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Sökning: WFRF:(Nielsen Finn Cilius)

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1.
  • Rebbeck, Timothy R., et al. (författare)
  • Mutational spectrum in a worldwide study of 29,700 families with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations
  • ????
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 1059-7794.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The prevalence and spectrum of germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been reported in single populations, with the majority of reports focused on White in Europe and North America. The Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) has assembled data on 18,435 families with BRCA1 mutations and 11,351 families with BRCA2 mutations ascertained from 69 centers in 49 countries on six continents. This study comprehensively describes the characteristics of the 1,650 unique BRCA1 and 1,731 unique BRCA2 deleterious (disease-associated) mutations identified in the CIMBA database. We observed substantial variation in mutation type and frequency by geographical region and race/ethnicity. In addition to known founder mutations, mutations of relatively high frequency were identified in specific racial/ethnic or geographic groups that may reflect founder mutations and which could be used in targeted (panel) first pass genotyping for specific populations. Knowledge of the population-specific mutational spectrum in BRCA1 and BRCA2 could inform efficient strategies for genetic testing and may justify a more broad-based oncogenetic testing in some populations.
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2.
  • Jiang, Xia, et al. (författare)
  • Shared heritability and functional enrichment across six solid cancers
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases. We observed statistically significant genetic correlations between lung and head/neck cancer (<em>r</em><em>g</em> = 0.57, <em>p</em> = 4.6 × 10−8), breast and ovarian cancer (<em>r</em><em>g</em> = 0.24, <em>p</em> = 7 × 10−5), breast and lung cancer (<em>r</em><em>g</em> = 0.18, <em>p </em>=1.5 × 10−6) and breast and colorectal cancer (<em>r</em><em>g</em> = 0.15, <em>p</em> = 1.1 × 10−4). We also found that multiple cancers are genetically correlated with non-cancer traits including smoking, psychiatric diseases and metabolic characteristics. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a significant excess contribution of conserved and regulatory regions to cancer heritability. Our comprehensive analysis of cross-cancer heritability suggests that solid tumors arising across tissues share in part a common germline genetic basis.</p>
3.
  • Jiang, Xia, et al. (författare)
  • Shared heritability and functional enrichment across six solid cancers
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases. We observed statistically significant genetic correlations between lung and head/neck cancer (r(g) = 0.57, p = 4.6 x 10(-8)), breast and ovarian cancer (r(g) = 0.24, p = 7 x 10(-5)), breast and lung cancer (r(g) = 0.18, p = 1.5 x 10(-6)) and breast and colorectal cancer (r(g) = 0.15, p = 1.1 x 10(-4)). We also found that multiple cancers are genetically correlated with non-cancer traits including smoking, psychiatric diseases and metabolic characteristics. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a significant excess contribution of conserved and regulatory regions to cancer heritability. Our comprehensive analysis of cross-cancer heritability suggests that solid tumors arising across tissues share in part a common germline genetic basis.</p>
4.
  • Leinøe, Eva, et al. (författare)
  • Application of whole-exome sequencing to direct the specific functional testing and diagnosis of rare inherited bleeding disorders in patients from the Öresund Region, Scandinavia
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Haematology. - Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 0007-1048. ; 179:2, s. 308-322
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Rare inherited bleeding disorders (IBD) are a common cause of bleeding tendency. To ensure a correct diagnosis, specialized laboratory analyses are necessary. This study reports the results of an upfront diagnostic strategy using targeted whole exome sequencing. In total, 156 patients with a significant bleeding assessment tool score participated in the study, of which a third had thrombocytopenia. Eighty-seven genes specifically associated with genetic predisposition to bleeding were analysed by whole exome sequencing. Variants were classified according to the five-tier scheme. We identified 353 germline variants. Eight patients (5%) harboured a known pathogenic variant. Of the 345 previously unknown variants, computational analyses predicted 99 to be significant. Further filtration according to the Mendelian inheritance pattern, resulted in 59 variants being predicted to be clinically significant. Moreover, 34% (20/59) were assigned as novel class 4 or 5 variants upon targeted functional testing. A class 4 or 5 variant was identified in 30% of patients with thrombocytopenia (14/47) versus 11% of patients with a normal platelet count (12/109) (P < 0·01). An IBD diagnosis has a major clinical impact. The genetic investigations detailed here extricated our patients from a diagnostic conundrum, thus demonstrating that continuous optimization of the diagnostic work-up of IBD is of great benefit.
5.
  • Sørensen, Ole E, et al. (författare)
  • Papillon-Lefevre syndrome patient reveals species-dependent requirements for neutrophil defenses
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Investigation. - Am Soc Clin Investig. - 0021-9738. ; 124:10, s. 4539-4548
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Papillon-Lefevre syndrome (PLS) results from mutations that inactivate cysteine protease cathepsin C (CTSC), which processes a variety of serine proteases considered essential for antimicrobial defense. Despite serine protease-deficient immune cell populations, PLS patients do not exhibit marked immunodeficiency. Here, we characterized a 24-year-old woman who had suffered from severe juvenile periodontal disease, but was otherwise healthy, and identified a homozygous missense mutation in CTSC indicative of PLS. Proteome analysis of patient neutrophil granules revealed that several proteins that normally localize to azurophil granules, including the major serine proteases, elastase, cathepsin G, and proteinase 3, were absent. Accordingly, neutrophils from this patient were incapable of producing neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in response to ROS and were unable to process endogenous cathelicidin hCAP-18. into the antibacterial peptide LL-37 in response to ionomycin. In immature myeloid cells from patient bone marrow, biosynthesis of CTSC and neutrophil serine proteases appeared normal along with initial processing and sorting to cellular storage. In contrast, these proteins were completely absent in mature neutrophils, indicating that CTSC mutation promotes protease degradation in more mature hematopoietic subsets, but does not affect protease production in progenitor cells. Together, these data indicate CTSC protects serine proteases from degradation in mature immune cells and suggest that neutrophil serine proteases are dispensable for human immunoprotection.
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6.
  • Weischenfeldt, Joachim, et al. (författare)
  • NMD is essential for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and for eliminating by-products of programmed DNA rearrangements
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Genes & Development. - Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press (CSHL). - 1549-5477. ; 22:10, s. 1381-1396
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a post-transcriptional surveillance process that eliminates mRNAs containing premature termination codons (PTCs). NMD has been hypothesized to impact on several aspects of cellular function; however, its importance in the context of a mammalian organism has not been addressed in detail. Here we use mouse genetics to demonstrate that hematopoietic-specific deletion of Upf2, a core NMD factor, led to the rapid, complete, and lasting cell-autonomous extinction of all hematopoietic stem and progenitor populations. In contrast, more differentiated cells were only mildly affected in Upf2-null mice, suggesting that NMD is mainly essential for proliferating cells. Furthermore, we show that UPF2 loss resulted in the accumulation of nonproductive rearrangement by-products from the Tcrb locus and that this, as opposed to the general loss of NMD, was particularly detrimental to developing T-cells. At the molecular level, gene expression analysis showed that Upf2 deletion led to a profound skewing toward up-regulated mRNAs, highly enriched in transcripts derived from processed pseudogenes, and that NMD impacts on regulated alternative splicing events. Collectively, our data demonstrate a unique requirement of NMD for organismal survival.
7.
  • Willenbrock, Hanni, et al. (författare)
  • Quantitative miRNA expression analysis : comparing microarrays with next-generation sequencing
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: RNA. - Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press (CSHL). - 1355-8382. ; 15:11, s. 34-2028
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recently, next-generation sequencing has been introduced as a promising, new platform for assessing the copy number of transcripts, while the existing microarray technology is considered less reliable for absolute, quantitative expression measurements. Nonetheless, so far, results from the two technologies have only been compared based on biological data, leading to the conclusion that, although they are somewhat correlated, expression values differ significantly. Here, we use synthetic RNA samples, resembling human microRNA samples, to find that microarray expression measures actually correlate better with sample RNA content than expression measures obtained from sequencing data. In addition, microarrays appear highly sensitive and perform equivalently to next-generation sequencing in terms of reproducibility and relative ratio quantification.
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