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Sökning: WFRF:(Nygren Gudrun)

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1.
  • Henningsson, Susanne, et al. (författare)
  • Possible association between the androgen receptor gene and autism spectrum disorder.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Psychoneuroendocrinology. - 0306-4530. ; 34:5, s. 752-761
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autism is a highly heritable disorder but the specific genes involved remain largely unknown. The higher prevalence of autism in men than in women, in conjunction with a number of other observations, has led to the suggestion that prenatal brain exposure to androgens may be of importance for the development of this condition. Prompted by this hypothesis, we investigated the potential influence of variation in the androgen receptor (AR) gene on the susceptibility for autism. To this end, 267 subjects with autism spectrum disorder and 617 controls were genotyped for three polymorphisms in exon I of the AR gene: the CAG repeat, the GGN repeat and the rs6152 SNP. In addition, parents and affected siblings were genotyped for 118 and 32 of the cases, respectively. Case-control comparisons revealed higher prevalence of short CAG alleles as well as of the A allele of the rs6152 SNP in female cases than in controls, but revealed no significant differences with respect to the GGN repeat. Analysis of the 118 families using transmission disequilibrium test, on the other hand, suggested an association with the GGN polymorphism, the rare 20-repeat allele being undertransmitted to male cases and the 23-repeat allele being overtransmitted to female cases. Sequencing of the AR gene in 46 patients revealed no mutations or rare variants. The results tend some support for an influence of the studied polymorphisms on the susceptibility for autism, but argue against the possibility that mutations in the AR gene are common in subjects with this condition. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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2.
  • Anney, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • A genome-wide scan for common alleles affecting risk for autism.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906. ; 19:20, s. 4072-4082
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have a substantial genetic basis, most of the known genetic risk has been traced to rare variants, principally copy number variants (CNVs). To identify common risk variation, the Autism Genome Project (AGP) Consortium genotyped 1558 rigorously defined ASD families for 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and analyzed these SNP genotypes for association with ASD. In one of four primary association analyses, the association signal for marker rs4141463, located within MACROD2, crossed the genome-wide association significance threshold of P < 5 × 10(-8). When a smaller replication sample was analyzed, the risk allele at rs4141463 was again over-transmitted; yet, consistent with the winner's curse, its effect size in the replication sample was much smaller; and, for the combined samples, the association signal barely fell below the P < 5 × 10(-8) threshold. Exploratory analyses of phenotypic subtypes yielded no significant associations after correction for multiple testing. They did, however, yield strong signals within several genes, KIAA0564, PLD5, POU6F2, ST8SIA2 and TAF1C.
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3.
  • Anney, Richard, et al. (författare)
  • Individual common variants exert weak effects on the risk for autism spectrum disorders.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - 0964-6906. ; 21:21, s. 4781-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While it is apparent that rare variation can play an important role in the genetic architecture of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), the contribution of common variation to ASD risk is less clear. To produce a more comprehensive picture, we report Stage 2 of the Autism Genome Project genome-wide association study, adding 1301 ASD families and bringing the total to 2705 families analysed (Stages 1 and 2). In addition to evaluating association of individual SNPs, we also sought evidence that common variants, en masse, might affect risk. Despite genotyping over a million SNPs covering the genome, no single SNP shows significant association with ASD or selected phenotypes at a genome-wide level. The SNP that achieves the smallest p-value from secondary analyses is rs1718101. It falls in CNTNAP2, a gene previously implicated in susceptibility for ASD. This SNP also shows modest association with age of word/phrase acquisition in ASD subjects, of interest because features of language development are also associated with other variation in CNTNAP2. By contrast, allele-scores derived from the transmission of common alleles to Stage 1 cases significantly predict case-status in the independent Stage 2 sample. Despite being significant, the variance explained by these allele scores was small (Vm< 1%). Based on results from individual SNPs and their en masse effect on risk, as inferred from the allele-score results, it is reasonable to conclude that common variants affect ASD risk but their individual effects are modest.
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4.
  • Bragadottir, Gudrun, et al. (författare)
  • Low-dose vasopressin increases glomerular filtration rate, but impairs renal oxygenation in post-cardiac surgery patients.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. - 1399-6576. ; 53:8, s. 1052-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The beneficial effects of vasopressin on diuresis and creatinine clearance have been demonstrated when used as an additional/alternative therapy in catecholamine-dependent vasodilatory shock. A detailed analysis of the effects of vasopressin on renal perfusion, glomerular filtration, excretory function and oxygenation in man is, however, lacking. The objective of this pharmacodynamic study was to evaluate the effects of low to moderate doses of vasopressin on renal blood flow (RBF), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal oxygen consumption (RVO2) and renal oxygen extraction (RO2Ex) in post-cardiac surgery patients. METHODS: Twelve patients were studied during sedation and mechanical ventilation after cardiac surgery. Vasopressin was sequentially infused at 1.2, 2.4 and 4.8 U/h. At each infusion rate, systemic haemodynamics were evaluated by a pulmonary artery catheter, and RBF and GFR were measured by the renal vein thermodilution technique and by renal extraction of 51chromium-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, respectively. RVO2 and RO2Ex were calculated by arterial and renal vein blood samples. RESULTS: The mean arterial pressure was not affected by vasopressin while cardiac output and heart rate decreased. RBF decreased and GFR, filtration fraction, sodium reabsorption, RVO2, RO2Ex and renal vascular resistance increased dose-dependently with vasopressin. Vasopressin exerted direct antidiuretic and antinatriuretic effects. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term infusion of low to moderate, non-hypertensive doses of vasopressin induced a post-glomerular renal vasoconstriction with a decrease in RBF and an increase in GFR in post-cardiac surgery patients. This was accompanied by an increase in RVO2, as a consequence of the increases in the filtered tubular load of sodium. Finally, vasopressin impaired the renal oxygen demand/supply relationship.
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5.
  • Buxbaum, Joseph D, et al. (författare)
  • Mutation analysis of the NSD1 gene in patients with autism spectrum disorders and macrocephaly.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: BMC Medical Genetics. - 1471-2350. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth syndrome characterized by macrocephaly, advanced bone age, characteristic facial features, and learning disabilities, caused by mutations or deletions of the NSD1 gene, located at 5q35. Sotos syndrome has been described in a number of patients with autism spectrum disorders, suggesting that NSD1 could be involved in other cases of autism and macrocephaly. Methods: We screened the NSD1 gene for mutations and deletions in 88 patients with autism spectrum disorders and macrocephaly (head circumference 2 standard deviations or more above the mean). Mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing of all exons and flanking regions. Dosage analysis of NSD1 was carried out using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Results: We identified three missense variants (R604L, S822C and E1499G) in one patient each, but none is within a functional domain. In addition, segregation analysis showed that all variants were inherited from healthy parents and in two cases were also present in unaffected siblings, indicating that they are probably nonpathogenic. No partial or whole gene deletions/duplications were observed. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that Sotos syndrome is a rare cause of autism spectrum disorders and that screening for NSD1 mutations and deletions in patients with autism and macrocephaly is not warranted in the absence of other features of Sotos syndrome.
6.
  • Buxbaum, Joseph D, et al. (författare)
  • Mutation screening of the PTEN gene in patients with autism spectrum disorders and macrocephaly.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics. - 1552-4841. ; 144B:4, s. 484-491
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mutations in the PTEN gene are associated with a broad spectrum of disorders, including Cowden syndrome (CS), Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, Proteus syndrome, and Lhermitte-Duclos disease. In addition, PTEN mutations have been described in a few patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and macrocephaly. In this study, we screened the PTEN gene for mutations and deletions in 88 patients with ASDs and macrocephaly (defined as >or=2 SD above the mean). Mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing of all exons and flanking regions, as well as the promoter region. Dosage analysis of PTEN was carried out using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). No partial or whole gene deletions were observed. We identified a de novo missense mutation (D326N) in a highly conserved amino acid in a 5-year-old boy with autism, mental retardation, language delay, extreme macrocephaly (+9.6 SD) and polydactyly of both feet. Polydactyly has previously been described in two patients with Lhermitte-Duclos disease and CS and is thus likely to be a rare sign of PTEN mutations. Our findings suggest that PTEN mutations are a relatively infrequent cause of ASDs with macrocephaly. Screening of PTEN mutations is warranted in patients with autism and pronounced macrocephaly, even in the absence of other features of PTEN-related tumor syndromes.
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7.
  • Casey, Jillian P, et al. (författare)
  • A novel approach of homozygous haplotype sharing identifies candidate genes in autism spectrum disorder.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - 0340-6717. ; 131:4, s. 565-579
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable disorder of complex and heterogeneous aetiology. It is primarily characterized by altered cognitive ability including impaired language and communication skills and fundamental deficits in social reciprocity. Despite some notable successes in neuropsychiatric genetics, overall, the high heritability of ASD (~90%) remains poorly explained by common genetic risk variants. However, recent studies suggest that rare genomic variation, in particular copy number variation, may account for a significant proportion of the genetic basis of ASD. We present a large scale analysis to identify candidate genes which may contain low-frequency recessive variation contributing to ASD while taking into account the potential contribution of population differences to the genetic heterogeneity of ASD. Our strategy, homozygous haplotype (HH) mapping, aims to detect homozygous segments of identical haplotype structure that are shared at a higher frequency amongst ASD patients compared to parental controls. The analysis was performed on 1,402 Autism Genome Project trios genotyped for 1 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We identified 25 known and 1,218 novel ASD candidate genes in the discovery analysis including CADM2, ABHD14A, CHRFAM7A, GRIK2, GRM3, EPHA3, FGF10, KCND2, PDZK1, IMMP2L and FOXP2. Furthermore, 10 of the previously reported ASD genes and 300 of the novel candidates identified in the discovery analysis were replicated in an independent sample of 1,182 trios. Our results demonstrate that regions of HH are significantly enriched for previously reported ASD candidate genes and the observed association is independent of gene size (odds ratio 2.10). Our findings highlight the applicability of HH mapping in complex disorders such as ASD and offer an alternative approach to the analysis of genome-wide association data.
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8.
  • Chaste, Pauline, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic variations of the melatonin pathway in patients with attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorders.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pineal Research. - 0742-3098. ; 51:4, s. 394-399
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant and a synchronizer of many physiological processes. Alteration in melatonin signaling has been reported in a broad range of diseases, but little is known about the genetic variability of this pathway in humans. Here, we sequenced all the genes of the melatonin pathway -AA-NAT, ASMT, MTNR1A, MTNR1B and GPR50 - in 321 individuals from Sweden including 101 patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 220 controls from the general population. We could find several damaging mutations in patients with ADHD, but no significant enrichment compared with the general population. Among these variations, we found a splice site mutation in ASMT (IVS5+2T>C) and one stop mutation in MTNR1A (Y170X) - detected exclusively in patients with ADHD - for which biochemical analyses indicated that they abolish the activity of ASMT and MTNR1A. These genetic and functional results represent the first comprehensive ascertainment of melatonin signaling deficiency in ADHD.
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9.
  • Chaste, Pauline, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of pathway-biased and deleterious melatonin receptor mutants in autism spectrum disorders and in the general population.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: PloS One. - 1932-6203. ; 5:7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant and a synchronizer of many physiological processes. Alteration of the melatonin pathway has been reported in circadian disorders, diabetes and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, very little is known about the genetic variability of melatonin receptors in humans. Here, we sequenced the melatonin receptor MTNR1A and MTNR1B, genes coding for MT1 and MT2 receptors, respectively, in a large panel of 941 individuals including 295 patients with ASD, 362 controls and 284 individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. We also sequenced GPR50, coding for the orphan melatonin-related receptor GPR50 in patients and controls. We identified six non-synonymous mutations for MTNR1A and ten for MTNR1B. The majority of these variations altered receptor function. Particularly interesting mutants are MT1-I49N, which is devoid of any melatonin binding and cell surface expression, and MT1-G166E and MT1-I212T, which showed severely impaired cell surface expression. Of note, several mutants possessed pathway-selective signaling properties, some preferentially inhibiting the adenylyl cyclase pathway, others preferentially activating the MAPK pathway. The prevalence of these deleterious mutations in cases and controls indicates that they do not represent major risk factor for ASD (MTNR1A case 3.6% vs controls 4.4%; MTNR1B case 4.7% vs 3% controls). Concerning GPR50, we detected a significant association between ASD and two variations, Delta502-505 and T532A, in affected males, but it did not hold up after Bonferonni correction for multiple testing. Our results represent the first functional ascertainment of melatonin receptors in humans and constitute a basis for future structure-function studies and for interpreting genetic data on the melatonin pathway in patients.
10.
  • Chaste, Pauline, et al. (författare)
  • Mutation screening of the ARX gene in patients with autism.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics. - 1552-4841. ; 144B:2, s. 228-230
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mutations in the Aristaless related homeobox (ARX) gene are associated with a broad spectrum of disorders, including nonsyndromic X-linked mental retardation, sometimes associated with epilepsy, as well as syndromic forms with brain abnormalities and abnormal genitalia. Furthermore, ARX mutations have been described in a few patients with autism or autistic features. In this study, we screened the ARX gene in 226 male patients with autism spectrum disorders and mental retardation; 42 of the patients had epilepsy. The mutation analysis was performed by direct sequencing of all exons and flanking regions. No ARX mutations were identified in any of the patients tested. These findings indicate that mutations in the ARX gene are very rare in autism.
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