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Sökning: WFRF:(Nielsen Rasmus)

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  • [1]234567...9Nästa
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1.
  • Bjorkman, Anne D., et al. (författare)
  • Plant functional trait change across a warming tundra biome
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 562:7725, s. 57-62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The tundra is warming more rapidly than any other biome on Earth, and the potential ramifications are far-reaching because of global feedback effects between vegetation and climate. A better understanding of how environmental factors shape plant structure and function is crucial for predicting the consequences of environmental change for ecosystem functioning. Here we explore the biome-wide relationships between temperature, moisture and seven key plant functional traits both across space and over three decades of warming at 117 tundra locations. Spatial temperature–trait relationships were generally strong but soil moisture had a marked influence on the strength and direction of these relationships, highlighting the potentially important influence of changes in water availability on future trait shifts in tundra plant communities. Community height increased with warming across all sites over the past three decades, but other traits lagged far behind predicted rates of change. Our findings highlight the challenge of using space-for-time substitution to predict the functional consequences of future warming and suggest that functions that are tied closely to plant height will experience the most rapid change. They also reveal the strength with which environmental factors shape biotic communities at the coldest extremes of the planet and will help to improve projections of functional changes in tundra ecosystems with climate warming.
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2.
  • Mardinoglu, Adil, et al. (författare)
  • Integration of clinical data with a genome-scale metabolic model of the human adipocyte
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Molecular Systems Biology. - 1744-4292 .- 1744-4292. ; 9, s. 649-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We evaluated the presence/absence of proteins encoded by 14 077 genes in adipocytes obtained from different tissue samples using immunohistochemistry. By combining this with previously published adipocyte-specific proteome data, we identified proteins associated with 7340 genes in human adipocytes. This information was used to reconstruct a comprehensive and functional genome-scale metabolic model of adipocyte metabolism. The resulting metabolic model, iAdipocytes1809, enables mechanistic insights into adipocyte metabolism on a genome-wide level, and can serve as a scaffold for integration of omics data to understand the genotype-phenotype relationship in obese subjects. By integrating human transcriptome and fluxome data, we found an increase in the metabolic activity around androsterone, ganglioside GM2 and degradation products of heparan sulfate and keratan sulfate, and a decrease in mitochondrial metabolic activities in obese subjects compared with lean subjects. Our study hereby shows a path to identify new therapeutic targets for treating obesity through combination of high throughput patient data and metabolic modeling.
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3.
  • Bjorkman, Anne, 1981, et al. (författare)
  • Tundra Trait Team: A database of plant traits spanning the tundra biome
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Global Ecology and Biogeography. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1466-822X .- 1466-8238. ; 27:12, s. 1402-1411
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2018 The Authors Global Ecology and Biogeography Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd Motivation: The Tundra Trait Team (TTT) database includes field-based measurements of key traits related to plant form and function at multiple sites across the tundra biome. This dataset can be used to address theoretical questions about plant strategy and trade-offs, trait–environment relationships and environmental filtering, and trait variation across spatial scales, to validate satellite data, and to inform Earth system model parameters. Main types of variable contained: The database contains 91,970 measurements of 18 plant traits. The most frequently measured traits (> 1,000 observations each) include plant height, leaf area, specific leaf area, leaf fresh and dry mass, leaf dry matter content, leaf nitrogen, carbon and phosphorus content, leaf C:N and N:P, seed mass, and stem specific density. Spatial location and grain: Measurements were collected in tundra habitats in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, including Arctic sites in Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Fennoscandia and Siberia, alpine sites in the European Alps, Colorado Rockies, Caucasus, Ural Mountains, Pyrenees, Australian Alps, and Central Otago Mountains (New Zealand), and sub-Antarctic Marion Island. More than 99% of observations are georeferenced. Time period and grain: All data were collected between 1964 and 2018. A small number of sites have repeated trait measurements at two or more time periods. Major taxa and level of measurement: Trait measurements were made on 978 terrestrial vascular plant species growing in tundra habitats. Most observations are on individuals (86%), while the remainder represent plot or site means or maximums per species. Software format: csv file and GitHub repository with data cleaning scripts in R; contribution to TRY plant trait database (www.try-db.org) to be included in the next version release.
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4.
  • Grijseels, S., et al. (författare)
  • Identification of the decumbenone biosynthetic gene cluster in penicillium decumbens and the importance for production of calbistrin
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology. - 2054-3085. ; 5:1, s. 1-17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Filamentous fungi are important producers of secondary metabolites, low molecular weight molecules that often have bioactive properties. Calbistrin A is a secondary metabolite with an interesting structure that was recently found to have bioactivity against leukemia cells. It consists of two polyketides linked by an ester bond: a bicy-clic decalin containing polyketide with structural similarities to lovastatin, and a linear 12 carbon dioic acid structure. Calbistrin A is known to be produced by several uniseriate black Aspergilli, Aspergillus versicolor-related species, and Penicillia. Penicillium decumbens produces calbistrin A and B as well as several putative intermediates of the calbistrin pathway, such as decumbenone A-B and versiol. Results: A comparative genomics study focused on the polyketide synthase (PKS) sets found in three full genome sequence calbistrin producing fungal species, P. decumbens, A. aculeatus and A. versicolor, resulted in the identification of a novel, putative 13-membered calbistrin producing gene cluster (calA to calM). Implementation of the CRISPR/ Cas9 technology in P. decumbens allowed the targeted deletion of genes encoding a polyketide synthase (calA), a major facilitator pump (calB) and a binuclear zinc cluster transcription factor (calC). Detailed metabolic profiling, using UHPLC-MS, of the ∆calA (PKS) and ∆calC ( TF) strains confirmed the suspected involvement in calbistrin productions as neither strains produced calbistrin nor any of the putative intermediates in the pathway. Similarly analysis of the excreted metabolites in the ∆calB (MFC-pump) strain showed that the encoded pump was required for efficient export of calbistrin A and B. Conclusion: Here we report the discovery of a gene cluster (calA-M) involved in the biosynthesis of the polyketide calbistrin in P. decumbens. Targeted gene deletions proved the involvement of CalA (polyketide synthase) in the biosynthesis of calbistrin, CalB (major facilitator pump) for the export of calbistrin A and B and CalC for the transcriptional regulation of the cal-cluster. This study lays the foundation for further characterization of the calbistrin biosynthetic pathway in multiple species and the development of an efficient calbistrin producing cell factory.
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5.
  • Grijseels, S., et al. (författare)
  • Physiological characterization of secondary metabolite producing Penicillium cell factories
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Fungal Biology and Biotechnology. - 2054-3085. ; 4, s. 8-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Penicillium species are important producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. However, the immense diversity of the fungal kingdom is only scarcely represented in industrial bioprocesses and the upscaling of compound production remains a costly and labor intensive challenge. In order to facilitate the development of novel secondary metabolite producing processes, two routes are typically explored: optimization of the native producer or transferring the enzymatic pathway into a heterologous host. Recent genome sequencing of ten Penicillium species showed the vast amount of secondary metabolite gene clusters present in their genomes, and makes them accessible for rational strain improvement. In this study, we aimed to characterize the potential of these ten Penicillium species as native producing cell factories by testing their growth performance and secondary metabolite production in submerged cultivations.Results: Cultivation of the fungal species in controlled submerged bioreactors showed that the ten wild type Penicillium species had promising, highly reproducible growth characteristics in two different media. Analysis of the secondary metabolite production using liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry proved that the species produced a broad range of secondary metabolites, at different stages of the fermentations. Metabolite profiling for identification of the known compounds resulted in identification of 34 metabolites; which included several with bioactive properties such as antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer activities. Additionally, several novel species metabolite relationships were found.Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the fermentation characteristics and the highly reproducible performance in bioreactors of ten recently genome sequenced Penicillium species should be considered as very encouraging for the application of native hosts for production via submerged fermentation. The results are particularly promising for the potential development of the ten analysed Penicillium species for production of novel bioactive compounds via submerged fermentations
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6.
  • Mardinoglu, Adil, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-scale metabolic modelling of hepatocytes reveals serine deficiency in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 5, s. 3083-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several liver disorders result from perturbations in the metabolism of hepatocytes, and their underlying mechanisms can be outlined through the use of genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs). Here we reconstruct a consensus GEM for hepatocytes, which we call iHepatocytes2322, that extends previous models by including an extensive description of lipid metabolism. We build iHepatocytes2322 using Human Metabolic Reaction 2.0 database and proteomics data in Human Protein Atlas, which experimentally validates the incorporated reactions. The reconstruction process enables improved annotation of the proteomics data using the network centric view of iHepatocytes2322. We then use iHepatocytes2322 to analyse transcriptomics data obtained from patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We show that blood concentrations of chondroitin and heparan sulphates are suitable for diagnosing non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and for the staging of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Furthermore, we observe serine deficiency in patients with NASH and identify PSPH, SHMT1 and BCAT1 as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
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7.
  • Rasmussen, Morten, et al. (författare)
  • Ancient human genome sequence of an extinct Palaeo-Eskimo
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 463:7282, s. 757-762
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report here the genome sequence of an ancient human. Obtained from ∼4,000-year-old permafrost-preserved hair, the genome represents a male individual from the first known culture to settle in Greenland. Sequenced to an average depth of 20×, we recover 79% of the diploid genome, an amount close to the practical limit of current sequencing technologies. We identify 353,151 high-confidence single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which 6.8% have not been reported previously. We estimate raw read contamination to be no higher than 0.8%. We use functional SNP assessment to assign possible phenotypic characteristics of the individual that belonged to a culture whose location has yielded only trace human remains. We compare the high-confidence SNPs to those of contemporary populations to find the populations most closely related to the individual. This provides evidence for a migration from Siberia into the New World some 5,500 years ago, independent of that giving rise to the modern Native Americans and Inuit.
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8.
  • Rasmussen, Simon, et al. (författare)
  • Early Divergent Strains of Yersinia pestis in Eurasia 5,000 Years Ago
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Cell. - : Elsevier. - 0092-8674. ; 163:3, s. 571-582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The bacteria Yersinia pestis is the etiological agent of plague and has caused human pandemics with millions of deaths in historic times. How and when it originated remains contentious. Here, we report the oldest direct evidence of Yersinia pestis identified by ancient DNA in human teeth from Asia and Europe dating from 2,800 to 5,000 years ago. By sequencing the genomes, we find that these ancient plague strains are basal to all known Yersinia pestis. We find the origins of the Yersinia pestis lineage to be at least two times older than previous estimates. We also identify a temporal sequence of genetic changes that lead to increased virulence and the emergence of the bubonic plague. Our results show that plague infection was endemic in the human populations of Eurasia at least 3,000 years before any historical recordings of pandemics.
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9.
  • Ågren, Rasmus, 1982, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of anticancer drugs for hepatocellular carcinoma through personalized genome-scale metabolic modeling
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Molecular Systems Biology. - 1744-4292. ; 10:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Synopsis Personalized GEMs for six hepatocellular carcinoma patients are reconstructed using proteomics data and a task-driven model reconstruction algorithm. These GEMs are used to predict antimetabolites preventing tumor growth in all patients or in individual patients. The presence of proteins encoded by 15,841 genes in tumors from 27 HCC patients is evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Personalized GEMs for six HCC patients and GEMs for 83 healthy cell types are reconstructed based on HMR 2.0 and the tINIT algorithm for task-driven model reconstruction. 101 antimetabolites are predicted to inhibit tumor growth in all patients. Antimetabolite toxicity is tested using the 83 cell type-specific GEMs. Genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) have proven useful as scaffolds for the integration of omics data for understanding the genotype-phenotype relationship in a mechanistic manner. Here, we evaluated the presence/absence of proteins encoded by 15,841 genes in 27 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients using immunohistochemistry. We used this information to reconstruct personalized GEMs for six HCC patients based on the proteomics data, HMR 2.0, and a task-driven model reconstruction algorithm (tINIT). The personalized GEMs were employed to identify anticancer drugs using the concept of antimetabolites; i.e., drugs that are structural analogs to metabolites. The toxicity of each antimetabolite was predicted by assessing the in silico functionality of 83 healthy cell type-specific GEMs, which were also reconstructed with the tINIT algorithm. We predicted 101 antimetabolites that could be effective in preventing tumor growth in all HCC patients, and 46 antimetabolites which were specific to individual patients. Twenty-two of the 101 predicted antimetabolites have already been used in different cancer treatment strategies, while the remaining antimetabolites represent new potential drugs. Finally, one of the identified targets was validated experimentally, and it was confirmed to attenuate growth of the HepG2 cell line.
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10.
  • Allentoft, M. E., et al. (författare)
  • Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 522:7555, s. 167-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Bronze Age of Eurasia (around 3000-1000 BC) was a period of major cultural changes. However, there is debate about whether these changes resulted from the circulation of ideas or from human migrations, potentially also facilitating the spread of languages and certain phenotypic traits. We investigated this by using new, improved methods to sequence low-coverage genomes from 101 ancient humans from across Eurasia. We show that the Bronze Age was a highly dynamic period involving large-scale population migrations and replacements, responsible for shaping major parts of present-day demographic structure in both Europe and Asia. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesized spread of Indo-European languages during the Early Bronze Age. We also demonstrate that light skin pigmentation in Europeans was already present at high frequency in the Bronze Age, but not lactose tolerance, indicating a more recent onset of positive selection on lactose tolerance than previously thought.
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