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1.
  • Melke, Jonas, 1971, et al. (författare)
  • A polymorphism in the serotonin receptor 3A (HTR3A) gene and its association with harm avoidance in women.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Archives of general psychiatry. - : American Medical Association. - 0003-990X. ; 60:10, s. 1017-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The brain neurotransmitter serotonin is known to affect various aspects of human behavior, including personality traits. Serotonin receptor type 3 is a ligand-gated channel encoded by 2 different subunit genes, HTR3A and HTR3B. A polymorphism (C178T) in the 5' region of the HTR3A gene has recently been identified and suggested to be of functional importance. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the possible association between the C178T polymorphism in the HTR3A gene and personality traits in women. DESIGN: Two independent samples of 35- to 45-year-old Swedish women were recruited using the population register. Sample 1 (n = 195) was assessed via the Karolinska Scales of Personality and the Temperament and Character Inventory; sample 2 (n = 175) was assessed using the latter only. Both samples were genotyped with respect to the C178T polymorphism in the HTR3A gene. The A1596G polymorphism in the same gene was also investigated. RESULTS: A significant association between C178T genotype and the Temperament and Character Inventory factor harm avoidance was observed in sample 1 (corrected for multiple comparisons P =.04); this finding was subsequently replicated in sample 2 (P =.004) (pooled populations: P<.001). In the pooled sample, all harm avoidance subscales were found to be significantly associated with the C178T polymorphism: anticipatory worry (P =.001), fear of uncertainty (P<.001), shyness (P<.001), and fatigability and asthenia (P =.008). In addition, a significant association was found in sample 1 between the C178T polymorphism and the Karolinska Scales of Personality nonconformity factor (corrected P =.002), including the subscales of social desirability (P<.001), indirect aggression (P =.002), verbal aggression (P =.05), and irritability (P<.001). Participants homozygous for the less common T allele (<4%) differed from the remaining women by displaying lower ratings on harm avoidance and nonconformity. CONCLUSION: The C178T polymorphism in the HTR3A gene may affect the personality trait of harm avoidance in women.
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2.
  • Thörnqvist, Victoria, et al. (författare)
  • Health-related quality of life worsens by school age amongst children with food allergy
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Translational Allergy. - : BioMed Central. - 2045-7022 .- 2045-7022. ; 9, s. 1-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Food allergy is negatively associated with health-related quality of life (HRQL). Although diferences exist between parents and children, less is known about age-specifc diferences amongst children. As such, we aimed to identify if age, as well as other factors, are associated with food allergy-specifc HRQL in an objectively defned population of children. Methods: Overall, 63 children (boys: n=36; 57.1%) with specialist-diagnosed food allergy to 1+foods were included. Parents/guardians completed the Swedish version of a disease-specifc questionnaire designed to assess overall- and domain-specifc HRQL. Descriptive statistics and linear regression were used. Results: The most common food allergy was hen’s egg (n=40/63; 63.5%). Most children had more than one food allergy (n=48; 76.2%). Nearly all had experienced mild symptoms (e.g. skin; n=56/63; 94.9%), and more than half had severe symptoms (e.g. respiratory; 39/63; 66.1%). Compared to young children (0–5 years), older children (6–12 years) had worse HRQL (e.g. overall HRQL: B=0.60; 95% CI 0.05–1.16; p<0.04.). Similarly, multiple food allergies, and severe symptoms were signifcantly associated with worse HRQL (all p<0.05) even in models adjusted for concomitant allergic disease. No associations were found for gender or socioeconomic status. Conclusion: Older children and those with severe food allergy have worse HRQL.
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3.
  • Lindblom, Rickard P. F., et al. (författare)
  • Complement receptor 2 is up regulated in the spinal cord following nerve root injury and modulates the spinal cord response
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neuroinflammation. - 1742-2094 .- 1742-2094. ; 12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Activation of the complement system has been implicated in both acute and chronic states of neurodegeneration. However, a detailed understanding of this complex network of interacting components is still lacking. Methods: Large-scale global expression profiling in a rat F2(DAxPVG) intercross identified a strong cis-regulatory influence on the local expression of complement receptor 2 (Cr2) in the spinal cord after ventral root avulsion (VRA). Expression of Cr2 in the spinal cord was studied in a separate cohort of DA and PVG rats at different time-points after VRA, and also following sciatic nerve transection (SNT) in the same strains. Consequently, Cr2(-/-) mice and Wt controls were used to further explore the role of Cr2 in the spinal cord following SNT. The in vivo experiments were complemented by astrocyte and microglia cell cultures. Results: Expression of Cr2 in naive spinal cord was low but strongly up regulated at 5-7 days after both VRA and SNT. Levels of Cr2 expression, as well as astrocyte activation, was higher in PVG rats than DA rats following both VRA and SNT. Subsequent in vitro studies proposed astrocytes as the main source of Cr2 expression. A functional role for Cr2 is suggested by the finding that transgenic mice lacking Cr2 displayed increased loss of synaptic nerve terminals following nerve injury. We also detected increased levels of soluble CR2 (sCR2) in the cerebrospinal fluid of rats following VRA. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that local expression of Cr2 in the central nervous system is part of the axotomy reaction and is suggested to modulate subsequent complement mediated effects.
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4.
  • Moller, Anders Pape, et al. (författare)
  • Clutch-size variation in Western Palaearctic secondary hole-nesting passerine birds in relation to nest box design
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Methods in Ecology and Evolution. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 2041-210X. ; 5:4, s. 353-362
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Secondary hole-nesting birds that do not construct nest holes themselves and hence regularly breed in nest boxes constitute important model systems for field studies in many biological disciplines with hundreds of scientists and amateurs involved. Those research groups are spread over wide geographic areas that experience considerable variation in environmental conditions, and researchers provide nest boxes of varying designs that may inadvertently introduce spatial and temporal variation in reproductive parameters. We quantified the relationship between mean clutch size and nest box size and material after controlling for a range of environmental variables in four of the most widely used model species in the Western Palaearctic: great tit Parus major, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca and collared flycatcher F.albicollis from 365 populations and 79610 clutches. Nest floor area and nest box material varied non-randomly across latitudes and longitudes, showing that scientists did not adopt a random box design. Clutch size increased with nest floor area in great tits, but not in blue tits and flycatchers. Clutch size of blue tits was larger in wooden than in concrete nest boxes. These findings demonstrate that the size of nest boxes and material used to construct nest boxes can differentially affect clutch size in different species. The findings also suggest that the nest box design may affect not only focal species, but also indirectly other species through the effects of nest box design on productivity and therefore potentially population density and hence interspecific competition.
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5.
  • Moller, Anders P., et al. (författare)
  • Variation in clutch size in relation to nest size in birds
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Ecology and Evolution. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 2045-7758. ; 4:18, s. 3583-3595
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Nests are structures built to support and protect eggs and/or offspring from predators, parasites, and adverse weather conditions. Nests are mainly constructed prior to egg laying, meaning that parent birds must make decisions about nest site choice and nest building behavior before the start of egg-laying. Parent birds should be selected to choose nest sites and to build optimally sized nests, yet our current understanding of clutch size-nest size relationships is limited to small-scale studies performed over short time periods. Here, we quantified the relationship between clutch size and nest size, using an exhaustive database of 116 slope estimates based on 17,472 nests of 21 species of hole and non-hole-nesting birds. There was a significant, positive relationship between clutch size and the base area of the nest box or the nest, and this relationship did not differ significantly between open nesting and hole-nesting species. The slope of the relationship showed significant intraspecific and interspecific heterogeneity among four species of secondary hole-nesting species, but also among all 116 slope estimates. The estimated relationship between clutch size and nest box base area in study sites with more than a single size of nest box was not significantly different from the relationship using studies with only a single size of nest box. The slope of the relationship between clutch size and nest base area in different species of birds was significantly negatively related to minimum base area, and less so to maximum base area in a given study. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that bird species have a general reaction norm reflecting the relationship between nest size and clutch size. Further, they suggest that scientists may influence the clutch size decisions of hole-nesting birds through the provisioning of nest boxes of varying sizes.
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6.
  • Orgeas, C, et al. (författare)
  • Breast cancer incidence after hormonal infertility treatment in Sweden: a cohort study
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Am J Obstet Gynecol. - 0002-9378 .- 1097-6868. ; 200:1, s. 72 e1-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of infertility treatment with causes of infertility on incidence of breast cancer. STUDY DESIGN: Historical prospective cohort study of 1135 women attending major university clinics for treatment of infertility in Sweden, 1961-1976. Women were classified as users of clomiphene citrate or gonadotropins, or a combination of both therapies. Standardized incidence ratios were calculated to estimate relative risk of breast cancer. RESULTS: We observed 54 cases of breast cancer during 1961-2004, which did not significantly exceed those expected. Users of high-dose clomiphene citrate had an almost 2-fold increased risk (standardized incidence ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-3.35). This association was more pronounced among women referred for nonovulatory factors, with 3-fold increased risk (standardized incidence ratio, 3.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-6.67). CONCLUSION: No overall increased risk for breast cancer was shown with infertility treatment. Women with nonovulatory causes treated with high-dose clomiphene citrate therapy may have an elevated risk for breast cancer.
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7.
  • von Otter, Malin, 1978, et al. (författare)
  • Nrf2-encoding NFE2L2 haplotypes influence disease progression but not risk in Alzheimer's disease and age-related cataract.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Mechanisms of ageing and development. - : Elsevier. - 1872-6216 .- 0047-6374. ; 131:2, s. 105-110
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related cataract, disorders characterized by protein aggregation causing late-onset disease, both involve oxidative stress. We hypothesize that common variants of NFE2L2 and KEAP1, the genes encoding the main regulators of the Nrf2 system, an important defence system against oxidative stress, may influence risk of AD and/or age-related cataract. This case-control study combines an AD material (725 cases and 845 controls), and a cataract material (489 cases and 182 controls). Genetic variation in NFE2L2 and KEAP1 was tagged by eight and three tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), respectively. Single SNPs and haplotypes were analyzed for associations with disease risk, age parameters, MMSE and AD cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. NFE2L2 and KEAP1 were not associated with risk of AD or cataract. However, one haplotype allele of NFE2L2 was associated with 2 years earlier age at AD onset (p(c)=0.013) and 4 years earlier age at surgery for posterior subcapsular cataract (p(c)=0.019). Another haplotype of NFE2L2 was associated with 4 years later age at surgery for cortical cataract (p(c)=0.009). Our findings do not support NFE2L2 or KEAP1 as susceptibility genes for AD or cataract. However, common variants of the NFE2L2 gene may affect disease progression, potentially altering clinically recognized disease onset.
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8.
  • Wai, Hay Mar, et al. (författare)
  • Pediatric food allergy-related household costs are influenced by age, but not disease severity
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: World Allergy Organization Journal. - : Elsevier. - 1731-3317 .- 1939-4551. ; 12:9, s. 1-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ObjectiveThe economic burden of food allergy on households is poorly understood. We evaluated the household costs associated with specialist-diagnosed pediatric food allergy, with focus on age and disease severity.Study designA cross-sectional study of 70 Swedish case-control pairs (59% boys) was conducted using Food Allergy Economic questionnaire. Household costs were analyzed between age- and gender-matched cases (children aged 0–17 years, with specialist-diagnosed food allergy) and controls (non-food allergic households).ResultsParents were predominantly university-educated and employed full-time. Most cases had parent-reported previous anaphylaxis. Mean total annual household costs were comparable between cases and controls. However, compared to controls, cases had significantly higher direct medical-, and non-medical related costs; higher indirect medical-related costs, and higher intangible costs (all p < 0.05). In a sensitivity analyses of only cases aged 0–12 years, direct household costs, including lost earnings due to child's hospitalization, were significantly higher than controls. Results from only children with severe disease paralleled those of all cases vs. controls.ConclusionsAlthough pediatric food allergy is not associated with higher total annual household costs, these households have significantly higher direct medical-related, indirect and intangible costs vs. non-food allergic households. Higher household costs were identified amongst younger children, but not disease severity.
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9.
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10.
  • Andersson, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Coinfection with Enteric Pathogens in East African Children with Acute Gastroenteritis-Associations and Interpretations
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. - : AMER SOC TROP MED & HYGIENE. - 0002-9637 .- 1476-1645. ; 98:6, s. 1566-1570
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Enteric coinfections among children in low-income countries are very common, but it is not well known if specific pathogen combinations are associated or have clinical importance. In this analysis, feces samples from children in Rwanda and Zanzibar less than 5 years of age, with (N = 994) or without (N = 324) acute diarrhea, were analyzed by realtime polymerase chain reaction targeting a wide range of pathogens. Associations were investigated by comparing codetection and mono-detection frequencies for all pairwise pathogen combinations. More than one pathogen was detected in 840 samples (65%). A negative association (coinfections being less common than expected from probability) was observed for rotavirus in combination with Shigella, Campylobacter, or norovirus genogroup II, but only in patients, which is statistically expected for agents that independently cause diarrhea. A positive correlation was observed, in both patients and controls, between Ct (threshold cycle) values for certain virulence factor genes in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) (eae and bfpA) and toxin genes in enterotoxigenic E. coli (eltB and estA), allowing estimation of how often these genes were present in the same bacteria. A significant positive association in patients only was observed for Shigella andEPEC-eae, suggesting that this coinfection might interact in a manner that enhances symptoms. Although interaction between pathogens that affect symptoms is rare, this work emphasizes the importance and difference in interpretation of coinfections depending on whether they are positively or negatively associated.
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