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1.
  • Wicher, Grzegorz K., et al. (författare)
  • Interleukin-33 Promotes Recruitment of Microglia/Macrophages in Response to Traumatic Brain Injury
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: ; 34:22, s. 3173-3182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a devastating condition, often leading to life-long consequences for patients. Even though modern neurointensive care has improved functional and cognitive outcomes, efficient pharmacological therapies are still lacking. Targeting peripherally derived, or resident inflammatory, cells that are rapid responders to brain injury is promising, but complex, given that the contribution of inflammation to exacerbation versus improved recovery varies with time post-injury. The injury-induced inflammatory response is triggered by release of alarmins, and in the present study we asked whether interleukin-33 (IL-33), an injury-associated nuclear alarmin, is involved in TBI. Here, we used samples from human TBI microdialysate, tissue sections from human TBI, and mouse models of central nervous system injury and found that expression of IL-33 in the brain was elevated from nondetectable levels, reaching a maximum after 72 h in both human samples and mouse models. Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes were the main producers of IL-33. Post-TBI, brains of mice deficient in the IL-33 receptor, ST2, contained fewer microglia/macrophages in the injured region than wild-type mice and had an altered cytokine/chemokine profile in response to injury. These observations indicate that IL-33 plays a role in neuroinflammation with microglia/macrophages being cellular targets for this interleukin post-TBI.
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2.
  • Ch'ng, Jun-Hong, et al. (författare)
  • Epitopes of anti-RIFIN antibodies and characterization of rif-expressing Plasmodium falciparum parasites by RNA sequencing
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322 .- 2045-2322. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Variable surface antigens of Plasmodium falciparum have been a major research focus since they facilitate parasite sequestration and give rise to deadly malaria complications. Coupled with its potential use as a vaccine candidate, the recent suggestion that the repetitive interspersed families of polypeptides (RIFINs) mediate blood group A rosetting and influence blood group distribution has raised the research profile of these adhesins. Nevertheless, detailed investigations into the functions of this highly diverse multigene family remain hampered by the limited number of validated reagents. In this study, we assess the specificities of three promising polyclonal anti-RIFIN antibodies that were IgG-purified from sera of immunized animals. Their epitope regions were mapped using a 175,000-peptide microarray holding overlapping peptides of the P. falciparum variable surface antigens. Through immunoblotting and immunofluorescence imaging, we show that different antibodies give varying results in different applications/assays. Finally, we authenticate the antibody-based detection of RIFINs in two previously uncharacterized non-rosetting parasite lines by identifying the dominant rif transcripts using RNA sequencing.
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3.
  • Einarsdottir, Berglind Osk, 1979, et al. (författare)
  • A patient-derived xenograft pre-clinical trial reveals treatment responses and a resistance mechanism to karonudib in metastatic melanoma
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Cell Death & Disease. - 2041-4889. ; 9:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Karonudib (TH1579) is a novel compound that exerts anti-tumor activities and has recently entered phase I clinical testing. The aim of this study was to conduct a pre-clinical trial in patient-derived xenografts to identify the possible biomarkers of response or resistance that could guide inclusion of patients suffering from metastatic melanoma in phase II clinical trials. Patient-derived xenografts from 31 melanoma patients with metastatic disease were treated with karonudib or a vehicle for 18 days. Treatment responses were followed by measuring tumor sizes, and the models were categorized in the response groups. Tumors were harvested and processed for RNA sequencing and protein analysis. To investigate the effect of karonudib on T-cell-mediated anti-tumor activities, tumor-infiltrating T cells were injected in mice carrying autologous tumors and the mice treated with karonudib. We show that karonudib has heterogeneous anti-tumor effect on metastatic melanoma. Thus, based on the treatment responses, we could divide the 31 patient-derived xenografts in three treatment groups: progression group (32%), suppression group (42%), and regression group (26%). Furthermore, we show that karonudib has anti-tumor effect, irrespective of major melanoma driver mutations. Also, we identify high expression of ABCB1, which codes for p-gp pumps as a resistance biomarker. Finally, we show that karonudib treatment does not hamper T-cell-mediated anti-tumor responses. These findings can be used to guide future use of karonudib in clinical use with a potential approach as precision medicine.
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4.
  • Gad, Helge, et al. (författare)
  • MTH1 inhibition eradicates cancer by preventing sanitation of the dNTP pool
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 508:7495, s. 215-221
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cancers have dysfunctional redox regulation resulting in reactive oxygen species production, damaging both DNA and free dNTPs. The MTH1 protein sanitizes oxidized dNTP pools to prevent incorporation of damaged bases during DNA replication. Although MTH1 is non-essential in normal cells, we show that cancer cells require MTH1 activity to avoid incorporation of oxidized dNTPs, resulting in DNA damage and cell death. We validate MTH1 as an anticancer target in vivo and describe small molecules TH287 and TH588 as first-in-class nudix hydrolase family inhibitors that potently and selectively engage and inhibit the MTH1 protein in cells. Protein co-crystal structures demonstrate that the inhibitors bindin the active site of MTH1. The inhibitors cause incorporation of oxidized dNTPs in cancer cells, leading to DNA damage, cytotoxicity and therapeutic responses in patient-derived mouse xenografts. This study exemplifies the non-oncogene addiction concept for anticancer treatment and validates MTH1 as being cancer phenotypic lethal.
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5.
  • Jespersen, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Concomitant use of pembrolizumab and entinostat in adult patients with metastatic uveal melanoma (PEMDAC study): protocol for a multicenter phase II open label study.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: BMC cancer. - : BMC. - 1471-2407. ; 19:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While recent years have seen a revolution in the treatment of metastatic cutaneous melanoma, no treatment has yet been able to demonstrate any prolonged survival in metastatic uveal melanoma. Thus, metastatic uveal melanoma remains a disease with an urgent unmet medical need. Reports of treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors have thus far been disappointing. Based on animal experiments, it is reasonable to hypothesize that the effect of immunotherapy may be augmented by epigenetic therapy. Proposed mechanisms include enhanced expression of HLA class I and cancer antigens on cancer cells, as well as suppression of myeloid suppressor cells.The PEMDAC study is a multicenter, open label phase II study assessing the efficacy of concomitant use of the PD1 inhibitor pembrolizumab and the class I HDAC inhibitor entinostat in adult patients with metastatic uveal melanoma. Primary endpoint is objective response rate. Eligible patients have histologically confirmed metastatic uveal melanoma, ECOG performance status 0-1, measurable disease as per RECIST 1.1 and may have received any number of prior therapies, with the exception of anticancer immunotherapy. Twenty nine patients will be enrolled. Patients receive pembrolizumab 200 mg intravenously every third week in combination with entinostat 5 mg orally once weekly. Treatment will continue until progression of disease or intolerable toxicity or for a maximum of 24 months.The PEMDAC study is the first trial to assess whether the addition of an HDAC inhibitor to anti-PD1 therapy can yield objective anti-tumoral responses in metastatic UM.ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT02697630 . (Registered 3 March 2016). EudraCT registration number: 2016-002114-50.
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6.
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7.
  • Nilsson, Klara, et al. (författare)
  • Surgical Morbidity and Mortality From the Multicenter Randomized Controlled NeoRes II Trial : Standard Versus Prolonged Time to Surgery After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Esophageal Cancer
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Annals of Surgery. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1528-1140 .- 0003-4932. ; 272:5, s. 684-689
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To investigate if prolonged TTS after completed nCRT improves postoperative outcomes for esophageal and esophagogastric junction cancer. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: TTS has traditionally been 4-6 weeks after completed nCRT. However, the optimal timing is not known. METHODS: A multicenter clinical trial was performed with randomized allocation of TTS of 4-6 or 10-12 weeks. The primary endpoint of this sub-study was overall postoperative complications defined as Clavien-Dindo grade II-V. Secondary endpoints included complication severity according to Clavien-Dindo grade IIIb-V, postoperative 90-day mortality, and length of hospital stay. The study was registered in Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02415101). RESULTS: In total 249 patients were randomized. There were no significant differences between standard TTS and prolonged TTS with regard to overall incidence of complications Clavien-Dindo grade II-V (63.2% vs 72.6%, P = 0.134) or regarding Clavien-Dindo grade IIIb-V complications (31.6% vs 34.9%, P = 0.603). There were no statistically significant differences between standard and prolonged TTS regarding anastomotic leak (P = 0.596), conduit necrosis (P = 0.524), chyle leak (P = 0.427), pneumonia (P = 0.548), and respiratory failure (P = 0.723). In the standard TTS arm 5 patients (4.3%) died within 90 days of surgery, compared to 4 patients (3.8%) in the prolonged TTS arm (P = 1.0). Median length of hospital stay was 15 days in the standard TTS arm and 17 days in the prolonged TTS arm (P = 0.234). CONCLUSION: The timing of surgery after completed nCRT for carcinoma of the esophagus or esophagogastric junction, is not of major importance with regard to short-term postoperative outcomes.
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8.
  • Nilsson, Ulrika, et al. (författare)
  • SPE and HPLC/UV of resin acids in colophonium-containing products.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of separation science. - Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany : Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft. - 1615-9314 .- 1615-9306. ; 31:15, s. 2784-90
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A new method, involving SPE and HPLC/UV diode-array detection (DAD), was developed for the quantification of colophonium components in different consumer products, such as cosmetics. Colophonium is a common cause of contact dermatitis since its components can oxidize into allergens on exposure to air. Three different resin acids were used as markers for native and oxidized colophonium, abietic acid (AbA), dehydroabietic acid (DeA), and 7-oxodehydroabietic acid (7-O-DeA). The SPE method, utilizing a mixed-mode hydrophobic and anion exchange retention mechanism, was shown to yield very clean extracts. The use of a urea-embedded C(12) HPLC stationary phase improved the separation of the resin acids compared to common C(18). Concentrations higher than 2 mg/g of both AbA and DeA were detected in wax strips. In this product also 7-O-DeA, a marker for oxidized colophonium, was detected at a level of 28 microg/g. The LODs were in the range of 7-19 microg/g and the LOQs 22-56 microg/g. The method is simple to use and can be applied on many types of technical products, not only cosmetics. For the first time, a method for technical products was developed, which separates AbA from pimaric acid.
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9.
  • Zamora-Ros, R., et al. (författare)
  • Flavonoid and lignan intake in relation to bladder cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 111:9, s. 1870-1880
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There is growing evidence of the protective role of dietary intake of flavonoids and lignans on cancer, but the association with bladder cancer has not been thoroughly investigated in epidemiological studies. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total and subclasses of flavonoids and lignans and risk of bladder cancer and its main morphological type, urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC), within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods: A cohort of 477 312 men and women mostly aged 35-70 years, were recruited in 10 European countries. At baseline, dietary flavonoid and lignan intakes were estimated using centre-specific validated questionnaires and a food composition database based on the Phenol-Explorer, the UK Food Standards Agency and the US Department of Agriculture databases. Results: During an average of 11 years of follow-up, 1575 new cases of primary bladder cancer were identified, of which 1425 were UCC (classified into aggressive (n = 430) and non-aggressive (n = 413) UCC). No association was found between total flavonoid intake and bladder cancer risk. Among flavonoid subclasses, significant inverse associations with bladder cancer risk were found for intakes of flavonol (hazard ratio comparing fifth with first quintile (HRQ5-Q1) 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.61-0.91; P-trend = 0.009) and lignans (HRQ5-Q 10.78, 95% CI: 0.62-0.96; P-trend = 0.046). Similar results were observed for overall UCC and aggressive UCC, but not for non-aggressive UCC. Conclusions: Our study suggests an inverse association between the dietary intakes of flavonols and lignans and risk of bladder cancer, particularly aggressive UCC.
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10.
  • Bamia, C., et al. (författare)
  • Fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to hepatocellular carcinoma in a multi-centre, European cohort study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Cancer. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 0007-0920 .- 1532-1827. ; 112:7, s. 1273-1282
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background:Vegetable and/or fruit intakes in association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk have been investigated in case-control studies conducted in specific European countries and cohort studies conducted in Asia, with inconclusive results. No multi-centre European cohort has investigated the indicated associations. Methods: In 486 799 men/women from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition, we identified 201 HCC cases after 11 years median follow-up. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for HCC incidence for sex-specific quintiles and per 100 g d(-1) increments of vegetable/fruit intakes. Results: Higher vegetable intake was associated with a statistically significant, monotonic reduction of HCC risk: HR (100 g d(-1) increment): 0.83; 95% CI: 0.71-0.98. This association was consistent in sensitivity analyses with no apparent heterogeneity across strata of HCC risk factors. Fruit intake was not associated with HCC incidence: HR (100 g d(-1) increment): 1.01; 95% CI: 0.92-1.11. Conclusions: Vegetable, but not fruit, intake is associated with lower HCC risk with no evidence for heterogeneity of this association in strata of important HCC risk factors. Mechanistic studies should clarify pathways underlying this association. Given that HCC prognosis is poor and that vegetables are practically universally accessible, our results may be important, especially for those at high risk for the disease.
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