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  • Borland, Emma, et al. (författare)
  • The Montreal Cognitive Assessment : Normative Data from a Large Swedish Population-Based Cohort
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - : IOS Press. - 1387-2877 .- 1875-8908. ; 59:3, s. 893-901
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) has a high sensitivity for detecting cognitive dysfunction. Swedish normative data does not exist and international norms are often derived from populations where cognitive impairment has not been screened for and not been thoroughly assessed to exclude subjects with dementia or mild cognitive impairment. Objective: To establish norms for MoCA and develop a regression-based norm calculator based on a large, well-examined cohort. Methods: MoCA was administered on 860 randomly selected elderly people from a population-based cohort from the EPIC study. Cognitive dysfunction was screened for and further assessed at a memory clinic. After excluding cognitively impaired participants, normative data was derived from 758 people, aged 65-85. Results: MoCA cut-offs (-1 to -2 standard deviations) for cognitive impairment ranged from <25 to <21 for the lowest educated and <26 to <24 for the highest educated, depending on age group. Significant predictors for MoCA score were age, sex and level of education. Conclusion: We present detailed normative MoCA data and cut-offs according to the DSM-5 criteria for cognitive impairment based on a large population-based cohort of elderly individuals, screened and thoroughly investigated to rule out cognitive impairment. Level of education, sex, and age should be taken in account when evaluating MoCA score, which is facilitated by our online regression-based calculator that provide percentile and z-score for a subject's MoCA score.
  • Gillberg, Linn, et al. (författare)
  • Adipose tissue transcriptomics and epigenomics in low birthweight men and controls : role of high-fat overfeeding
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - : Springer. - 0012-186X .- 1432-0428. ; 59:4, s. 799-812
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis Individuals who had a low birthweight (LBW) are at an increased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes when exposed to high-fat overfeeding (HFO). We studied genome-wide mRNA expression and DNA methylation in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) after 5 days of HFO and after a control diet in 40 young men, of whom 16 had LBW. Methods mRNA expression was analysed using Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST arrays and DNA methylation using Illumina 450K BeadChip arrays. Results We found differential DNA methylation at 53 sites in SAT from LBW vs normal birthweight (NBW) men (false discovery rate < 5%), including sites in the FADS2 and CPLX1 genes previously associated with type 2 diabetes. When we used reference-free cell mixture adjustments to potentially adjust for cell composition, 4,323 sites had differential methylation in LBW vs NBW men. However, no differences in SAT gene expression levels were identified between LBW and NBW men. In the combined group of all 40 participants, 3,276 genes (16.5%) were differentially expressed in SAT after HFO (false discovery rate < 5%) and there was no difference between LBW men and controls. The most strongly upregulated genes were ELOVL6, FADS2 and NNAT; in contrast, INSR, IRS2 and the SLC27A2 fatty acid transporter showed decreased expression after HFO. Interestingly, SLC27A2 expression correlated negatively with diabetes- and obesity-related traits in a replication cohort of 142 individuals. DNA methylation at 652 CpG sites (including in CDK5, IGFBP5 and SLC2A4) was altered in SAT after overfeeding in this and in another cohort. Conclusions/interpretation Young men who had a LBW exhibit epigenetic alterations in their adipose tissue that potentially influence insulin resistance and risk of type 2 diabetes. Short-term overfeeding influences gene transcription and, to some extent, DNA methylation in adipose tissue; there was no major difference in this response between LBW and control participants.
  • Rönn, Tina, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of age, BMI and HbA1c levels on the genome-wide DNA methylation and mRNA expression patterns in human adipose tissue and identification of epigenetic biomarkers in blood.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - : Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 24:13, s. 3792-3813
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increased age, BMI and HbA1c levels are risk factors for several non-communicable diseases. However, the impact of these factors on the genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in human adipose tissue remains unknown. We analyzed DNA methylation of ∼480,000 sites in human adipose tissue from 96 males and 94 females, and related methylation to age, BMI and HbA1c. We also compared epigenetic signatures in adipose tissue and blood. Age was significantly associated with both altered DNA methylation and expression of 1,050 genes (e.g. FHL2, NOX4 and PLG). Interestingly, many reported epigenetic biomarkers of ageing in blood, including ELOVL2, FHL2, KLF14 and GLRA1, also showed significant correlations between adipose tissue DNA methylation and age in our study. The most significant association between age and adipose tissue DNA methylation was found upstream of ELOVL2. We identified 2,825 genes (e.g. FTO, ITIH5, CCL18, MTCH2, IRS1 and SPP1) where both DNA methylation and expression correlated with BMI. Methylation at previously reported HIF3A sites correlated significantly with BMI in females only. HbA1c (range 28-46 mmol/mol) correlated significantly with methylation of 711 sites, annotated to e.g. RAB37, TICAM1 and HLA-DPB1. Pathway analyses demonstrated that methylation levels associated with age and BMI are overrepresented among genes involved in cancer, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Our results highlight the impact of age, BMI and HbA1c on epigenetic variation of candidate genes for metabolic diseases and cancer in human adipose tissue. Importantly, we demonstrate that epigenetic biomarkers in blood can mirror age-related epigenetic signatures in target tissues for metabolic diseases such as adipose tissue.
  • Thompson, Paul M., et al. (författare)
  • The ENIGMA Consortium : large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BRAIN IMAGING BEHAV. - 1931-7557 .- 1931-7565. ; 8:2, s. 153-182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA's first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way.
  • Almon, Ricardo, et al. (författare)
  • Body fat and dairy product intake in lactase persistent and non-persistent children and adolescents
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Food & Nutrition Research. - Järfälla, Sweden : Co-action Publishing. - 1654-6628 .- 1654-661X. ; 54
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Lactase non-persistent (LNP) individuals may be lactose intolerant and therefore on a more restricted diet concerning milk and milk products compared to lactase persistent (LP) individuals. This may have an impact on body fat mass.Objective This study examines if LP and LNP children and adolescents, defined by genotyping for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism, differ from each other with regard to milk and milk product intake, and measures of body fat mass.Design: Children (n=298, mean age 9.6 years) and adolescents (n=386, mean age 15.6 years), belonging to the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study, were genotyped for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism. Dietary intakes of reduced and full-fat dairy varieties were determined.Results: LNP (CC genotype) subjects consumed less milk, soured milk and yoghurt compared to LP (CT/TT genotype) subjects (p<0.001). Subsequent partitioning for age group attenuated this observation (p=0.002 for children and p=0.023 in adolescents). Six subjects were reported by parents to be 'lactose intolerant', none of whom were LNP. LNP children and adolescents consumed significantly less reduced fat milk and milk products than LP children and adolescents (p=0.009 for children and p=0.001 for adolescents).Conclusions: We conclude that LP is linked to an overall higher milk and dairy intake, but is not linked to higher body fat mass in children and adolescents.
  • Borssen, A. D., et al. (författare)
  • Epidemiology and causes of death in a Swedish cohort of patients with autoimmune hepatitis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - : TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. - 0036-5521 .- 1502-7708. ; 52:9, s. 1022-1028
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Epidemiological studies of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) show varying figures on prevalence and incidence, and data on the long-term prognosis are scarce.Objective To investigate the epidemiology, long-term prognosis and causes of death in a Swedish AIH cohort.Material and methods: Data collected from 634 AIH patients were matched to the Cause of Death Registry, and survival analyses were made. Prevalence and incidence were calculated for university hospitals with full coverage of cases and compared to the County of Vasterbotten in Northern Sweden.Results: AIH point prevalence was 17.3/100,000 inhabitants in 2009, and the yearly incidence 1990-2009 was 1.2/100,000 inhabitants and year. The time between diagnosis and end of follow-up, liver transplantation or death was in median 11.3 years (range 0-51.5 years). Men were diagnosed earlier (p<.001) and died younger than women (p=.002). No gender differences were found concerning transplant-free, overall survival and liver-related death. Cirrhosis at diagnosis was linked to an inferior survival (p<.001). Liver-related death was the most common cause of death (32.7%). The relative survival started to diverge from the general population 4 years after diagnosis but a distinct decline was not observed until after more than 10 years.Conclusions: Long-term survival was reduced in patients with AIH. No gender difference regarding prognosis was seen but men died younger, probably as a result of earlier onset of disease. Cirrhosis at diagnosis was a risk factor for poor prognosis and the overall risk of liver-related death was increased.
  • Borssen, A. D., et al. (författare)
  • Histological improvement of liver fibrosis in well-treated patients with autoimmune hepatitis A cohort study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Medicine (United States). - : LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS. - 0025-7974 .- 1536-5964. ; 96:34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic autoimmune liver disease that if left untreated may lead to the development of cirrhosis. Previous studies on AIH patients have suggested that fibrosis and even cirrhosis can be reversed by medical treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of medical treatment for protection of developing fibrosis and cirrhosis. A total of 258 liver biopsies from 101 patients (72 women, 29 men) were analyzed by a single pathologist and classified according to the Ishak grading (inflammation) and staging (fibrosis) system. Liver histology was stratified according to the temporal changes of fibrosis stage (increased, decreased, or stable), and groups were compared. Complete or partial response to medical treatment was 94.9%. Reduction of fibrosis stage from the first to the last biopsy was seen in 63 patients (62.4%). We found an association between a reduction in the fibrosis stage and continuous glucocorticoid medication, as well as lowered scores of inflammation at last biopsy. Twenty-one patients had cirrhosis (Ishak stage 6) at least in one of the previous biopsies, but only 5 patients at the last biopsy. Histological improvement is common in AIH patients that respond to medical treatment, and a reduction or stabilization of fibrosis stage occurs in about 2/3 of such patients.
  • Efe, C., et al. (författare)
  • Extrahepatic autoimmune diseases in primary biliary cholangitis: Prevalence and significance for clinical presentation and disease outcome
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0815-9319 .- 1440-1746.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Aim The prevalence and clinical significance of extrahepatic autoimmune diseases (EHAIDs) have not been evaluated in a large cohort of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). Methods The medical records of 1554 patients with PBC from 20 international centers were retrospectively reviewed. Development of decompensated cirrhosis (ascites, variceal bleeding, and/or hepatic encephalopathy) and hepatocellular carcinoma were considered clinical endpoints. Results A total of 35 different EHAIDs were diagnosed in 440 (28.3%) patients with PBC. Patients with EHAIDs were more often female (92.5%vs86.1%,P < 0.001) and seropositive for anti-mitochondrial antibodies (88%vs84%,P = 0.05) and antinuclear antibodies and/or smooth muscle antibodies (53.8%vs43.6%,P = 0.005). At presentation, patients with EHAIDs had significantly lower levels of alkaline phosphatase (1.76vs1.98 x upper limit of normal [ULN],P = 0.006), aspartate aminotransferase (1.29vs1.50 x ULN,P < 0.001), and total bilirubin (0.53vs0.58 x ULN,P = 0.002). Patients with EHAIDs and without EHAIDs had similar rates of GLOBE high-risk status (12.3%vs16.1%,P = 0.07) and Paris II response (71.4%vs69.4%,P = 0.59). Overall, event-free survival was not different in patients with and without EHAIDs (90.8%vs90.7%,P = 0.53, log rank). Coexistence of each autoimmune thyroid diseases (10.6%), Sjogren disease (8.3%), systemic sclerosis (2.9%), rheumatoid arthritis (2.7%), systemic lupus erythematosus (1.7%), celiac disease (1.7%), psoriasis (1.5%), and inflammatory bowel diseases (1.3%) did not influence the outcome. Conclusions Our study confirms that EHAIDs are frequently diagnosed in patients with PBC. The presence of EHAIDs may influence the clinical phenotype of PBC at presentation but has no impact on PBC outcome.
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