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  • Coll, M., et al. (författare)
  • Towards Oxide Electronics: a Roadmap
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Applied Surface Science. - 0169-4332 .- 1873-5584. ; 482, s. 1-93
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • At the end of a rush lasting over half a century, in which CMOS technology has been experiencing a constant and breathtaking increase of device speed and density, Moore’s law is approaching the insurmountable barrier given by the ultimate atomic nature of matter. A major challenge for 21st century scientists is finding novel strategies, concepts and materials for replacing silicon-based CMOS semiconductor technologies and guaranteeing a continued and steady technological progress in next decades. Among the materials classes candidate to contribute to this momentous challenge, oxide films and heterostructures are a particularly appealing hunting ground. The vastity, intended in pure chemical terms, of this class of compounds, the complexity of their correlated behaviour, and the wealth of functional properties they display, has already made these systems the subject of choice, worldwide, of a strongly networked, dynamic and interdisciplinary research community. Oxide science and technology has been the target of a wide four-year project, named Towards Oxide-Based Electronics (TO-BE), that has been recently running in Europe and has involved as participants several hundred scientists from 29 EU countries. In this review and perspective paper, published as a final deliverable of the TO-BE Action, the opportunities of oxides as future electronic materials for Information and Communication Technologies ICT and Energy are discussed. The paper is organized as a set of contributions, all selected and ordered as individual building blocks of a wider general scheme. After a brief preface by the editors and an introductory contribution, two sections follow. The first is mainly devoted to providing a perspective on the latest theoretical and experimental methods that are employed to investigate oxides and to produce oxide-based films, heterostructures and devices. In the second, all contributions are dedicated to different specific fields of applications of oxide thin films and heterostructures, in sectors as data storage and computing, optics and plasmonics, magnonics, energy conversion and harvesting, and power electronics.
  • Hao, J, et al. (författare)
  • Culture of human ovarian tissue in xeno-free conditions using laminin components of the human ovarian extracellular matrix
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics. - : Springer. - 1058-0468 .- 1573-7330. ; 37:9, s. 2137-2150
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Our purpose was to identify human ovarian extracellular matrix (ECM) components that would support in vitro culture of human ovarian tissue and be compatible with possible future clinical applications. We characterized ovarian expression of laminins and selected three laminin tripeptides for culture experiments to be compared with Matrigel, an undefined and animal-based mixture of ECM components.METHODS: Expression of the 12 laminin genes was determined on transcript and protein levels using cortical tissue samples (n = 6), commercial ovary RNA (n = 1), follicular fluid granulosa cells (n = 20), and single-cell RNA-sequencing data. Laminin 221 (LN221), LN521, LN511, and their mixture were chosen for a 7-day culture experiment along with Matrigel using tissue from 17 patients. At the end of the culture, follicles were evaluated by scoring and counting from serial tissue sections, apoptosis measured using in situ TUNEL assay, proliferation by Ki67 staining, and endocrine function by quantifying steroids in culture media using UPLC-MS/MS.RESULTS: Approximately half of the cells in ovarian cortex expressed at least one laminin gene. The overall most expressed laminin α-chains were LAMA2 and LAMA5, β-chains LAMB1 and LAMB2, and γ-chain LAMC1. In culture experiments, LN221 enhanced follicular survival compared with Matrigel (p < 0.001), whereas tissue cultured on LN521 had higher proportion of secondary follicles (p < 0.001). LN511 and mixture of laminins did not support the cultures leading to lower follicle densities and higher apoptosis. All cultures produced steroids and contained proliferating cells.CONCLUSIONS: LN221 and LN521 show promise in providing xeno-free growth substrates for human ovarian tissue cultures, which may help in further development of folliculogenesis in vitro for clinical practices. The system could also be used for identification of adverse effects of chemicals in ovaries.
  • Karis, O., et al. (författare)
  • Probing surface states of Cu/Ni thin films using x-ray absorption spectroscopy
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. - 1098-0121 .- 1550-235X. ; 63:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Surface and interface properties of Cu thin films (1–4 monolayers) deposited on Ni(100) have been extracted by means of x-ray absorption spectroscopy and analyzed in combination with ab initio density-functional calculations. An unoccupied Cu surface state is identified in an x-ray absorption spectra and studied as a function of film thickness. Experimental data is supported by calculations of the layer-resolved density of states and the results from this combined theoretical-experimental effort show that the surface state is almost entirely located on the atomic layer closest to the vacuum. Our results also indicate strong hybridization between unoccupied states at the Cu/Ni interface boundary.
  • Magnusson, M., et al. (författare)
  • Spatial and temporal variation of hantavirus bank vole infection in managed forest landscapes
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Ecosphere. - : Ecological Society of America: Ecosphere / Wiley. - 2150-8925 .- 2150-8925. ; 6:9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Zoonoses are major contributors to emerging infectious diseases globally. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a zoonosis caused by rodent-borne hantaviruses. In Europe, Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) carried and shed by the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), is the most common cause of HFRS. We explore the relationship of PUUV infection in bank voles, as measured by PUUV antibody detection, with habitat and landscape scale properties during two successive vole cycles in boreal Sweden. Our analysis revealed that PUUV infection in the population was not uniform between cycles and across different landscapes. The mean density index of PUUV antibody positive and negative bank voles were highest in old forest, second highest in cut-over forest (approx. 0-30 years old) and lowest on mires. Most importantly, old forest was the core habitat, where PUUV antibody positive bank voles were found through the low density phase and the transition between successive vole cycles. In spring, occurrence of antibody positive voles was negatively related to the proportion of cut-over forest in the surrounding landscape, suggesting that large scale human induced land-use change altered the occurrence of PUUV infection in voles which has not been shown before. Dependence of PUUV infection on habitat and landscape structure, and the variation in infection load within and between cycles are of importance for human risk assessment.
  • Niklasson, Bo, et al. (författare)
  • Association of zoonotic Ljungan virus with intrauterine fetal deaths
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Birth defects research. Clinical and molecular teratology. - 1542-0752 .- 1542-0760. ; 79:6, s. 488-493
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: It has recently been shown that Ljungan virus (LV) is associated with disease in its wild rodent reservoir. In addition, it has been demonstrated that LV causes malformations and perinatal death in a mouse model. The question was therefore raised whether LV is a zoonotic agent in humans. METHODS: Population fluctuations of native rodents in Sweden were compared to the incidence of intrauterine fetal deaths (IUFDs) using the Swedish national hospitalization database. Formalin-fixed tissues from cases of IUFD were investigated using LV-specific immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Variation in the incidence of IU-FDs closely tracked the fluctuations in native rodent populations. LV was detected in the brain tissue in 4 of 10 cases of IUFDs investigated by immunochemistry. LV was also detected in the placenta in 5 of the 10 IUFD cases, but in none of 20 placentas from normal pregnancies. CONCLUSIONS: LV may play an important role in IUFDs.
  • Niklasson, Bo, et al. (författare)
  • Diabetes and myocarditis in voles and lemmings at cyclic peak densities--induced by Ljungan virus?
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Oecologia. - 0029-8549 .- 1432-1939. ; 150:1, s. 1-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although it is well-documented from theoretical studies that pathogens have the capacity to generate cycles, the occurrence and role of pathogens and disease have been poorly empirically studied in cyclic voles and lemmings. In screening for the occurrence of disease in cyclic vole and lemming populations, we found that a high proportion of live-trapped Clethrionomys glareolus, C. rufocanus, Microtus agrestis and Lemmus lemmus at high collective peak density, shortly before the decline, suffered from diabetes or myocarditis in northern Scandinavia. A high frequency of animals had abnormal blood glucose (BG) levels at the time of trapping (5-33%). In contrast, C. rufocanus individuals tested at a much lower overall density, and at an earlier stage relative to the decline in the following cycle, showed normal BG concentrations. However, a high proportion (43%) of a sample of these individuals kept in captivity developed clinical diabetes within five weeks, as determined by BG levels and a glucose tolerance test performed at that later time. A new picornavirus isolated from the rodents, Ljungan virus (LV), was assumed to cause the diseases, as LV-induced diabetes and myocarditis, as well as encephalitis and fetal deaths, were observed in laboratory mice. We hypothesize that LV infection significantly affects morbidity and mortality rates in the wild, either directly or indirectly, by predisposing the rodents to predation, and is at least involved in causing the regular, rapid population declines of these cyclic voles and lemmings. Increased stress at peak densities is thought to be an important trigger for the development of disease, as the occurrence of disease in laboratory mice has been found to be triggered by introducing stress to LV-infected animals.
  • Niklasson, Mia, et al. (författare)
  • Membrane-Depolarizing Channel Blockers Induce Selective Glioma Cell Death by Impairing Nutrient Transport and Unfolded Protein/Amino Acid Responses
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - : AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH. - 0008-5472 .- 1538-7445. ; 77:7, s. 1741-1752
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Glioma-initiating cells (GIC) are considered the underlying cause of recurrences of aggressive glioblastomas, replenishing the tumor population and undermining the efficacy of conventional chemotherapy. Here we report the discovery that inhibiting T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ and KCa channels can effectively induce selective cell death of GIC and increase host survival in an orthotopic mouse model of human glioma. At present, the precise cellular pathways affected by the drugs affecting these channels are unknown. However, using cell-based assays and integrated proteomics, phosphoproteomics, and transcriptomics analyses, we identified the downstreamsignaling events these drugs affect. Changes in plasma membrane depolarization and elevated intracellular Na+, which compromised Na+-dependent nutrient transport, were documented. Deficits in nutrient deficit acted in turn to trigger the unfolded protein response and the amino acid response, leading ultimately to nutrient starvation and GIC cell death. Our results suggest new therapeutic targets to attack aggressive gliomas.
  • Samsioe, Annika, et al. (författare)
  • Intrauterine death, fetal malformation, and delayed pregnancy in Ljungan virus-infected mice
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Birth defects research. Part B. Developmental and reproductice toxicology. - 1542-9733 .- 1542-9741. ; 77:4, s. 251-256
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: A picornavirus (Ljunganvirus [LV]) has recently been associated with disease during pregnancy in its natural rodent reservoir and in humans. A study of laboratory mice infected under controlled conditions was therefore undertaken. METHODS: CD-1 female mice were infected gestational day two and subjected to varying regimes of stress. RESULTS: LV infection in combination with stress resulted in uterine resorptions, malformations, and neonatal death. A short delay in time to first pregnancy and births was observed in pairs infected in utero. CONCLUSIONS: LV is found in different species of native animals in both Europe and the United States and human epidemiological evidence connects LV and human reproduction, while the observations here indicate that LV is responsible for reproductive problems in a laboratory mouse model. The current findings suggest that the hypothesis that LV also causes disease in pregnant women and their offspring deserves further study.
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