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Sökning: WFRF:(Norrgren Hans)

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  • Norrgren, Hans R., et al. (författare)
  • Increased prevalence of HTLV-1 in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis coinfected with HIV, but not in HIV-negative patients with tuberculosis
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. - Philadelphia, PA : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1525-4135 .- 1944-7884. ; 48:5, s. 607-610
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Few and inconclusive results have been presented regarding the influence of human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) infection on the risk of acquiring tuberculosis (TB). Methods: In 1994-1997, we performed a prospective study on hospitalized adult patients with pulmonary TB in Guinea-Bissau and compared the clinical outcome in HIV-2 and HIV-negative patients. We determined the prevalence of HTLV-1 in all patients screened and diagnosed with TB in that study and compared the infection rate with a serosurvey of HTLV-1 in a population sample from a community-based study conducted at the same time and in the same city. Results: In the TB group, a total of 32 (11.4%) of 280 patients were positive for HTLV-1. This was significantly higher compared with the population-based group in which 74 (3.5%) of 2117 were HTLV-1 positive [crude odds ratio (OR) = 3.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2 to 5.6, P < 0.001]. However, in a logistic regression analysis controlling for age, gender, and HIV result, the difference was no longer significant (OR = 1.61; 95% CI 0.95 to 2.70, P = 0.074). In HIV-negative patients, no association was found between HTLV-1 and TB (OR = 1.18; 95% CI 0.48 to 2.89, P = 0.71), whereas a significant association was found in HIV-positive patients (OR = 2.41; 95% CI 1.26 to 4.61, P = 0.008). Conclusions: The immunosuppressive effect of HTLV-1 alone was not enough to increase the risk of TB in a highly endemic country, but HTLV-1 increased the risk of TB among HIV-infected individuals.
  • Ydreborg, Magdalena, 1974, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of IL28B-Related Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms on Liver Transient Elastography in Chronic Hepatitis C Infection
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 8:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and Aims: Recently, several genome-wide association studies have revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in proximity to IL28B predict spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection as well as outcome following pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy among genotype 1 infected patients. Additionally the presence of the otherwise favorable IL28B genetic variants in the context of HCV genotype 3 infection reportedly entail more pronounced liver fibrosis and steatosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of IL28B SNP variability on liver stiffness as accessed by transient elastography. Methods: Seven hundred and seventy-one Swedish HCV infected patients sequentially undergoing liver stiffness measurement by means of Fibroscan (R) in the context of a real-life trial had samples available for IL28B genotyping (rs12979860) and HCV genotyping. Results: CCrs12979860 was more common among HCV genotype 2 or 3 infected treatment-naive patients than among those infected with genotype 1 (P<0.0001). Additionally CCrs12979860 among HCV genotype 3 infected patients was associated with higher liver stiffness values (P = 0.004), and higher AST to platelet ratio index (APRI; p = 0.02) as compared to carriers of the T allele. Among HCV genotype 1 infected patients, CCrs12979860 was significantly associated with higher viral load (P = 0.001), with a similar non-significant trend noted among HCV genotype 3 infected patients. Conclusion: This study confirms previous reports that the CCrs12979860 SNP is associated with more pronounced liver pathology in patients chronically infected with HCV genotype 3 as compared to genotype 1, suggesting that IL28B genetic variants differently regulates the course of HCV infection across HCV genotypes.
  • Aleman, Soo, et al. (författare)
  • A Risk for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Persists Long-term After Sustained Virologic Response in Patients With Hepatitis C-Associated Liver Cirrhosis
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Clinical Infectious Diseases. - : Oxford University Press. - 1537-6591. ; 57:2, s. 230-236
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. The long-term effect of sustained virologic response (SVR) to antiviral therapy on the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), liver complications, liver-related death, and overall death in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients with liver cirrhosis is not fully known. Methods. These risks were evaluated during long-term follow-up in 351 patients with HCV-related cirrhosis. One hundred ten patients with SVR, 193 with non-SVR, and 48 who were untreated were included in a multicenter cohort that was initiated in 2001 and prospectively followed up for a mean of 5.3 (SD, 2.8) years. Complementary follow-up data from national registries were used to minimize the loss of patients during follow-up. Results. Six patients with SVR developed HCC at 0.04, 0.64, 2.4, 7.4, 7.4, and 7.6 years, respectively, after achieving SVR. The incidences of HCC, any liver complication, liver-related death, and overall death per 100 person-years were significantly lower in SVR time with 1.0, 0.9, 0.7, and 1.9, compared to 2.3, 3.2, 3.0, and 4.1 in non-SVR and 4.0, 4.9, 4.5, and 5.1 in untreated time. The long-term consequences did not decline significantly after >3 years versus during the first 3 years of follow-up. Conclusions. The risk for HCC, liver decompensation, and death in patients with liver cirrhosis related to HCV was markedly reduced after SVR, but a long-term risk of developing HCC remains for up to 8 years. Cirrhotic patients with HCV who achieve SVR should therefore maintain long-term surveillance for HCC. Future studies aimed to better identify those with remaining long-term risk for HCC are needed.
  • Andersson, E., et al. (författare)
  • Increase in transmitted drug resistance in migrants from sub-Saharan Africa diagnosed with HIV-1 in Sweden
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: AIDS. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0269-9370. ; 32:7, s. 877-884
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To study the trends of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in HIV-1 patients newly diagnosed in Sweden, 2010-2016. Design: Register-based study including all antiretroviral therapy-naive patients ≥18 years diagnosed with HIV-1 in Sweden 2010-2016. Methods: Patient data and viral pol sequences were extracted from the national InfCareHIV database. TDR was defined as the presence of surveillance drug resistance mutations (SDRMs). A CD4+ T-cell decline trajectory model estimated time of infection. Phylogenetic inference was used for cluster analysis. Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were used to investigate relations between TDR, epidemiological and viral factors. Results: One thousand, seven hundred and thirteen pol sequences were analyzed, corresponding to 71% of patients with a new HIV-1 diagnosis (heterosexuals: 53%; MSM: 34%). The overall prevalence of TDR was 7.1% (95% CI 5.8-8.3%). Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) TDR increased significantly from 1.5% in 2010 to 6.2% in 2016, and was associated to infection and/or origin in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). An MSM transmission cluster dating back to the 1990s with the M41L SDRM was identified. Twenty-five (1.5%) patients exhibited TDR to tenofovir (TDF; n = 8), emtricitabine/lamivudine (n = 9) or both (n = 8). Conclusion: NNRTI TDR has increased from 2010 to 2016 in HIV-1-infected migrants from SSA diagnosed in Sweden, mirroring the situation in SSA. TDR to tenofovir/emtricitabine, used in preexposure prophylaxis, confirms the clinical and epidemiological need for resistance testing in newly diagnosed patients.
  • Waldenström, Jesper, 1985, et al. (författare)
  • Randomized Trial Evaluating the Impact of Ribavirin Mono-Therapy and Double Dosing on Viral Kinetics, Ribavirin Pharmacokinetics and Anemia in Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1 Infection
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 11:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this pilot study (RibaC), 58 hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infected treatment-naive patients were randomized to (i) 2 weeks ribavirin double dosing concomitant with pegylated interferon-alpha (pegIFN-alpha), (ii) 4 weeks ribavirin mono-therapy prior to adding pegIFN-alpha, or (iii) standard-of-care (SOC) ribavirin dosing concurrent with pegIFN-alpha. Four weeks of ribavirin mono-therapy resulted in a mean 0.46 log(10) IU/mL HCV RNA reduction differentially regulated across IL28B genotypes (0.89 vs. 0.21 log(10) IU/mL for CC and CT/TT respectively; P = 0.006), increased likelihood of undetectable HCV RNA week 4 after initiating pegIFN-alpha and thus shortened treatment duration (P < 0.05), and decreased median IP-10 concentration from 550 to 345 pg/mL (P < 0.001). Both experimental strategies impacted on ribavirin concentrations, and high levels were achieved after one week of double dosing. However, by day 14, double dosing entailed a greater hemoglobin decline as compared to SOC (2.2 vs. 1.4 g/dL; P = 0.03). Conclusion: Ribavirin down-regulates IP-10, and may have an antiviral effect differently regulated across IL28B genotypes.
  • Ahmed, R K S, et al. (författare)
  • Antigen-specific beta-chemokine production and CD8(+) T-cell noncytotoxic antiviral activity in HIV-2-infected individuals
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1365-3083 .- 0300-9475. ; 61:1, s. 63-71
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human immunodeficiency virus-2 (HIV-2) is less pathogenic than HIV-1, and the disease progression in HIV-2-infected individuals seems to be similar to that seen in HIV-1-infected long-term nonprogressors. Cell-mediated immune responses and the production of noncytotoxic CD8(+) T-cell antiviral factors (CAF) and beta-chemokines have been correlated to protection against HIV-1 and associated with asymptomatic infection and slower disease progression. We investigated the antigen-induced beta-chemokine production in HIV-2-infected patients living in Sweden and in Guinea-Bissau. We also compared in vitro CD8(+) T-cell-mediated noncytotoxic antiviral activity against beta-chemokine-sensitive R5 virus (HIV-1(Bal)) and beta-chemokine-insensitive X4 virus (HIV-1(IIIB)) in HIV-2-infected patients with that in HIV-1-infected patients. HIV-2-specific beta-chemokine production was demonstrated in a majority of the HIV-2-infected subjects. CD8(+) T cells of both HIV-1 and HIV-2-infected individuals suppressed R5 virus replication in vitro in a similar manner, while the inhibition of X4 virus replication seemed to be more frequent and of a higher magnitude among HIV-2-infected patients compared to HIV-1-infected subjects. Taken together, our results indicate that the production of CD8(+) T-cell noncytotoxic antiviral factors may contribute to the low transmission of the virus and slower disease progression in HIV-2-infected patients.
  • Andersson, S, et al. (författare)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-2-specific T lymphocyte proliferative responses in HIV-2-infected and in HIV-2-exposed but uninfected individuals in Guinea-Bissau
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Immunology. - : British Society for Immunology. - 0009-9104. ; 139:3, s. 483-489
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-2-specific T lymphocyte proliferative responses were determined in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-2-exposed uninfected individuals, HIV-2-infected individuals and HIV-negative controls in Guinea-Bissau. Increased HIV-2-specific T lymphocyte proliferative responses were detected in both groups compared to HIV-negative controls (healthy HIV-uninfected individuals without known exposure to an HIV-infected person); five out of 29 of the HIV-2-exposed uninfected and half (16 of 32) of the HIV-2-infected individuals had stimulation indexes >2, compared to one out of 49 of the HIV-negative controls (P = 0.003 and P < 0.0001, respectively). The exposed uninfected individuals had reactivity to a HIV-2 V3-peptide corresponding to amino acids 311-326 of the envelope glycoprotein, while the HIV-2-infected people reacted mainly to HIV-2 whole viral lysate. Thus, this study demonstrates a high degree of HIV-2-specific T helper cell activity, as measured by lymphocyte proliferation, in HIV-2-exposed uninfected individuals as well as in HIV-2-infected subjects. These immune responses could be important for resistance to the infection and for the control of established infection and, thus, play a role in the lower transmission and progression of HIV-2 compared to HIV-1.
  • Buggert, Marcus, et al. (författare)
  • CD4+ T cells with an activated and exhausted phenotype distinguish immunodeficiency during aviremic HIV-2 infection
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: AIDS. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0269-9370. ; 30:16, s. 2415-2426
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE:: HIV-2 represents an attenuated form of HIV, where many infected individuals remain “aviremic” without antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, aviremic HIV-2 disease progression exits, and in the current study we therefore aimed to examine if specific pathological characteristics of CD4+ T cells are linked to such outcome. DESIGN:: HIV-seronegative (n=25), HIV-1 (n?=?33), HIV-2 (n?=?39, of whom 26 were aviremic), and HIV-1/2 dually (HIV-D) (n?=?13) infected subjects were enrolled from an occupational cohort in Guinea-Bissau. METHODS:: CD4+ T cell differentiation, activation, exhaustion, senescence, and transcription factors were assessed by polychromatic flow cytometry. Multidimensional clustering bioinformatic tools were used to identify CD4+ T cell subpopulations linked to infection type and disease stage. RESULTS:: HIV-2-infected individuals had early- and late-differentiated CD4+ T cell clusters with lower activation (CD38+HLA-DR+) and exhaustion (PD-1) than HIV-1 and HIV-D-infected subjects. We also noted that aviremic HIV-2-infected individuals possessed fewer CD4+ T cells with pathological signs compared to other HIV-infected groups. Still, compared to HIV-seronegatives, aviremic HIV-2-infected subjects had T-bet+ CD4+ T cells that showed elevated immune activation/exhaustion, and particularly the frequencies of PD-1+ cells were associated with suboptimal percentage of CD4+ T cells. CONCLUSIONS:: Increased frequencies of CD4+ T cells with an activated/exhausted phenotype correlate with exacerbated immunodeficiency in aviremic HIV-2-infected individuals. Thus, these findings encourage studies on the introduction of ART also to individuals with aviremic HIV-2 infection.
  • Esbjörnsson, Joakim, et al. (författare)
  • HIV-1 Molecular Epidemiology in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa: Origin, Demography and Migrations
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 6:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The HIV-1 epidemic in West Africa has been dominated by subtype A and the recombinant form CRF02_AG. Little is known about the origins and the evolutionary history of HIV-1 in this region. We employed Maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods in combination with temporal and spatial information to reconstruct the HIV-1 subtype distribution, demographic history and migration patterns over time in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. We found that CRF02_AG and subsubtype A3 were the dominant forms of HIV-1 in Guinea-Bissau and that they were introduced into the country on at least six different occasions between 1976 and 1981. These estimates also corresponded well with the first reported HIV-1 cases in Guinea-Bissau. Migration analyses suggested that (1) the HIV-1 epidemic started in the capital Bissau and then dispersed into more rural areas, and (2) the epidemic in Guinea-Bissau was connected to both Cameroon and Mali. This is the first study that describes the HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in a West African country by combining the results of subtype distribution with analyses of epidemic origin and epidemiological linkage between locations. The multiple introductions of HIV-1 into Guinea-Bissau, during a short time-period of five years, coincided with and were likely influenced by the major immigration wave into the country that followed the end of the independence war (1963-1974).
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