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  • Lindstrand, A, et al. (författare)
  • From cytogenetics to cytogenomics : whole-genome sequencing as a first-line test comprehensively captures the diverse spectrum of disease-causing genetic variation underlying intellectual disability
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Genome Medicine. - BMC. - 1756-994X. ; 11:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundSince different types of genetic variants, from single nucleotide variants (SNVs) to large chromosomal rearrangements, underlie intellectual disability, we evaluated the use of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) rather than chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) as a first-line genetic diagnostic test.MethodsWe analyzed three cohorts with short-read WGS: (i) a retrospective cohort with validated copy number variants (CNVs) (cohort 1, n=68), (ii) individuals referred for monogenic multi-gene panels (cohort 2, n=156), and (iii) 100 prospective, consecutive cases referred to our center for CMA (cohort 3). Bioinformatic tools developed include FindSV, SVDB, Rhocall, Rhoviz, and vcf2cytosure.ResultsFirst, we validated our structural variant (SV)-calling pipeline on cohort 1, consisting of three trisomies and 79 deletions and duplications with a median size of 850kb (min 500bp, max 155Mb). All variants were detected. Second, we utilized the same pipeline in cohort 2 and analyzed with monogenic WGS panels, increasing the diagnostic yield to 8%. Next, cohort 3 was analyzed by both CMA and WGS. The WGS data was processed for large (>10kb) SVs genome-wide and for exonic SVs and SNVs in a panel of 887 genes linked to intellectual disability as well as genes matched to patient-specific Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) phenotypes. This yielded a total of 25 pathogenic variants (SNVs or SVs), of which 12 were detected by CMA as well. We also applied short tandem repeat (STR) expansion detection and discovered one pathologic expansion in ATXN7. Finally, a case of Prader-Willi syndrome with uniparental disomy (UPD) was validated in the WGS data.Important positional information was obtained in all cohorts. Remarkably, 7% of the analyzed cases harbored complex structural variants, as exemplified by a ring chromosome and two duplications found to be an insertional translocation and part of a cryptic unbalanced translocation, respectively.ConclusionThe overall diagnostic rate of 27% was more than doubled compared to clinical microarray (12%). Using WGS, we detected a wide range of SVs with high accuracy. Since the WGS data also allowed for analysis of SNVs, UPD, and STRs, it represents a powerful comprehensive genetic test in a clinical diagnostic laboratory setting.
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  • Nordenström, A., et al. (författare)
  • Are carriers of CYP21A2 mutations less vulnerable to psychological stress? A population-based national cohort study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 0300-0664. ; 324.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is one of the most common monogenic autosomal recessive disorders with an incidence of one in 15 000. About one in 70 individuals in the general population are carriers of a severe CYP21A2 mutation. It has been suggested that this confers a survival advantage, perhaps as a result of increased activity in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. We investigated vulnerability to psychological stress in obligate carriers. Method The Swedish CAH Registry encompasses more than 600 patients. Parents, that is obligate carriers of the CYP21A2 mutation, were identified through the Multigeneration Register. The diagnosis of the child was used as the psychological stressor. Psychiatric diagnoses before and after the birth of a child with CAH were compared to those of controls derived from (i) the general population, (ii) parents of children with hypospadias and (iii) parents of children with diabetes mellitus type 1 (T1DM). Results Parents of children with CAH had less risk of being diagnosed with any psychiatric disorder (OR, 0 6), an affective disorder (OR, 0 5) or substance misuse (OR, 0 5) after the diagnosis of the child, compared to the general population. Their risk was also decreased compared to parents of a child with hypospadias (OR, 0 6, 0 4 and 0 2, respectively) and parents of a child with T1DM (OR 0 7, 0 6 and 0 2, respectively). The CYP21A2 carriers had a lower risk of developing mood and stress-related disorders after the diagnosis of the child. Conclusion Obligate CYP21A2 carriers had a reduced risk of a psychiatric diagnosis and were less vulnerable to a psychologically stressful situation, at least with respect to receiving a psychiatric diagnosis. This indicates a better ability to cope with psychological stress among heterozygous carriers of severe CYP21A2 mutations, which may contribute to the apparent survival advantage
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  • Falhammar, H., et al. (författare)
  • Increased cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity in patients with 21-hydroxylase deficiency : : a Swedish population-based national cohort study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 0021-972X. ; 8.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • CONTEXT: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is lethal in its most severe forms if not treated with glucocorticoids. However, glucocorticoids may increase the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to study cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity in CAH. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Patients with CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (n = 588; >80% with known CYP21A2 mutations) were compared with controls matched for sex, year, and place of birth (n = 58 800). Data were obtained by linking national population-based registers. Subgroup analyses were performed regarding sex, clinical severity (salt wasting, simple virilizing, nonclassic), CYP21A2 genotype (null, I2 splice, I172N, P30L), and stratified by the introduction of neonatal screening, age groups, and nonobesity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To study cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity in CAH. RESULTS: In CAH, both any cardiovascular and metabolic disorders (OR [odds ratio], 3.9; 95% CI [confidence interval], 3.1-5.0), and cardiovascular disease (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.9-3.9) were increased. Separate analyses of the individual diseases showed higher frequencies in CAH of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation, venous thromboembolism, obesity, diabetes (mainly type 2), obstructive sleep disorder, thyrotoxicosis, and hypothyroidism. Similar results were seen in the stratified groups. On the subgroup level, females were generally more affected (especially I172N and the nonclassic group), as were males with the null genotype. CONCLUSIONS: CAH was associated with excess cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity but the mechanism is not certain as the glucocorticoids were not assessed. Hypothyroidism and obesity may be an effect of close observation. However, more severe conditions were presumably detected equally in patients and controls. Screening for diabetes and other metabolic disorders that increase cardiovascular risk is important.
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  • Falhammar, H., et al. (författare)
  • Increased mortality in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 0021-972X. ; 21.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Context: Reports on mortality in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) are lacking. Objective: To study mortality and causes of death in CAH. Design, Setting and Participants: We studied patients with CAH (21-hydroxylase deficiency, n=588; CYP21A2 mutations known, >80%), and compared them with controls (n=58800). Data were derived through linkage of national population-based registers. Main Outcome Measures: Mortality and causes of death. Results: The mean age of death was 41.2±26.9 years in CAH patients and 47.7±27.7 years in controls (P<0.001). Among CAH patients 23 (3.9%) had deceased compared to 942 (1.6%) of controls. The hazard ratio (and 95% confidence interval) of death was 2.3(1.2-4.3) in CAH males and 3.5(2.0-6.0) in CAH females. Including only patients born 1952-2009, gave similar total results but only patients with salt-wasting or with unclear phenotype had an increased mortality. The causes of death in CAH patients were adrenal crisis (42%), cardiovascular (32%), cancer (16%), and suicide (10%). There were seven additional deaths in CAH individuals with incomplete or reused personal identification number that could not be analyzed using linkage of registers. Of the latter all except one were deceased before the introduction of neonatal screening in 1986 and most of them in the first weeks of life, probably in an adrenal crisis. Conclusions: CAH is a potentially lethal condition and was associated with excess mortality due to adrenal crisis. The salt-wasting phenotype seemed to have worse outcome also in children and adults due to adrenal crisis and not only before the introduction of neonatal screening.
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  • Nordenvall, A.S., et al. (författare)
  • Hypospadias as a novel feature in spinal bulbar muscle atrophy
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Neurology. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 0340-5354. ; 6.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Spinal and bulbar muscle atrophy (SBMA) is an X-linked neuromuscular disorder caused by CAG repeat expansions in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. The SBMA phenotype consists of slowly progressive neuromuscular symptoms and undermasculinization features as the result of malfunction of the AR. The latter mainly includes gynecomastia and infertility. Hypospadias is also a feature of undermasculinization with an underdeveloped urethra and penis; it has not been described as part of the SBMA phenotype but has been suggested to be associated with a prolonged CAG repeat in the AR gene. This study includes the first epidemiologic description of the co-occurrence of hypospadias and SBMA in subjects and their male relatives in Swedish population-based health registers, as well as an additional clinical case. One boy with severe hypospadias was screened for mutations in the AR gene and was found to have 42 CAG repeats in it, which is in the full range of mutations causing SBMA later in life. We also detected a maximum of four cases displaying the combination of SBMA and hypospadias in our national register databases. This is the third case report with hypospadias in association with CAG repeat expansions in the AR gene in the full range known to cause SBMA later in life. Our findings suggest that hypospadias may be an under diagnosed feature of the SBMA phenotype and we propose that neurologists working with SBMA further investigate and report the true prevalence of hypospadias among patients with SBMA.
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