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Sökning: WFRF:(Nordin Adolfsson Annelie)

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1.
  • Oudin, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Dementia Incidence in Northern Sweden A Longitudinal Study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives. - 0091-6765 .- 1552-9924. ; 124:3, s. 306-312
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> Exposure to ambient air pollution is suspected to cause cognitive effects, but a prospective cohort is needed to study exposure to air pollution at the home address and the incidence of dementia.</p><p><strong>OBJECTIVES:</strong> We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and dementia incidence in a major city in northern Sweden.</p><p><strong>METHODS:</strong> Data on dementia incidence over a 15-year period were obtained from the longitudinal Betula study. Traffic air pollution exposure was assessed with a Land Use Regression Model with a spatial resolution of 50 m x 50 m. Annual mean nitrogen oxide levels at the residential address of the participants at baseline (the start of follow-up) was used as a marker for long-term exposure to air pollution.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> Out of 1806 participants at baseline, 191 were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease during follow-up, and 111 were diagnosed with vascular dementia. Participants in the highest exposure group were more likely to be diagnosed with dementia (Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia), with a Hazard Ratio (HR) of 1.43 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.998, 2.05 for the highest versus lowest quartile). The estimates were similar for Alzheimer's disease (HR 1.38) and vascular dementia (HR 1.47). The HR for dementia associated for the third quartile versus the lowest quartile was 1.48 (95% CI: 1.03, 2.11). A sub-analysis that excluded a younger sample that had been re-tested after only 5 years of follow-up suggested stronger associations with exposure than in the full cohort (HR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.73 for the highest versus lowest quartile).</p><p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong> If the associations we observed are causal, then air pollution from traffic might be an important risk factor for vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease.</p>
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3.
  • Ekström, Ingrid, et al. (författare)
  • Smell Loss Predicts Mortality Risk Regardless of Dementia Conversion
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0002-8614 .- 1532-5415. ; 65:6, s. 1238-1243
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Objectives: To determine whether dementia could explain the association between poor olfactory performance and mortality risk within a decade-long follow-up period. Design: Prospective cohort study. SettingBetula Study, Umea, Sweden. ParticipantsA population-based sample of adult participants without dementia at baseline aged 40 to 90 (N = 1,774). Measurements: Olfactory performance using the Scandinavian Odor-Identification Test (SOIT) and self-reported olfactory function; several social, cognitive, and medical risk factors at baseline; and incident dementia during the following decade. Results: Within the 10-year follow-up, 411 of 1,774 (23.2%) participants had died. In a Cox model, the association between higher SOIT score and lower mortality was significant (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.74 per point interval, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.71-0.77, P &lt; .001). The effect was attenuated, but remained significant, after controlling for age, sex, education, and health-related and cognitive variables (HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87-0.97, P = .001). The association between SOIT score and mortality was retained after controlling for dementia conversion before death (HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87-0.97, P = .001). Similar results were obtained for self-reported olfactory dysfunction. Conclusion: Poor odor identification and poor self-reported olfactory function are associated with greater likelihood of future mortality. Dementia does not attenuate the association between olfactory loss and mortality, suggesting that olfactory loss might mark deteriorating health, irrespective of dementia.</p>
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4.
  • Ekström, Ingrid, et al. (författare)
  • Smell Loss Predicts Mortality Risk Regardless of Dementia Conversion
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of The American Geriatrics Society. - 0002-8614 .- 1532-5415. ; 65:6, s. 1238-1243
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Objectives</p><p>To determine whether dementia could explain the association between poor olfactory performance and mortality risk within a decade-long follow-up period.</p><p>Design</p><p>Prospective cohort study.</p><p>Setting</p><p>Betula Study, Umeå, Sweden.</p><p>Participants</p><p>A population-based sample of adult participants without dementia at baseline aged 40 to 90 (N = 1,774).</p><p>Measurements</p><p>Olfactory performance using the Scandinavian Odor-Identification Test (SOIT) and self-reported olfactory function; several social, cognitive, and medical risk factors at baseline; and incident dementia during the following decade.</p><p>Results</p><p>Within the 10-year follow-up, 411 of 1,774 (23.2%) participants had died. In a Cox model, the association between higher SOIT score and lower mortality was significant (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.74 per point interval, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.71-0.77, P &lt; .001). The effect was attenuated, but remained significant, after controlling for age, sex, education, and health-related and cognitive variables (HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87-0.97, P = .001). The association between SOIT score and mortality was retained after controlling for dementia conversion before death (HR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.87-0.97, P = .001). Similar results were obtained for self-reported olfactory dysfunction.</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>Poor odor identification and poor self-reported olfactory function are associated with greater likelihood of future mortality. Dementia does not attenuate the association between olfactory loss and mortality, suggesting that olfactory loss might mark deteriorating health, irrespective of dementia.</p>
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5.
  • Larsson, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Loss of Olfactory Function Predicts Mortality Irrespective of Dementia Conversion : 10-year follow-up of an age-varied sample
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Chemical Senses. - 0379-864X .- 1464-3553. ; 41:9, s. e111-e288
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The objective of this study was to examine the association between performance in odor identification and future mortality in a community cohort of adults aged between 40 and 90 years. We assessed olfactory performance with a 13-item-version of the Scandinavian Odor Identification Test (SOIT). The results showed that during follow-up (mean=9.4 years, standard deviation=2.23), 411 of 1774 (23.2%) participants died. In a Cox model, the association between higher SOIT score and mortality was highly significant (hazard ratio [HR]=0.74, per point interval, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.71–0.77, p&lt;0.001). The effect was attenuated, but remained significant after controlling for age, sex, education, and health and cognitive variables that were also associated with an increased risk of mortality (HR=0.92, 95% CI=0.87–0.97, p=0.001). Controlling for dementia conversion prior to death did not attenuate the association between SOIT score and mortality (HR=0.92, 95% CI=0.87–0.97, p=0.001). Similar results were obtained for olfactory sensitivity as assessed by self-report. Overall, the present findings show that poor odor identification performance is associated with an increased likelihood of future mortality in middle-aged and older adults, after controlling for social, cognitive, and medical risk factors. Most importantly, controlling for the development of dementia did not attenuate the association between odor identification and mortality, suggesting that olfactory decline might mark deteriorating health also irrespective of dementia.</p>
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6.
  • Olofsson, Jonas K., et al. (författare)
  • Long-term episodic memory decline is associated with olfactory deficits only in carriers of ApoE-є4
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Neuropsychologia. - 0028-3932 .- 1873-3514. ; 85, s. 1-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The ɛ4 allele of the Apolipoprotein E gene is a genetic risk factor for late-onset dementia of the Alzheimers' type (DAT), which is characterized by loss of both episodic memoryand olfactory functions. Little is known about the possible role of ɛ4 in the association between ongoing episodic memory decline and olfactory deficits in the general population, but such information is relevant in determining the relevance of olfaction as a marker of DAT risk. The present study was based on a large, population-based sample (n=1087, aged 45–90 years, of which 324 were ɛ4-carriers). Episodic memory change rates were established using data collected every 5 years for a 10–20 year interval leading up to an olfactory assessment using the Scandinavian Odor Identification Test at the last wave of data collection. Participants were classified according to whether or not their episodic memory ability declined more rapidly than the age-typical norm (by &gt;1SD). Our main result is that only in ɛ4-carriers was episodic memory decline associated with odor identification impairment. In individuals without ɛ4, odor identification was unrelated to episodic memory decline status. Follow-up analyses indicated that this moderation by ɛ4 was due to the olfactory nature of the identification test, and that the effect was not caused by 63 individuals with dementia. Our results suggest that the ɛ4 determines the functional association between ongoing episodic memory decline and olfaction. These findings are consistent with the notion that ɛ4-carriers with DAT, compared to non-carriers, display a cortical atrophy pattern that is more focused on mediotemporal lobe regions supporting olfactory and episodic memory functions. Olfactory and memory assessments might provide complementary information on mediotemporal atrophy prior to clinical dementia onset, but the ɛ4 should be considered when using olfactory assessment as an early-stage indicator.</p>
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7.
  • Olofsson, Jonas K, et al. (författare)
  • Long-term episodic memory decline is associated with olfactory deficits only in carriers of ApoE-є4
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Neuropsychologia. - Elsevier. - 0028-3932 .- 1873-3514. ; 85, s. 1-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The ɛ4 allele of the Apolipoprotein E gene is a genetic risk factor for late-onset dementia of the Alzheimers' type (DAT), which is characterized by loss of both episodic memory and olfactory functions. Little is known about the possible role of ɛ4 in the association between ongoing episodic memory decline and olfactory deficits in the general population, but such information is relevant in determining the relevance of olfaction as a marker of DAT risk. The present study was based on a large, population-based sample (n=1087, aged 45-90 years, of which 324 were ɛ4-carriers). Episodic memory change rates were established using data collected every 5 years for a 10-20 year interval leading up to an olfactory assessment using the Scandinavian Odor Identification Test at the last wave of data collection. Participants were classified according to whether or not their episodic memory ability declined more rapidly than the age-typical norm (by &gt; 1SD). Our main result is that only in ɛ4-carriers was episodic memory decline associated with odor identification impairment. In individuals without ɛ4, odor identification was unrelated to episodic memory decline status. Follow-up analyses indicated that this moderation by ɛ4 was due to the olfactory nature of the identification test, and that the effect was not caused by 63 individuals with dementia. Our results suggest that the ɛ4 determines the functional association between ongoing episodic memory decline and olfaction. These findings are consistent with the notion that ɛ4-carriers with DAT, compared to non-carriers, display a cortical atrophy pattern that is more focused on mediotemporal lobe regions supporting olfactory and episodic memory functions. Olfactory and memory assessments might provide complementary information on mediotemporal atrophy prior to clinical dementia onset, but the ɛ4 should be considered when using olfactory assessment as an early-stage indicator.</p>
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8.
  • Oudin, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Traffic-Related Air Pollution as a Risk Factor for Dementia : No Clear Modifying Effects of <em>APOE</em><em>ɛ</em>4 in the Betula Cohort
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. - IOS Press. - 1387-2877 .- 1875-8908. ; 71:3, s. 733-740
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>It is widely known that the apolipoprotein E (<em>APOE</em>) <em>ɛ</em>4 allele imposes a higher risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Recent evidence suggests that exposure to air pollution is also a risk factor for AD, and results from a few studies indicate that the effect of air pollution on cognitive function and dementia is stronger in <em>APOE</em> <em>ɛ</em>4 carriers than in non-carriers. Air pollution and interaction with <em>APOE</em> <em>ɛ</em>4 on AD risk thus merits further attention. We studied dementia incidence over a 15-year period from the longitudinal Betula study in Northern Sweden. As a marker for long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution, we used modelled annual mean nitrogen oxide levels at the residential address of the participants at start of follow-up. Nitrogen oxide correlate well with fine particulate air pollution levels in the study area. We had full data on air pollution, incidence of AD and vascular dementia (VaD), <em>APOE</em> <em>ɛ</em>4 carrier status, and relevant confounding factors for 1,567 participants. As expected, air pollution was rather clearly associated with dementia incidence. However, there was no evidence for a modifying effect by <em>APOE</em> <em>ɛ</em>4 on the association (<em>p</em>-value for interaction &gt; 0.30 for both total dementia (AD+VaD) and AD). The results from this study do not imply that adverse effects of air pollution on dementia incidence is limited to, or stronger in, <em>APOE</em> <em>ɛ</em>4 carriers than in the total population.</p>
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9.
  • Oudin, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Traffic-Related Air Pollution as a Risk Factor for Dementia : No Clear Modifying Effects of APOEɛ4 in the Betula Cohort
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD. - IOS Press. - 1387-2877. ; 71:3, s. 733-740
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is widely known that the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 allele imposes a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent evidence suggests that exposure to air pollution is also a risk factor for AD, and results from a few studies indicate that the effect of air pollution on cognitive function and dementia is stronger in APOEɛ4 carriers than in non-carriers. Air pollution and interaction with APOEɛ4 on AD risk thus merits further attention. We studied dementia incidence over a 15-year period from the longitudinal Betula study in Northern Sweden. As a marker for long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution, we used modelled annual mean nitrogen oxide levels at the residential address of the participants at start of follow-up. Nitrogen oxide correlate well with fine particulate air pollution levels in the study area. We had full data on air pollution, incidence of AD and vascular dementia (VaD), APOEɛ4 carrier status, and relevant confounding factors for 1,567 participants. As expected, air pollution was rather clearly associated with dementia incidence. However, there was no evidence for a modifying effect by APOEɛ4 on the association (p-value for interaction > 0.30 for both total dementia (AD+VaD) and AD). The results from this study do not imply that adverse effects of air pollution on dementia incidence is limited to, or stronger in, APOEɛ4 carriers than in the total population.
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10.
  • Sundström, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Loneliness increases the risk of all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences. - Oxford University Press. - 1079-5014 .- 1758-5368. ; 75:5, s. 919-926
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Objectives: To examine the effect of perceived loneliness on the development of dementia (all-cause), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD).</p><p>Method: The study comprised 1,905 nondemented participants at baseline, drawn from the longitudinal Betula study in Sweden, with a follow-up time of up to 20 years (mean 11.1 years). Loneliness was measured with a single question: "Do you often feel lonely?".</p><p>Results: During the follow-up, 428 developed dementia; 221 had AD, 157 had VaD, and 50 had dementia of other subtypes. The entire dementia group is denoted "all-cause dementia". Cox regression models, adjusted for age, gender, and a baseline report of perceived loneliness, showed increased risk of all-cause dementia (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14–1.89), and AD (HR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.20–2.37), but not VaD (HR = 1.34, 95% CI 0.87–2.08). After adjusting for a range of potential confounders, and excluding participants with dementia onset within the first 5 years of baseline (to consider the possibility of reverse causality), the increased risk for the development of all-cause dementia and AD still remained significant (HR = 1.51, 95% CI 1.01–2.25 for all-cause dementia; HR = 2.50, 95% CI 1.44–4.36 for AD).</p><p>Discussion: The results suggest that perceived loneliness is an important risk factor for all-cause dementia and especially for AD, but not for VaD. These results underscore the importance of paying attention to subjective reports of loneliness among the elderly adults and identifying potential intervention strategies that can reduce loneliness.</p>
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