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Sökning: WFRF:(Nielsen Mette)

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  • Fuks, Kateryna B., et al. (författare)
  • Arterial blood pressure and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution : an analysis in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - : National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 122:9, s. 896-905
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to air pollution is hypothesized to elevate arterial blood pressure (BP). The existing evidence is scarce and country-specific. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the cross-sectional association of long-term traffic-related air pollution with BP and prevalent hypertension in European populations. METHODS: Fifteen population-based cohorts, participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE), were analysed. Residential exposure to particulate matter and nitrogen oxides was modelled with land use regression using a uniform protocol. Traffic exposure was assessed with traffic indicator variables. We analysed systolic and diastolic BP in participants medicated and non-medicated with BP lowering medication (BPLM) separately, adjusting for personal and area-level risk factors and environmental noise. Prevalent hypertension was defined as ≥ 140 mmHg systolic, or ≥ 90 mmHg diastolic BP, or intake of BPLM. We combined cohort-specific results using random-effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: In the main meta-analysis of 113,926 participants, traffic load on major roads within 100 m of the residence was associated with increased systolic and diastolic BP in non-medicated participants (0.35 mmHg [95% CI: 0.02-0.68] and 0.22 mmHg [95% CI: 0.04-0.40] per 4,000,000 vehicles × m/day, respectively). The estimated odds ratio for prevalent hypertension was 1.05 [95% CI: 0.99-1.11] per 4,000,000 vehicles × m/day. Modelled air pollutants and BP were not clearly associated. CONCLUSIONS: In this first comprehensive meta-analysis of European population-based cohorts we observed a weak positive association of high residential traffic exposure with BP in non-medicated participants, and an elevated OR for prevalent hypertension. The relationship of modelled air pollutants with BP was inconsistent.
  • Nielsen, S. N., et al. (författare)
  • Children with low-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia are at highest risk of second cancers
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Pediatr Blood Cancer. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1545-5009 .- 1545-5017. ; 64:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundThe improved survival rates for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) may be jeopardized by the development of a second cancer, which has been associated with thiopurine therapy. ProcedureWe retrospectively analyzed three sequential Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology's protocols characterized by increasing intensity of thiopurine-based maintenance therapy. We explored the risk of second cancer in relation to protocols, risk group, thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) activity, ALL high hyperdiploidy (HeH), and t(12;21)[ETV6/RUNX1]. ResultsAfter median 9.5 years (interquartile range, 5.4-15.3 yrs) of follow-up, 40 of 3,591 patients had developed a second cancer, of whom 38 had non-high-risk B-cell precursor ALL. Patients with standard-risk ALL, who received the longest maintenance therapy, had the highest adjusted hazard of second cancer (hazard ratio [HR], intermediate vs. standard risk: 0.16, 95% CI: 0.06-0.43, P < 0.001; HR, high vs. standard risk: 0.09, 95% CI: 0.02-0.49, P = 0.006); no significant effects of protocol, age, or white blood cell count at diagnosis, ALL HeH, or t(12;21)[ETV6/RUNX1] were observed. A subset analysis on the patients with standard-risk ALL did not show an increased hazard of second cancer from either HeH or t(12;21) (adjusted HR 2.02, 95% CI: 0.69-5.96, P = 0.20). The effect of low TPMT low activity was explored in patients reaching maintenance therapy in clinical remission (n = 3,368); no association with second cancer was observed (adjusted HR 1.43, 95% CI: 0.54-3.76, P = 0.47). ConclusionsThe rate of second cancer was generally highest in patients with low-risk ALL, but we could not identify a subset at higher risk than others.
  • Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole, et al. (författare)
  • Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts : prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Oncology. - 1470-2045 .- 1474-5488. ; 14:9, s. 813-822
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations. Methods This prospective analysis of data obtained by the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects used data from 17 cohort studies based in nine European countries. Baseline addresses were geocoded and we assessed air pollution by land-use regression models for particulate matter (PM) with diameter of less than 10 mu m (PM10), less than 2.5 mu m (PM2.5), and between 2.5 and 10 mu m (PMcoarse), soot (PM2.5 absorbance), nitrogen oxides, and two traffic indicators. We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random effects models for meta-analyses. Findings The 312944 cohort members contributed 4 013131 person-years at risk. During follow-up (mean 12.8 years), 2095 incident lung cancer cases were diagnosed. The meta-analyses showed a statistically significant association between risk for lung cancer and PM10 (hazard ratio [HR] 1.22 [95% CI 1.03-1.45] per 10 mu g/m(3)). For PM2.5 the HR was 1.18 (0.96-1.46) per 5 mu g/m(3). The same increments of PM10 and PM2.5 were associated with HRs for adenocarcinomas of the lung of 1.51 (1.10-2.08) and 1.55 (1.05-2.29), respectively. An increase in road traffic of 4000 vehicle-km per day within 100 m of the residence was associated with an HR for lung cancer of 1.09 (0.99-1.21). The results showed no association between lung cancer and nitrogen oxides concentration (HR 1.01 [0.95-1.07] per 20 mu g/m(3)) or traffic intensity on the nearest street (HR 1.00 [0.97-1.04] per 5000 vehicles per day). Interpretation Particulate matter air pollution contributes to lung cancer incidence in Europe.
  • Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole, et al. (författare)
  • Outdoor air pollution and risk for kidney parenchyma cancer in 14 European cohorts
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 140:7, s. 1528-1537
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several studies have indicated weakly increased risk for kidney cancer among occupational groups exposed to gasoline vapors, engine exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other air pollutants, although not consistently. It was the aim to investigate possible associations between outdoor air pollution at the residence and the incidence of kidney parenchyma cancer in the general population. We used data from 14 European cohorts from the ESCAPE study. We geocoded and assessed air pollution concentrations at baseline addresses by land-use regression models for particulate matter (PM10 , PM2.5 , PMcoarse , PM2.5 absorbance (soot)) and nitrogen oxides (NO2 , NOx ), and collected data on traffic. We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random effects models for meta-analyses to calculate summary hazard ratios (HRs). The 289,002 cohort members contributed 4,111,908 person-years at risk. During follow-up (mean 14.2 years) 697 incident cancers of the kidney parenchyma were diagnosed. The meta-analyses showed higher HRs in association with higher PM concentration, e.g. HR=1.57 (95%CI: 0.81-3.01) per 5μg/m(3) PM2.5 and HR=1.36 (95%CI: 0.84-2.19) per 10(-5) m(-1) PM2.5 absorbance, albeit never statistically significant. The HRs in association with nitrogen oxides and traffic density on the nearest street were slightly above one. Sensitivity analyses among participants who did not change residence during follow-up showed stronger associations, but none were statistically significant. This study provides suggestive evidence that exposure to outdoor PM at the residence may be associated with higher risk for kidney parenchyma cancer; the results should be interpreted cautiously as associations may be due to chance.
  • Beelen, Rob, et al. (författare)
  • Natural-Cause Mortality and Long-Term Exposure to Particle Components : An Analysis of 19 European Cohorts within the Multi-Center ESCAPE Project
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 123:6, s. 525-533
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Studies have shown associations between mortality and long-term exposure to particulate matter air pollution. Few cohort studies have estimated the effects of the elemental composition of particulate matter on mortality. Objectives: Our aim was to study the association between natural-cause mortality and long-term exposure to elemental components of particulate matter. Methods: Mortality and confounder data from 19 European cohort studies were used. Residential exposure to eight a priori-selected components of particulate matter ( PM) was characterized following a strictly standardized protocol. Annual average concentrations of copper, iron, potassium, nickel, sulfur, silicon, vanadium, and zinc within PM size fractions <= 2.5 mu m (PM2.5) and <= 10 mu m (PM10) were estimated using land-use regression models. Cohort-specific statistical analyses of the associations between mortality and air pollution were conducted using Cox proportional hazards models using a common protocol followed by meta-analysis. Results: The total study population consisted of 291,816 participants, of whom 25,466 died from a natural cause during follow-up (average time of follow-up, 14.3 years). Hazard ratios were positive for almost all elements and statistically significant for PM2.5 sulfur (1.14; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.23 per 200ng/m(3)). In a two-pollutant model, the association with PM2.5 sulfur was robust to adjustment for PM2.5 mass, whereas the association with PM2.5 mass was reduced. Conclusions: Long-term exposure to PM2.5 sulfur was associated with natural-cause mortality. This association was robust to adjustment for other pollutants and PM2.5.
  • Brieghel, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • The Number of Signaling Pathways Altered by Driver Mutations in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Impacts Disease Outcome
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - : AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. - 1078-0432 .- 1557-3265. ; 26:6, s. 1507-1515
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Investigation of signaling pathways altered by recurrent gene mutations and their clinical impact in a consecutive cohort of patients with newly diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The heterogeneous clinical course and genetic complexity of CLL warrant improved molecular prognostication. However, the prognostic value of recurrent mutations at the time of diagnosis remains unclear. Experimental Design: We sequenced samples from 314 consecutive, newly diagnosed patients with CLL to investigate the clinical impact of 56 recurrently mutated genes assessed by next-generation sequencing. Results: Mutations were identified in 70% of patients with enrichment among IGHV unmutated cases. With 6.5 years of follow-up, 15 mutated genes investigated at the time of diagnosis demonstrated significant impact on time to first treatment (TTFT). Carrying driver mutations was associated with shorter TTFT and poor overall survival. For outcome from CLL diagnosis, the number of signaling pathways altered by driver mutations stratified patients better than the number of driver mutations. Moreover, we demonstrated gradual impact on TTFT with increasing number of altered pathways independent of CLL-IPI risk. Thus, a 25-gene, pathway-based biomarker assessing recurrent mutations refines prognostication in CLL, in particular for CLL-IPI low- and intermediate-risk patients. External validation emphasized that a broad gene panel including low burden mutations was key for the biomarker based on altered pathways. Conclusions: We propose to include the number of pathways altered by driver mutations as a biomarker together with CLL-IPI in prospective studies of CLL from time of diagnosis for incorporation into clinical care and personalized follow-up and treatment.
  • Christensen, Mette M H, et al. (författare)
  • The pharmacogenetics of metformin and its impact on plasma metformin steady-state levels and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Pharmacogenetics & Genomics. - : Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins. - 1744-6872 .- 1744-6880. ; 21:12, s. 837-850
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of genetic variations in OCT1, OCT2, MATE1, MATE 2, and PMAT on the trough steady-state plasma concentration of metformin and hemoglobin A1c (Hb1Ac). Method The South Danish Diabetes Study was a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study. One hundred and fifty-nine patients received 1 g of metformin, twice daily continuously, and 415 repeated plasma metformin measurements were obtained after 3, 6, and 9 months of treatment. Results The mean trough steady-state metformin plasma concentration was estimated to be 576 ng/ml (range, 54-4133 ng/ml, rho = 0.55) and correlated to the number of reduced function alleles in OCT1 (none, one or two: 642, 542, 397 ng/ml; P = 0.001). The absolute decrease in Hb1Ac both initially and long term was also correlated to the number of reduced function alleles in OCT1 resulting in diminished pharmacodynamic effect of metformin after 6 and 24 months. Conclusion In a large cohort of type 2 diabetics, we either confirm or show for the first time: (a) an enormous 80-fold) variability in trough steady-state metformin plasma concentration, (b) OCT1 activity affects metformin steady-state pharmacokinetics, and (c) OCT1 genotype has a bearing on HbA1c during metformin treatment.
  • Fachmann, Mette S. R., et al. (författare)
  • Cost-effective optimization of real-time PCR-based detection of Campylobacter and Salmonella with inhibitor tolerant DNA polymerases
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Microbiology. - : Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 1364-5072 .- 1365-2672. ; 119:5, s. 1391-1402
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims: The aim of this study was to cost-effectively improve detection of foodborne pathogens in PCR inhibitory samples through the use of alternative DNA polymerases. Methods and Results: Commercially available polymerases (n = 16) and PCR master mixes (n = 4) were screened on DNA purified from bacterial cells in two validated real-time PCR assays for Campylobacter and Salmonella. The five best performing (based on: limit of detection (LOD), maximum fluorescence, shape of amplification curves and amplification efficiency) were subsequently applied to meat and faecal samples. The VeriQuest qPCR master mix performed best for both meat and faecal samples (LODs of 102 and 104 CFU ml-1 in the purest and crudest DNA extractions respectively) compared with Tth (LOD = 102-103 and 105-106 CFU ml-1). AmpliTaqGold and HotMasterTaq both performed well (LOD = 102-104 CFU ml-1) with meat samples and poorly (LOD = 103-106 CFU ml-1/not detected) with faecal samples. Conclusions: Applying the VeriQuest qPCR master mix in the two tested real-time PCR assays could allow for simpler sample preparation and thus a reduction in cost. Significance and Impact of the Study: This work exemplifies a cost-effective strategy for optimizing real-time PCR-based assays. However, a DNA polymerase suitable for one assay and sample type is not necessarily optimal for other assays or sample types.
  • Fuks, Kateryna B., et al. (författare)
  • Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and traffic noise and incident hypertension in seven cohorts of the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE)
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 38:13, s. 983-990
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims We investigated whether traffic-related air pollution and noise are associated with incident hypertension in European cohorts. Methods and results We included seven cohorts of the European study of cohorts for air pollution effects (ESCAPE). We modelled concentrations of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <= 2.5 mu m (PM2.5), <= 10 mu m (PM10), >2.5, and <= 10 mu m (PMcoarse), soot (PM2.5 absorbance), and nitrogen oxides at the addresses of participants with land use regression. Residential exposure to traffic noise was modelled at the facade according to the EU Directive 2002/49/EC. We assessed hypertension as (i) self-reported and (ii) measured (systolic BP >= 140mmHg or diastolic BP >= 90mmHg or intake of BP lowering medication (BPLM). We used Poisson regression with robust variance estimation to analyse associations of traffic-related exposures with incidence of hypertension, controlling for relevant confounders, and combined the results from individual studies with random-effects meta-analysis. Among 41 072 participants free of self-reported hypertension at baseline, 6207 (15.1%) incident cases occurred within 5-9 years of follow-up. Incidence of self-reported hypertension was positively associated with PM2.5 (relative risk (RR) 1.22 [95%-confidence interval (CI): 1.08; 1.37] per 5 mu g/m(3)) and PM2.5 absorbance (RR 1.13 [95% CI: 1.02; 1.24] per 10(-5) m(-1)). These estimates decreased slightly upon adjustment for road traffic noise. Road traffic noise was weakly positively associated with the incidence of self-reported hypertension. Among 10 896 participants at risk, 3549 new cases of measured hypertension occurred. We found no clear associations with measured hypertension. Conclusion Long-term residential exposures to air pollution and noise are associated with increased incidence of self-reported hypertension.
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