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Sökning: WFRF:(Nguyen Tuan V)

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  • Tran, Dien M., et al. (författare)
  • High prevalence of colonisation with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae among patients admitted to Vietnamese hospitals : Risk factors and burden of disease
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Infection. - : Saunders Elsevier. - 0163-4453 .- 1532-2742. ; 79:2, s. 115-122
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundCarbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is an increasing problem worldwide, but particularly problematic in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) due to limitations of resources for surveillance of CRE and infection prevention and control (IPC).MethodsA point prevalence survey (PPS) with screening for colonisation with CRE was conducted on 2233 patients admitted to neonatal, paediatric and adult care at 12 Vietnamese hospitals located in northern, central and southern Vietnam during 2017 and 2018. CRE colonisation was determined by culturing of faecal specimens on selective agar for CRE. Risk factors for CRE colonisation were evaluated. A CRE admission and discharge screening sub-study was conducted among one of the most vulnerable patient groups; infants treated at an 80-bed Neonatal ICU from March throughout June 2017 to assess CRE acquisition, hospital-acquired infection (HAI) and treatment outcome.ResultsA total of 1165 (52%) patients were colonised with CRE, most commonly Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=805), Escherichia coli (n=682) and Enterobacter spp. (n=61). Duration of hospital stay, HAI and treatment with a carbapenem were independent risk factors for CRE colonisation. The PPS showed that the prevalence of CRE colonisation increased on average 4.2 % per day and mean CRE colonisation rates increased from 13% on the day of admission to 89% at day 15 of hospital stay. At the NICU CRE colonisation increased from 32% at admission to 87% at discharge, mortality was significantly associated (OR 5•5, P < 0•01) with CRE colonisation and HAI on admission.ConclusionThese data indicate that there is an epidemic spread of CRE in Vietnamese hospitals with rapid transmission to hospitalised patients.
  • Estrada, Karol, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 56 bone mineral density loci and reveals 14 loci associated with risk of fracture.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 44:5, s. 491-501
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bone mineral density (BMD) is the most widely used predictor of fracture risk. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, including 17 genome-wide association studies and 32,961 individuals of European and east Asian ancestry. We tested the top BMD-associated markers for replication in 50,933 independent subjects and for association with risk of low-trauma fracture in 31,016 individuals with a history of fracture (cases) and 102,444 controls. We identified 56 loci (32 new) associated with BMD at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)). Several of these factors cluster within the RANK-RANKL-OPG, mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, endochondral ossification and Wnt signaling pathways. However, we also discovered loci that were localized to genes not known to have a role in bone biology. Fourteen BMD-associated loci were also associated with fracture risk (P < 5 × 10(-4), Bonferroni corrected), of which six reached P < 5 × 10(-8), including at 18p11.21 (FAM210A), 7q21.3 (SLC25A13), 11q13.2 (LRP5), 4q22.1 (MEPE), 2p16.2 (SPTBN1) and 10q21.1 (DKK1). These findings shed light on the genetic architecture and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying BMD variation and fracture susceptibility.
  • Zheng, Hou-Feng, et al. (författare)
  • Whole-genome sequencing identifies EN1 as a determinant of bone density and fracture.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 526:7571, s. 112-117
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The extent to which low-frequency (minor allele frequency (MAF) between 1-5%) and rare (MAF ≤ 1%) variants contribute to complex traits and disease in the general population is mainly unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD) is highly heritable, a major predictor of osteoporotic fractures, and has been previously associated with common genetic variants, as well as rare, population-specific, coding variants. Here we identify novel non-coding genetic variants with large effects on BMD (ntotal = 53,236) and fracture (ntotal = 508,253) in individuals of European ancestry from the general population. Associations for BMD were derived from whole-genome sequencing (n = 2,882 from UK10K (ref. 10); a population-based genome sequencing consortium), whole-exome sequencing (n = 3,549), deep imputation of genotyped samples using a combined UK10K/1000 Genomes reference panel (n = 26,534), and de novo replication genotyping (n = 20,271). We identified a low-frequency non-coding variant near a novel locus, EN1, with an effect size fourfold larger than the mean of previously reported common variants for lumbar spine BMD (rs11692564(T), MAF = 1.6%, replication effect size = +0.20 s.d., Pmeta = 2 × 10(-14)), which was also associated with a decreased risk of fracture (odds ratio = 0.85; P = 2 × 10(-11); ncases = 98,742 and ncontrols = 409,511). Using an En1(cre/flox) mouse model, we observed that conditional loss of En1 results in low bone mass, probably as a consequence of high bone turnover. We also identified a novel low-frequency non-coding variant with large effects on BMD near WNT16 (rs148771817(T), MAF = 1.2%, replication effect size = +0.41 s.d., Pmeta = 1 × 10(-11)). In general, there was an excess of association signals arising from deleterious coding and conserved non-coding variants. These findings provide evidence that low-frequency non-coding variants have large effects on BMD and fracture, thereby providing rationale for whole-genome sequencing and improved imputation reference panels to study the genetic architecture of complex traits and disease in the general population.
  • Ahlborg, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Incidence and risk factors for low trauma fractures in men with prostate cancer.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Bone. - : Elsevier. - 1873-2763. ; 43, s. 556-560
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Men with prostate cancer on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) are at increased risk of bone loss. The present study sought to determine the incidence of low trauma fracture in men with prostate cancer (PC), and to characterize the association between potential risk factors and fracture risk in these men. METHODS: In the prospective, population-based Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study, 43 men aged 60+ years reported a history of prostate cancer; among whom, 22 men received ADT, and 21 men did not. Low-trauma fractures were ascertained between 1989 and 2004. Bone mineral density at the femoral neck (FNBMD), postural instability and lifestyle factors were obtained at baseline. RESULTS: Men with prostate cancer had significantly higher lumbar spine BMD than those without cancer (p=0.013). During the follow-up period, 15 men with prostate cancer had sustained a fracture, yielding the age-adjusted incidence of fracture among this group was 31.6 per 1000 person-years, which was greater than those without cancer (22.1 per 1000 person-years). The age-adjusted incidence of fracture was more pronounced among those with prostate cancer on ADT (40.2 per 1000 person-years). After adjusting for age, the increase in fracture risk among prostate cancer patients was associated with lower femoral neck BMD (hazard ratio [HR] per SD=1.8, 95% CI: 1.0-3.4) and increased rate of bone loss (HR 2.3, 1.2-4.6). CONCLUSIONS: Men with prostate cancer, particularly those treated with ADT, had an increased fracture risk. Although the average BMD in men with prostate cancer was higher than men without cancer, a low BMD prior to treatment or increased rate of bone loss after initiating ADT treatment was each a significant predictor of fracture in these.
  • Nguyen, Nguyen D., et al. (författare)
  • Residual lifetime risk of fractures in women and men
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. - : AMBMR. - 1523-4681. ; 22:6, s. 781-788
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a sample of 1358 women and 858 men, >= 60 yr of age who have been followed-up for up to 15 yr, it was estimated that the mortality-adjusted residual lifetime risk of fracture was 44 % for women and 25 % for men. Among those with BMD T-scores <=-2.5, the risks increased to 65% in women and 42% in men. Introduction: Risk assessment of osteoporotic fracture is shifting from relative risk to an absolute risk approach. Whereas BMD is a primary predictor of fracture risk, there has been no estimate of mortality-adjusted lifetime risk of fracture by BMD level. The aim of the study was to estimate the residual lifetime risk of fracture (RLRF) in elderly men and women. Materials and Methods: Data from 1358 women and 858 men >= 60 yr of age as of 1989 of white background from the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study were analyzed. The participants have been followed for up to 15 yr. During the follow-up period, incidence of low-trauma, nonpathological fractures, confirmed by X-ray and personal interview, were recorded. Incidence of mortality was also recorded. BMD at the femoral neck was measured by DXA (GE-LUNAR) at baseline. Residual lifetime risk of fracture from the age of 60 was estimated by the survival analysis taking into account the competing risk of death. Results: After adjusting for competing risk of death, the RLRF for women and men from age 60 was 44% (95% CI, 40-48) and 25% (95% CI, 19-31), respectively. For individuals with osteoporosis (BMD T-scores <= -2.5), the mortality-adjusted lifetime risk of any fracture was 65% (95% CI, 58-73) for women and 42% (95% CI, 24-71) for men. For the entire cohort, the lifetime risk of hip fracture was 8.5% (95% CI, 6-11%) for women and 4% (95% CI, 1.3-5.4%) for men; risk of symptomatic vertebral fracture was 18% (95% CI, 15-21%) for women and 11% (95% CI, 7-14%) for men. Conclusions: These estimates provide a means to communicate the absolute risk of fracture to an individual patient and can help promote the identification and targeting of high-risk individuals for intervention.
  • Nguyen, T. N. A., et al. (författare)
  • Depth-Dependent Magnetization Profiles of Hybrid Exchange Springs
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Applied. - : American Physical Society. - 2331-7019. ; 2:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report on the magnetization depth profile of a hybrid exchange-spring system in which a Co/Pd multilayer with perpendicular anisotropy is coupled to a CoFeB thin film with in-plane anisotropy. The competition between these two orthogonal anisotropies promotes a strong depth dependence of the magnetization orientation. The angle of the magnetization vector is sensitive both to the strength of the individual anisotropies and to the local exchange constant and is thus tunable by changing the thickness of the CoFeB layer and by substituting Ni for Pd in one layer of the Co/Pd stack. The resulting magnetic depth profiles are directly probed by element-specific x-ray magnetic circular dichroism of the Fe and Ni layers located at different average depths. The experimental results are corroborated by micromagnetic simulations.
  • Nguyen, T. N. A., et al. (författare)
  • Investigation of the Tunability of the Spin Configuration Inside Exchange Coupled Springs of Hard/Soft Magnets
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Ieee Transactions on Magnetics. - 0018-9464 .- 1941-0069. ; 50:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Magnetic multilayer (ML) structures comprising a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) layer coupled to an in-plane magnetic anisotropy (IMA) layer are promising materials for zero/low field operating spin-torque oscillators and bit patterned recording media. The magnetization tilt angle can be easily tuned by varying the IMA layer thickness due to the competition between PMA and IMA layers. To explore the underlying magnetization reversal mechanism and to further understand the control of tilt angle and uniformity of the magnetization, the IMA (NiFe, Co, and CoFeB)/PMA (Co/Pd MLs) exchange spring systems are systematically studied. Experimental data obtained from magnetometry show good agreement with 1-D micromagnetic simulations, allowing us to design tunable exchange coupled spring as a function of IMA thickness.
  • Styrkarsdottir, Unnur, et al. (författare)
  • GWAS of bone size yields twelve loci that also affect height, BMD, osteoarthritis or fractures
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bone area is one measure of bone size that is easily derived from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. In a GWA study of DXA bone area of the hip and lumbar spine (N ≥ 28,954), we find thirteen independent association signals at twelve loci that replicate in samples of European and East Asian descent (N = 13,608 – 21,277). Eight DXA area loci associate with osteoarthritis, including rs143384 in GDF5 and a missense variant in COL11A1 (rs3753841). The strongest DXA area association is with rs11614913[T] in the microRNA MIR196A2 gene that associates with lumbar spine area (P = 2.3 × 10 −42 , β = −0.090) and confers risk of hip fracture (P = 1.0 × 10 −8 , OR = 1.11). We demonstrate that the risk allele is less efficient in repressing miR-196a-5p target genes. We also show that the DXA area measure contributes to the risk of hip fracture independent of bone density.
  • Do, Thanh Toan, et al. (författare)
  • Simultaneous feature aggregating and hashing for compact binary code learning
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing. - 1057-7149. ; 28:10, s. 4954-4969
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Representing images by compact hash codes is an attractive approach for large-scale content-based image retrieval. In most state-of-the-art hashing-based image retrieval systems, for each image, local descriptors are first aggregated as a global representation vector. This global vector is then subjected to a hashing function to generate a binary hash code. In previous works, the aggregating and the hashing processes are designed independently. Hence, these frameworks may generate suboptimal hash codes. In this paper, we first propose a novel unsupervised hashing framework in which feature aggregating and hashing are designed simultaneously and optimized jointly. Specifically, our joint optimization generates aggregated representations that can be better reconstructed by some binary codes. This leads to more discriminative binary hash codes and improved retrieval accuracy. In addition, the proposed method is flexible. It can be extended for supervised hashing. When the data label is available, the framework can be adapted to learn binary codes which minimize the reconstruction loss with respect to label vectors. Furthermore, we also propose a fast version of the state-of-the-art hashing method Binary Autoencoder to be used in our proposed frameworks. Extensive experiments on benchmark datasets under various settings show that the proposed methods outperform the state-of-the-art unsupervised and supervised hashing methods.
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