implement and evaluate webRDS among a hidden population. Methods and Design: criteria were men, aged 18 and above, who had ever had sex with another man and were living in Vietnam. Participants were invited by an MSM friend, logged in, and answered a survey. Participants could recruit up to four MSM friends. We evaluated the system by its success in generating sustained recruitment and the degree to which the sample compositions stabilized with increasing sample size. Results: Twenty starting participants generated 676 participants over 24 recruitment waves. Analyses did not show evidence of bias due to ineligible participation. Estimated mean age was 22 years and 82% came from the two large metropolitan areas. 32 out of 63 provinces were represented. The median number of sexual partners during the last six months was two. The sample composition stabilized well for 16 out of 17 variables. Conclusion: Results indicate that webRDS could be implemented at a low cost among Internet-using MSM in Vietnam. WebRDS may be a promising method for sampling of Internet-using MSM and other hidden groups.
  • Chu, Dinh-Toi, et al. (författare)
  • An update on obesity : Mental consequences and psychological interventions
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Diabetes & Metabolic syndrome : clinical Research & Reviews. - Elsevier. - 1871-4021 .- 1878-0334. ; 13:1, s. 155-160
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Besides physical consequences, obesity has negative psychological effects, thereby lowering human life quality. Major psychological consequences of this disorder includes depression, impaired body image, low self-esteem, eating disorders, stress and poor quality of life, which are correlated with age and gender. Physical interventions, mainly diet control and energy balance, have been widely applied to treat obesity; and some psychological interventions including behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and hypnotherapy have showed some effects on obesity treatment. Other psychological therapies, such as relaxation and psychodynamic therapies, are paid less attention. This review aims to update scientific evidence regarding the mental consequences and psychological interventions for obesity. (c) 2018 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Culpepper,, WJ, et al. (författare)
  • Global, regional, and national burden of neurological disorders, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. Neurology. - 1474-4465. ; 18:5, s. 459-480
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurological disorders are increasingly recognised as major causes of death and disability worldwide. The aim of this analysis from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 is to provide the most comprehensive and up-to-date estimates of the global, regional, and national burden from neurological disorders.We estimated prevalence, incidence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs; the sum of years of life lost [YLLs] and years lived with disability [YLDs]) by age and sex for 15 neurological disorder categories (tetanus, meningitis, encephalitis, stroke, brain and other CNS cancers, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, motor neuron diseases, idiopathic epilepsy, migraine, tension-type headache, and a residual category for other less common neurological disorders) in 195 countries from 1990 to 2016. DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, was the main method of estimation of prevalence and incidence, and the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) was used for mortality estimation. We quantified the contribution of 84 risks and combinations of risk to the disease estimates for the 15 neurological disorder categories using the GBD comparative risk assessment approach.Globally, in 2016, neurological disorders were the leading cause of DALYs (276 million [95% UI 247-308]) and second leading cause of deaths (9·0 million [8·8-9·4]). The absolute number of deaths and DALYs from all neurological disorders combined increased (deaths by 39% [34-44] and DALYs by 15% [9-21]) whereas their age-standardised rates decreased (deaths by 28% [26-30] and DALYs by 27% [24-31]) between 1990 and 2016. The only neurological disorders that had a decrease in rates and absolute numbers of deaths and DALYs were tetanus, meningitis, and encephalitis. The four largest contributors of neurological DALYs were stroke (42·2% [38·6-46·1]), migraine (16·3% [11·7-20·8]), Alzheimer's and other dementias (10·4% [9·0-12·1]), and meningitis (7·9% [6·6-10·4]). For the combined neurological disorders, age-standardised DALY rates were significantly higher in males than in females (male-to-female ratio 1·12 [1·05-1·20]), but migraine, multiple sclerosis, and tension-type headache were more common and caused more burden in females, with male-to-female ratios of less than 0·7. The 84 risks quantified in GBD explain less than 10% of neurological disorder DALY burdens, except stroke, for which 88·8% (86·5-90·9) of DALYs are attributable to risk factors, and to a lesser extent Alzheimer's disease and other dementias (22·3% [11·8-35·1] of DALYs are risk attributable) and idiopathic epilepsy (14·1% [10·8-17·5] of DALYs are risk attributable).Globally, the burden of neurological disorders, as measured by the absolute number of DALYs, continues to increase. As populations are growing and ageing, and the prevalence of major disabling neurological disorders steeply increases with age, governments will face increasing demand for treatment, rehabilitation, and support services for neurological disorders. The scarcity of established modifiable risks for most of the neurological burden demonstrates that new knowledge is required to develop effective prevention and treatment strategies.Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
  • Ehret, Georg B., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836. ; 478:7367, s. 103-109
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Blood pressure is a heritable trait(1) influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (>= 140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or >= 90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure)(2). Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events(3). This genome-wide association study of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which used a multi-stage design in 200,000 individuals of European descent, identified sixteen novel loci: six of these loci contain genes previously known or suspected to regulate blood pressure (GUCY1A3-GUCY1B3, NPR3-C5orf23, ADM, FURIN-FES, GOSR2, GNAS-EDN3); the other ten provide new clues to blood pressure physiology. A genetic risk score based on 29 genome-wide significant variants was associated with hypertension, left ventricular wall thickness, stroke and coronary artery disease, but not kidney disease or kidney function. We also observed associations with blood pressure in East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry individuals. Our findings provide new insights into the genetics and biology of blood pressure, and suggest potential novel therapeutic pathways for cardiovascular disease prevention.
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