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  • Spotorno, N., et al. (författare)
  • Plasma neurofilament light protein correlates with diffusion tensor imaging metrics in frontotemporal dementia
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - : Public Library of Science (PLoS). - 1932-6203. ; 15:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Neurofilaments are structural components of neurons and are particularly abundant in highly myelinated axons. The levels of neurofilament light chain (NfL) in both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma have been related to degeneration in several neurodegenerative conditions including frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and NfL is currently considered as the most promising diagnostic and prognostic fluid biomarker in FTD. Although the location and function of filaments in the healthy nervous system suggests a link between increased NfL and white matter degeneration, such a claim has not been fully elucidated in vivo, especially in the context of FTD. The present study provides evidence of an association between the plasma levels of NfL and white matter involvement in behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) by relating plasma concentration of NfL to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics in a group of 20 bvFTD patients. The results of both voxel-wise and tract specific analysis showed that increased plasma NfL concentration is associated with a reduction in fractional anisotropy (FA) in a widespread set of white matter tracts including the superior longitudinal fasciculus, the fronto-occipital fasciculus the anterior thalamic radiation and the dorsal cingulum bundle. Plasma NfL concentration also correlated with cortical thinning in a portion of the right medial prefrontal cortex and of the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex. These results support the hypothesis that blood NfL levels reflect the global level of neurodegeneration in bvFTD and help to advance our understanding of the association between this blood biomarker for FTD and the disease process.
  • Santillo, Alexander Frizell, et al. (författare)
  • Diffusion Tensor Tractography versus Volumetric Imaging in the Diagnosis of Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 8:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • MRI diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies of white matter integrity in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia have consistently shown involvement of frontal and temporal white matter, corresponding to regional loss of cortical volume. Volumetric imaging has a suboptimal sensitivity as a diagnostic tool and thus we wanted to explore if DTI is a better method to discriminate patients and controls than volumetric imaging. We examined the anterior cingulum bundle in 14 patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and 22 healthy controls using deterministic manual diffusion tensor tractography, and compared DTI parameters with two measures of cortical atrophy, VBM and cortical thickness, of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Statistically significant changes between patients and controls were detected in all DTI parameters, with large effect sizes. ROC-AUC was for the best DTI parameters: 0.92 (fractional anisotropy) to 0.97 (radial diffusivity), 0.82 for the best cortical parameter, VBM of the ACC. Results from the AUC were confirmed with binary logistic regression analysis including demographic variables, but only for fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity. Ability to classify patient/nonpatient status was significantly better for mean diffusivity vs. VBM (p=0.031), and borderline significant for fractional anisotropy vs. VBM (p=0.062). The results indicate that DTI could offer advantages in comparison with the assessment of cortical volume in differentiating patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and controls.
  • Vinterstare, Jerker, et al. (författare)
  • Experimental manipulation of perceived predation risk and cortisol generates contrasting trait trajectories in plastic crucian carp
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Experimental Biology. - : COMPANY BIOLOGISTS LTD. - 0022-0949 .- 1477-9145. ; 223:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most animals constitute potential prey and must respond appropriately to predator-mediated stress in order to survive. Numerous prey also adaptively tailor their response to the prevailing level of risk and stress imposed by their natural enemies, i.e. they adopt an inducible defence strategy. Predator exposure may activate the stress axis, and drive the expression of anti-predator traits that facilitate survival in a high-risk environment (the predation-stress hypothesis). Here, we quantified two key morphological anti-predator traits, body morphology and coloration, in crucian carp reared in the presence or absence of a predator ( pike) in addition to experimental manipulation of physiological stress via implants containing either cortisol or a cortisol inhibitor. We found that predator-exposed fish expressed a deeper-bodied phenotype and darker body coloration as compared with non-exposed individuals. Skin analyses revealed that an increase in the amount of melanophores caused the dramatic colour change in predator-exposed fish. Increased melanization is costly, and the darker body coloration may act as an inducible defence against predation, via a conspicuous signal of the morphological defence or by crypsis towards dark environments and a nocturnal lifestyle. By contrast, the phenotype of individuals carrying cortisol implants did not mirror the phenotype of predatorexposed fish but instead exhibited opposite trajectories of trait change: a shallow-bodied morphology with a lighter body coloration as compared with sham-treated fish. The cortisol inhibitor did not influence the phenotype of fish i.e. neither body depth nor body coloration differed between this group and predator-exposed fish with a sham implant. However, our results illuminate a potential link between stress physiology and morphological defence expression.
  • Björnerås, Caroline, et al. (författare)
  • Inland blue holes of The Bahamas - chemistry and biology in a unique aquatic environment
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Fundamental and Applied Limnology. - : Schweizerbart science publishers. - 1863-9135. ; 194:2, s. 95-106
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While lake systems in temperate regions have been extensively studied, tropical and subtropical systems have received less attention. Here, we describe the water chemistry and biota of ten inland blue holes on Andros Island, The Bahamas, representative of the morphological, abiotic, and biotic variation among Androsian inland blue holes. The majority of the studied blue holes were vertically stratified with oxic freshwater overlying anoxic saline groundwater of marine origin. Water chemistry (e.g. total phosphorus and nitrogen) in shallow waters was similar among blue holes, while turbidity and water color varied. Presence of hydrogen sulfide and reduced iron in and below the halocline indicate reducing conditions in all stratified blue holes. The biota above the halocline was also similar among blue holes with a few taxa dominating the phytoplankton community, and the zooplankton community consisting of copepods and rotifers. The Bahamas mosquitofish (Gambusia hubbsi) was present in all investigated blue holes, often accompanied by other small planktivorous fish, while the piscivorous bigmouth sleeper (Gobiomorus donnitor) was only present in some of the blue holes. Our field study reinforces that inland blue holes are highly interesting for biogeochemical research, and provide naturally replicated systems for evolutionary studies.
  • Dewan, Ramita, et al. (författare)
  • Pathogenic Huntingtin Repeat Expansions in Patients with Frontotemporal Dementia and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Neuron. - : Cell Press. - 1097-4199. ; 109:3, s. 448-460.e4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We examined the role of repeat expansions in the pathogenesis of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by analyzing whole-genome sequence data from 2,442 FTD/ALS patients, 2,599 Lewy body dementia (LBD) patients, and 3,158 neurologically healthy subjects. Pathogenic expansions (range, 40-64 CAG repeats) in the huntingtin (HTT) gene were found in three (0.12%) patients diagnosed with pure FTD/ALS syndromes but were not present in the LBD or healthy cohorts. We replicated our findings in an independent collection of 3,674 FTD/ALS patients. Postmortem evaluations of two patients revealed the classical TDP-43 pathology of FTD/ALS, as well as huntingtin-positive, ubiquitin-positive aggregates in the frontal cortex. The neostriatal atrophy that pathologically defines Huntington's disease was absent in both cases. Our findings reveal an etiological relationship between HTT repeat expansions and FTD/ALS syndromes and indicate that genetic screening of FTD/ALS patients for HTT repeat expansions should be considered.
  • Ekdahl, C, et al. (författare)
  • Rapid decrease of free vancomycin in dense staphylococcal cultures.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology. - 0934-9723 .- 1435-4373. ; 24:9, s. 596-602
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bacterial numbers in broth cultures were determined by bioluminescence assay of intracellular bacterial ATP. Broth MICs for strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 14990 and 35984) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923, 29213 and 6538) were determined for cultures with different inocula (10(5)-10(8) bacteria/ml) after 24 h of incubation in supplemented Mueller-Hinton broth containing vancomycin. All of the tested strains except one were susceptible to methicillin, and all of the strains were susceptible to vancomycin. Free vancomycin concentrations in the broth cultures of all strains were determined with an agar well bioassay after 24 h of incubation. Free vancomycin concentrations and bacterial numbers of ATCC 35984 and ATCC 29213 were also determined after 0.5, 2, 4, and 8 h. In a low inoculum (10(5) bacteria/ml), the broth MICs were 1-4 microg/ml. In a high inoculum (approximately 10(8) bacteria/ml), the broth MICs increased two- to fourfold to 4-8 microg/ml. In dense inocula ( approximately 10(9)-10(10) bacteria/ml), the concentrations of free vancomycin in the broth were reduced, in most cases below the detection limit of the bioassay (
  • Ferrari, Raffaele, et al. (författare)
  • Frontotemporal dementia and its subtypes: a genome-wide association study.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Lancet Neurology. - : Lancet Ltd. - 1474-4465. ; 13:7, s. 686-699
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a complex disorder characterised by a broad range of clinical manifestations, differential pathological signatures, and genetic variability. Mutations in three genes-MAPT, GRN, and C9orf72-have been associated with FTD. We sought to identify novel genetic risk loci associated with the disorder.
  • Janelidze, S., et al. (författare)
  • Increased blood-brain barrier permeability is associated with dementia and diabetes but not amyloid pathology or APOE genotype
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - : Elsevier. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 51, s. 104-112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction might be an important component of many neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we investigated its role in dementia using large clinical cohorts. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/plasma albumin ratio (Qalb), an indicator of BBB (and blood-CSF barrier) permeability, was measured in a total of 1015 individuals. The ratio was increased in patients with Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies or Parkinson's disease dementia, subcortical vascular dementia, and frontotemporal dementia compared with controls. However, this measure was not changed during preclinical or prodromal Alzheimer's disease and was not associated with amyloid positron emission tomography or APOE genotype. The Qalb was increased in diabetes mellitus and correlated positively with CSF bio-markers of angiogenesis and endothelial dysfunction (vascular endothelial growth factor, intracellular adhesion molecule 1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1). In healthy elderly, high body mass index and waist-hip ratio predicted increased Qalb 20 years later. In summary, BBB permeability is increased in major dementia disorders but does not relate to amyloid pathology or APOE genotype. Instead, BBB impairment may be associated with diabetes and brain microvascular damage. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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