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  • Froslev Nielsen, Jens Christian, 1987, et al. (författare)
  • Global analysis of biosynthetic gene clusters reveals vast potential of secondary metabolite production in Penicillium species
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Microbiology. - 2058-5276. ; 2:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Filamentous fungi produce a wide range of bioactive compounds with important pharmaceutical applications, such as antibiotic penicillins and cholesterol-lowering statins. However, less attention has been paid to fungal secondary metabolites compared to those from bacteria. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of 9 Penicillium species and, together with 15 published genomes, we investigated the secondary metabolism of Penicillium and identified an immense, unexploited potential for producing secondary metabolites by this genus. A total of 1,317 putative biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) were identified, and polyketide synthase and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase based BGCs were grouped into gene cluster families and mapped to known pathways. The grouping of BGCs allowed us to study the evolutionary trajectory of pathways based on 6-methylsalicylic acid (6-MSA) synthases. Finally, we cross-referenced the predicted pathways with published data on the production of secondary metabolites and experimentally validated the production of antibiotic yanuthones in Penicillia and identified a previously undescribed compound from the yanuthone pathway. This study is the first genus-wide analysis of the genomic diversity of Penicillia and highlights the potential of these species as a source of new antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals.
  • Molinaro, Antonio, et al. (författare)
  • Imidazole propionate is increased in diabetes and associated with dietary patterns and altered microbial ecology
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Microbiota-host-diet interactions contribute to the development of metabolic diseases. Imidazole propionate is a novel microbially produced metabolite from histidine, which impairs glucose metabolism. Here, we show that subjects with prediabetes and diabetes in the MetaCardis cohort from three European countries have elevated serum imidazole propionate levels. Furthermore, imidazole propionate levels were increased in subjects with low bacterial gene richness and Bacteroides 2 enterotype, which have previously been associated with obesity. The Bacteroides 2 enterotype was also associated with increased abundance of the genes involved in imidazole propionate biosynthesis from dietary histidine. Since patients and controls did not differ in their histidine dietary intake, the elevated levels of imidazole propionate in type 2 diabetes likely reflects altered microbial metabolism of histidine, rather than histidine intake per se. Thus the microbiota may contribute to type 2 diabetes by generating imidazole propionate that can modulate host inflammation and metabolism.
  • Vieira-Silva, S., et al. (författare)
  • Statin therapy is associated with lower prevalence of gut microbiota dysbiosis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 581:7808, s. 310-315
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Microbiome community typing analyses have recently identified the Bacteroides2 (Bact2) enterotype, an intestinal microbiota configuration that is associated with systemic inflammation and has a high prevalence in loose stools in humans1,2. Bact2 is characterized by a high proportion of Bacteroides, a low proportion of Faecalibacterium and low microbial cell densities1,2, and its prevalence varies from 13% in a general population cohort to as high as 78% in patients with inflammatory bowel disease2. Reported changes in stool consistency3 and inflammation status4 during the progression towards obesity and metabolic comorbidities led us to propose that these developments might similarly correlate with an increased prevalence of the potentially dysbiotic Bact2 enterotype. Here, by exploring obesity-associated microbiota alterations in the quantitative faecal metagenomes of the cross-sectional MetaCardis Body Mass Index Spectrum cohort (n = 888), we identify statin therapy as a key covariate of microbiome diversification. By focusing on a subcohort of participants that are not medicated with statins, we find that the prevalence of Bact2 correlates with body mass index, increasing from 3.90% in lean or overweight participants to 17.73% in obese participants. Systemic inflammation levels in Bact2-enterotyped individuals are higher than predicted on the basis of their obesity status, indicative of Bact2 as a dysbiotic microbiome constellation. We also observe that obesity-associated microbiota dysbiosis is negatively associated with statin treatment, resulting in a lower Bact2 prevalence of 5.88% in statin-medicated obese participants. This finding is validated in both the accompanying MetaCardis cardiovascular disease dataset (n = 282) and the independent Flemish Gut Flora Project population cohort (n = 2,345). The potential benefits of statins in this context will require further evaluation in a prospective clinical trial to ascertain whether the effect is reproducible in a randomized population and before considering their application as microbiota-modulating therapeutics. © 2020, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.
  • Björnson, Elias, 1988, et al. (författare)
  • Stratification of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Based on Acetate Utilization
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Cell Reports. - : Cell Press. - 2211-1247. ; 13:9, s. 2014-2026
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a deadly form of liver cancer that is increasingly prevalent. We analyzed global gene expression profiling of 361 HCC tumors and 49 adjacent noncancerous liver samples by means of combinatorial network-based analysis. We investigated the correlation between transcriptome and proteome of HCC and reconstructed a functional genome-scale metabolic model (GEM) for HCC. We identified fundamental metabolic processes required for cell proliferation using the network centric view provided by the GEM. Our analysis revealed tight regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis (FAB) and highly significant deregulation of fatty acid oxidation in HCC. We predicted mitochondrial acetate as an emerging substrate for FAB through upregulation of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACSS1) in HCC. We analyzed heterogeneous expression of ACSS1 and ACSS2 between HCC patients stratified by high and low ACSS1 and ACSS2 expression and revealed that ACSS1 is associated with tumor growth and malignancy under hypoxic conditions in human HCC.
  • Carmona-Gutierrez, D., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines and recommendations on yeast cell death nomenclature
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Microbial Cell. - 2311-2638. ; 5:1, s. 4-31
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Elucidating the biology of yeast in its full complexity has major implications for science, medicine and industry. One of the most critical processes determining yeast life and physiology is cellular demise. However, the investigation of yeast cell death is a relatively young field, and a widely accepted set of concepts and terms is still missing. Here, we propose unified criteria for the definition of accidental, regulated, and programmed forms of cell death in yeast based on a series of morphological and biochemical criteria. Specifically, we provide consensus guidelines on the differential definition of terms including apoptosis, regulated necrosis, and autophagic cell death, as we refer to additional cell death routines that are relevant for the biology of (at least some species of) yeast. As this area of investigation advances rapidly, changes and extensions to this set of recommendations will be implemented in the years to come. Nonetheless, we strongly encourage the authors, reviewers and editors of scientific articles to adopt these collective standards in order to establish an accurate framework for yeast cell death research and, ultimately, to accelerate the progress of this vibrant field of research.
  • Cvijovic, Marija, 1977, et al. (författare)
  • Bridging the gaps in systems biology
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Molecular Genetics and Genomics. - 1617-4615 .- 1617-4623. ; 289:5, s. 727-734
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Systems biology aims at creating mathematical models, i.e., computational reconstructions of biological systems and processes that will result in a new level of understanding-the elucidation of the basic and presumably conserved "design" and "engineering" principles of biomolecular systems. Thus, systems biology will move biology from a phenomenological to a predictive science. Mathematical modeling of biological networks and processes has already greatly improved our understanding of many cellular processes. However, given the massive amount of qualitative and quantitative data currently produced and number of burning questions in health care and biotechnology needed to be solved is still in its early phases. The field requires novel approaches for abstraction, for modeling bioprocesses that follow different biochemical and biophysical rules, and for combining different modules into larger models that still allow realistic simulation with the computational power available today. We have identified and discussed currently most prominent problems in systems biology: (1) how to bridge different scales of modeling abstraction, (2) how to bridge the gap between topological and mechanistic modeling, and (3) how to bridge the wet and dry laboratory gap. The future success of systems biology largely depends on bridging the recognized gaps.
  • Gatto, Francesco, 1987, et al. (författare)
  • Glycosaminoglycan Profiling in Patients' Plasma and Urine Predicts the Occurrence of Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Cell Reports. - : Cell Press. - 2211-1247. ; 15:8, s. 1822-1836
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) progression. Here, we used genome-scale metabolic modeling to elucidate metabolic reprogramming in 481 ccRCC samples and discovered strongly coordinated regulation of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) biosynthesis at the transcript and protein levels. Extracellular GAGs are implicated in metastasis, so we speculated that such regulation might translate into a non-invasive biomarker for metastatic ccRCC (mccRCC). We measured 18 GAG properties in 34 mccRCC samples versus 16 healthy plasma and/or urine samples. The GAG profiles were distinctively altered in mccRCC. We derived three GAG scores that distinguished mccRCC patients with 93.1%-100% accuracy. We validated the score accuracies in an independent cohort (up to 18 mccRCC versus nine healthy) and verified that the scores normalized in eight patients with no evidence of disease. In conclusion, coordinated regulation of GAG biosynthesis occurs in ccRCC, and non-invasive GAG profiling is suitable for mccRCC diagnosis.
  • Lee, S., et al. (författare)
  • Integrated Network Analysis Reveals an Association between Plasma Mannose Levels and Insulin Resistance
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Cell Metabolism. - : Cell Press. - 1550-4131 .- 1932-7420. ; 24:1, s. 172-184
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To investigate the biological processes that are altered in obese subjects, we generated cell-specific integrated networks (INs) by merging genome-scale metabolic, transcriptional regulatory and protein-protein interaction networks. We performed genome-wide transcriptomics analysis to determine the global gene expression changes in the liver and three adipose tissues from obese subjects undergoing bariatric surgery and integrated these data into the cell-specific INs. We found dysregulations in mannose metabolism in obese subjects and validated our predictions by detecting mannose levels in the plasma of the lean and obese subjects. We observed significant correlations between plasma mannose levels, BMI, and insulin resistance (IR). We also measured plasma mannose levels of the subjects in two additional different cohorts and observed that an increased plasma mannose level was associated with IR and insulin secretion. We finally identified mannose as one of the best plasma metabolites in explaining the variance in obesity-independent IR.
  • Li, Xiangyu, et al. (författare)
  • Discovery of Functional Alternatively Spliced PKM Transcripts in Human Cancers
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Cancers. - : MDPI AG. - 2072-6694. ; 13:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Simple Summary Pyruvate kinase muscle type (PKM) is a key enzyme in glycolysis and is a mediator of the Warburg effect in tumors. The association of PKM with survival of cancer patients is controversial. In this study, we investigated the associations of the alternatively spliced transcripts of PKM with cancer patients' survival outcomes and explained the conflicts in previous studies. We discovered three poorly studied alternatively spliced PKM transcripts that exhibited opposite prognostic indications in different human cancers based on integrative systems analysis. We also detected their protein products and explored their potential biological functions based on in-vitro experiments. Our analysis demonstrated that alternatively spliced transcripts of not only PKM but also other genes should be considered in cancer studies, since it may enable the discovery and targeting of the right protein product for development of the efficient treatment strategies. Pyruvate kinase muscle type (PKM) is a key enzyme in glycolysis and plays an important oncological role in cancer. However, the association of PKM expression and the survival outcome of patients with different cancers is controversial. We employed systems biology methods to reveal prognostic value and potential biological functions of PKM transcripts in different human cancers. Protein products of transcripts were shown and detected by western blot and mass spectrometry analysis. We focused on different transcripts of PKM and investigated the associations between their mRNA expression and the clinical survival of the patients in 25 different cancers. We find that the transcripts encoding PKM2 and three previously unstudied transcripts, namely ENST00000389093, ENST00000568883, and ENST00000561609, exhibited opposite prognostic indications in different cancers. Moreover, we validated the prognostic effect of these transcripts in an independent kidney cancer cohort. Finally, we revealed that ENST00000389093 and ENST00000568883 possess pyruvate kinase enzymatic activity and may have functional roles in metabolism, cell invasion, and hypoxia response in cancer cells. Our study provided a potential explanation to the controversial prognostic indication of PKM, and could invoke future studies focusing on revealing the biological and oncological roles of these alternative spliced variants of PKM.
  • Li, Xiangyu, et al. (författare)
  • Stratification of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma to facilitate drug repositioning
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: iScience. - : Elsevier BV. - 2589-0042. ; 24:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common histological type of kidney cancer and has high heterogeneity. Stratification of ccRCC is important since distinct subtypes differ in prognosis and treatment. Here, we applied a systems biology approach to stratify ccRCC into three molecular subtypes with different mRNA expression patterns and prognosis of patients. Further, we developed a set of biomarkers that could robustly classify the patients into each of the three subtypes and predict the prognosis of patients. Then, we reconstructed subtype-specific metabolic models and performed essential gene analysis to identify the potential drug targets. We identified four drug targets, including SOAT1, CRLS1, and ACACB, essential in all the three subtypes and GPD2, exclusively essential to subtype 1. Finally, we repositioned mitotane, an FDA-approved SOAT1 inhibitor, to treat ccRCC and showed that it decreased tumor cell viability and inhibited tumor cell growth based on in vitro experiments.
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