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2.
  • Lindgren, Cecilia M., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-Wide Association Scan Meta-Analysis Identifies Three Loci Influencing Adiposity and Fat Distribution
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : Public Library of Science. - 1553-7404. ; 5:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To identify genetic loci influencing central obesity and fat distribution, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 genome-wide association studies (GWAS, N = 38,580) informative for adult waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). We selected 26 SNPs for follow-up, for which the evidence of association with measures of central adiposity (WC and/or WHR) was strong and disproportionate to that for overall adiposity or height. Follow-up studies in a maximum of 70,689 individuals identified two loci strongly associated with measures of central adiposity; these map near TFAP2B (WC, P = 1.9x10(-11)) and MSRA (WC, P=8.9x10(-9)). A third locus, near LYPLAL1, was associated with WHR in women only (P = 2.66x10(-8)). The variants near TFAP2B appear to influence central adiposity through an effect on overall obesity/fat-mass, whereas LYPLAL1 displays a strong female-only association with fat distribution. By focusing on anthropometric measures of central obesity and fat distribution, we have identified three loci implicated in the regulation of human adiposity.
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  • Dadaev, Tokhir, et al. (författare)
  • Fine-mapping of prostate cancer susceptibility loci in a large meta-analysis identifies candidate causal variants.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prostate cancer is a polygenic disease with a large heritable component. A number of common, low-penetrance prostate cancer risk loci have been identified through GWAS. Here we apply the Bayesian multivariate variable selection algorithm JAM to fine-map 84 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, using summary data from a large European ancestry meta-analysis. We observe evidence for multiple independent signals at 12 regions and 99 risk signals overall. Only 15 original GWAS tag SNPs remain among the catalogue of candidate variants identified; the remainder are replaced by more likely candidates. Biological annotation of our credible set of variants indicates significant enrichment within promoter and enhancer elements, and transcription factor-binding sites, including AR, ERG and FOXA1. In 40 regions at least one variant is colocalised with an eQTL in prostate cancer tissue. The refined set of candidate variants substantially increase the proportion of familial relative risk explained by these known susceptibility regions, which highlights the importance of fine-mapping studies and has implications for clinical risk profiling.
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  • Jayaram-Lindstrom, N., et al. (författare)
  • Naltrexone modulates dopamine release following chronic, but not acute amphetamine administration: a translational study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Translational Psychiatry. - 2158-3188. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The opioid antagonist naltrexone has been shown to attenuate the subjective effects of amphetamine. However, the mechanisms behind this modulatory effect are currently unknown. We hypothesized that naltrexone would diminish the striatal dopamine release induced by amphetamine, which is considered an important mechanism behind many of its stimulant properties. We used positron emission tomography and the dopamine D2-receptor radioligand [C-11]raclopride in healthy subjects to study the dopaminergic effects of an amphetamine injection after pretreatment with naltrexone or placebo. In a rat model, we used microdialysis to study the modulatory effects of naltrexone on dopamine levels after acute and chronic amphetamine exposure. In healthy humans, naltrexone attenuated the subjective effects of amphetamine, confirming our previous results. Amphetamine produced a significant reduction in striatal radioligand binding, indicating increased levels of endogenous dopamine. However, there was no statistically significant effect of naltrexone on dopamine release. The same pattern was observed in rats, where an acute injection of amphetamine caused a significant rise in striatal dopamine levels, with no effect of naltrexone pretreatment. However, in a chronic model, naltrexone significantly attenuated the dopamine release caused by reinstatement of amphetamine. Collectively, these data suggest that the opioid system becomes engaged during the more chronic phase of drug use, evidenced by the modulatory effect of naltrexone on dopamine release following chronic amphetamine administration. The importance of opioid-dopamine interactions in the reinforcing and addictive effects of amphetamine is highlighted by the present findings and may help to facilitate medication development in the field of stimulant dependence.
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7.
  • Michelsen, B., et al. (författare)
  • Impact of discordance between patient's and evaluator's global assessment on treatment outcomes in 14 868 patients with spondyloarthritis
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Rheumatology. - 1462-0324. ; 59:9, s. 2455-2461
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives. To assess the impact of 'patient's minus evaluator's global assessment of disease activity' (Delta PEG) at treatment initiation on retention and remission rates of TNF inhibitors (TNFi) in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) patients across Europe. Methods. Real-life data from PsA and axSpA patients starting their first TNFi from 11 countries in the European Spondyloarthritis Research Collaboration Network were pooled. Retention rates were compared by Kaplan-Meier analyses with log-rank test and by Cox regression, and remission rates by chi(2) test and by logistic regression across quartiles of baseline Delta PEG, separately in female and male PsA and axSpA patients. Results. We included 14 868 spondyloarthritis (5855 PsA, 9013 axSpA) patients. Baseline Delta PEG was negatively associated with 6/12/24-months' TNFi retention rates in female and male PsA and axSpA patients (P < 0.001), with 6/12/24-months' BASDAI < 2 (P <= 0.002) and ASDAS < 1.3 (P <= 0.005) in axSpA patients, and with DAS28CRP(4)<2.6 (P <= 0.04) and DAPSA28 <= 4 (P <= 0.01), but not DAS28CRP(3)<2.6 (P >= 0.13) in PsA patients, with few exceptions on remission rates. Retention and remission rates were overall lower in female than male patients. Conclusion. High baseline patient's compared with evaluator's global assessment was associated with lower 6/12/24-months' remission as well as retention rates of first TNFi in both PsA and axSpA patients. These results highlight the importance of discordance between patient's and evaluator's perspective on disease outcomes.
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  • Freischmidt, Axel, et al. (författare)
  • Haploinsufficiency of TBK1 causes familial ALS and fronto-temporal dementia
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 18:5, s. 631-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative syndrome hallmarked by adult-onset loss of motor neurons. We performed exome sequencing of 252 familial ALS (fALS) and 827 control individuals. Gene-based rare variant analysis identified an exome-wide significant enrichment of eight loss-of-function (LoF) mutations in TBK1 (encoding TANK-binding kinase 1) in 13 fALS pedigrees. No enrichment of LoF mutations was observed in a targeted mutation screen of 1,010 sporadic ALS and 650 additional control individuals. Linkage analysis in four families gave an aggregate LOD score of 4.6. In vitro experiments confirmed the loss of expression of TBK1 LoF mutant alleles, or loss of interaction of the C-terminal TBK1 coiled-coil domain (CCD2) mutants with the TBK1 adaptor protein optineurin, which has been shown to be involved in ALS pathogenesis. We conclude that haploinsufficiency of TBK1 causes ALS and fronto-temporal dementia.
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10.
  • Glintborg, B., et al. (författare)
  • Biological treatment in ankylosing spondylitis in the Nordic countries during 2010-2016: a collaboration between five biological registries
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology. - 0300-9742 .- 1502-7732. ; 47:6, s. 465-474
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: Large-scale observational cohorts may be used to study the effectiveness and rare side effects of biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (bDMARDs) in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), but may be hampered by differences in baseline characteristics and disease activity across countries. We aimed to explore the research infrastructure in the five Nordic countries regarding bDMARD treatment in AS. Method: This observational cohort study was based on data from biological registries in Denmark (DANBIO), Sweden (SRQ/ARTIS), Finland (ROB-FIN), Norway (NOR-DMARD), and Iceland (ICEBIO). Data were collected for the years 2010-2016. Registry coverage, registry inventory (patient characteristics, disease activity measures), and national guidelines for bDMARD prescription in AS were described per country. Incident (first line) and prevalent bDMARD use per capita, country, and year were calculated. In AS patients who started first line bDMARDs during 2010-2016 (n = 4392), baseline characteristics and disease activity measures were retrieved. Results: Registry coverage of bDMARD-treated patients ranged from 60% to 95%. All registries included extensive prospectively collected data at patient level. Guidelines regarding choice of first line drug and prescription patterns varied across countries. During the period 2010-2016 prevalent bDMARD use increased (p < 0.001), whereas incident use tended to decrease (p for trend < 0.004), with large national variations (e.g. 2016 incidence: Iceland 10.7/100 000, Finland 1.7/100 000). Baseline characteristics were similar regarding C-reactive protein, but differed for other variables, including the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) (range 3.5-6.3) and Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) (2.7-3.8) (both p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Collaboration across the five Nordic biological registries regarding bDMARD use in AS is feasible but national differences in coverage, prescription patterns, and patient characteristics must be taken into account depending on the scientific question.
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