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1.
  • Hill, Jason, et al. (författare)
  • Unprecedented reorganization of holocentric chromosomes provides insights into the enigma of lepidopteran chromosome evolution
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; 5:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chromosome evolution presents an enigma in the mega-diverse Lepidoptera. Most species exhibit constrained chromosome evolution with nearly identical haploid chromosome counts and chromosome-level gene collinearity among species more than 140 million years divergent. However, a few species possess radically inflated chromosomal counts due to extensive fission and fusion events. To address this enigma of constraint in the face of an exceptional ability to change, we investigated an unprecedented reorganization of the standard lepidopteran chromosome structure in the green-veined white butterfly (Pieris napi). We find that gene content in P. napi has been extensively rearranged in large collinear blocks, which until now have been masked by a haploid chromosome number close to the lepidopteran average. We observe that ancient chromosome ends have been maintained and collinear blocks are enriched for functionally related genes suggesting both a mechanism and a possible role for selection in determining the boundaries of these genome-wide rearrangements.
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2.
  • Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa, et al. (författare)
  • Population structure in relation to host-plant ecology and Wolbachia infestation in the comma butterfly
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Evolutionary Biology. - 1010-061X .- 1420-9101. ; 24:10, s. 2173-2185
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Experimental work on Polygonia c-album, a temperate polyphagous butterfly species, has shown that Swedish, Belgian, Norwegian and Estonian females are generalists with respect to host-plant preference, whereas females from UK and Spain are specialized on Urticaceae. Female preference is known to have a strong genetic component. We test whether the specialist and generalist populations form respective genetic clusters using data from mitochondrial sequences and 10 microsatellite loci. Results do not support this hypothesis, suggesting that the specialist and generalist traits have evolved more than once independently. Mitochondrial DNA variation suggests a rapid expansion scenario, with a single widespread haplotype occurring in high frequency, whereas microsatellite data indicate strong differentiation of the Moroccan population. Based on a comparison of polymorphism in the mitochondrial data and sequences from a nuclear gene, we show that the diversity in the former is significantly less than that expected under neutral evolution. Furthermore, we found that almost all butterfly samples were infected with a single strain of Wolbachia, a maternally inherited bacterium. We reason that indirect selection on the mitochondrial genome mediated by a recent sweep of Wolbachia infection has depleted variability in the mitochondrial sequences. We also surmise that P. c-album could have expanded out of a single glacial refugium and colonized Morocco recently.
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3.
  • Larsdotter-Mellstrom, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • It's All in the Mix : Blend-Specific Behavioral Response to a Sexual Pheromone in a Butterfly
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Physiology. - : Frontiers Media S.A.. - 1664-042X .- 1664-042X. ; 7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Among insects, sexual pheromones are typically mixtures of two to several components, all of which are generally required to elicit a behavioral response. Here we show for the first time that a complete blend of sexual pheromone components is needed to elicit a response also in a butterfly. Males of the Green-veined White, Pieris napi, emit an aphrodisiac pheromone, citral, from wing glands. This pheromone is requisite for females to accept mating with a courting male. Citral is a mixture of the two geometric isomers geranial (E-isomer) and neral (Z-isomer) in an approximate 1:1 ratio. We found that both these compounds are required to elicit acceptance behavior, which indicates synergistic interaction between processing of the isomers. Using functional Ca2+ imaging we found that geranial and neral evoke significantly different but overlapping glomerular activity patterns in the antennal lobe, which suggests receptors with different affinity for the two isomers. However, these glomeruli were intermingled with glomeruli responding to, for example, plant-related compounds, i.e., no distinct subpopulation of pheromone-responding glomeruli as in moths and other insects. In addition, these glomeruli showed lower specificity than pheromone-activated glomeruli in moths. We could, however, not detect any mixture interactions among four identified glomeruli, indicating that the synergistic effect may be generated at a higher processing level. Furthermore, correlations between glomerular activity patterns evoked by the single isomers and the blend did not change over time.
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4.
  • Lehmann, Philipp, et al. (författare)
  • Metabolome dynamics of diapause in the butterfly Pieris napi: Distinguishing maintenance, termination and post-diapause phases
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Experimental Biology. - 1477-9145 .- 0022-0949. ; 221:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Diapause is a deep resting stage facilitating temporal avoidance of unfavourable environmental conditions, and is used by many insects to adapt their life cycle to seasonal variation. Although considerable work has been invested in trying to understand each of the major diapause stages (induction, maintenance and termination), we know very little about the transitions between stages, especially diapause termination. Understanding diapause termination is crucial for modelling and predicting spring emergence and winter physiology of insects, including many pest insects. In order to gain these insights, we investigated metabolome dynamics across diapause development in pupae of the butterfly Pieris napi, which exhibits adaptive latitudinal variation in the length of endogenous diapause that is uniquely well characterized. By employing a time-series experiment, we show that the whole-body metabolome is highly dynamic throughout diapause and differs between pupae kept at a diapause-terminating (low) temperature and those kept at a diapause-maintaining (high) temperature. We show major physiological transitions through diapause, separate temperature-dependent from temperature-independent processes and identify significant patterns of metabolite accumulation and degradation. Together, the data show that although the general diapause phenotype (suppressed metabolism, increased cold tolerance) is established in a temperature-independent fashion, diapause termination is temperature dependent and requires a cold signal. This revealed several metabolites that are only accumulated under diapause-terminating conditions and degraded in a temperatureunrelated fashion during diapause termination. In conclusion, our findings indicate that some metabolites, in addition to functioning as cryoprotectants, for example, are candidates for having regulatory roles as metabolic clocks or time-keepers during diapause.
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5.
  • Ma, Lijun, et al. (författare)
  • A phylogenomic tree inferred with an inexpensive PCR-generated probe kit resolves higher-level relationships among Neptis butterflies (Nymphalidae : Limenitidinae)
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Systematic Entomology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0307-6970 .- 1365-3113.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent advances in obtaining reduced representation libraries for next-generation sequencing permit phylogenomic analysis of species-rich, recently diverged taxa. In this study, we performed sequence capture with homemade PCR-generated probes to study diversification among closely related species in a large insect genus to examine the utility of this method. We reconstructed the phylogeny of Neptis Fabricius, a large and poorly studied nymphalid butterfly genus distributed throughout the Old World. We inferred relationships among 108 Neptis samples using 89 loci totaling up to 84 519 bp per specimen. Our taxon sample focused on Palearctic, Oriental and Australasian species, but included 8 African species and outgroups from 5 related genera. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses yielded identical trees with full support for almost all nodes. We confirmed that Neptis is not monophyletic because Lasippa heliodore (Fabricius) and Phaedyma amphion (Linnaeus) are nested within the genus, and we redefine species groups for Neptis found outside of Africa. The statistical support of our results demonstrates that the probe set we employed is useful for inferring phylogenetic relationships among Neptis species and likely has great value for intrageneric phylogenetic reconstruction of Lepidoptera. Based on our results, we revise the following two taxa: Neptis heliodore comb. rev. and Neptis amphion comb. rev.
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6.
  • Mozuraitis, Raimondas, et al. (författare)
  • Volatiles released from foliar extract of host plant enhance landing rates of gravid Polygonia c-album females, but do not stimulate oviposition
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. - : Blackwell Publishing. - 0013-8703 .- 1570-7458. ; 158:3, s. 275-283
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The role of olfactory cues for host search is much less investigated in day-active butterflies than in their relatives, the nocturnal moths. The goal of this study was to investigate whether host-plant volatiles from foliar extracts of hop, Humulus lupulus L. (Cannabaceae), evoke electroantennographic (EAG) responses, increase landing rates, and stimulate egg-laying behavior of gravid Polygonia c-album L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) females. Eighty-nine volatile compounds were detected in a non-concentrated methanol extract of hop by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, 11 of which elicited an EAG response. Concentration of the crude extract significantly reduced landing rates on artificial leaves treated with the sample due to loss of volatile compounds, but after landing the oviposition response of gravid females was not affected. A mixture of eight commercially available EAG-active volatiles increased the landing rate of gravid females to their source but did not act as oviposition stimulants. Dividing the volatile compounds into two groups - consisting of (1) hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, octanal, nonanal, and decanal, and (2) sulcatone, humulene, and benzyl alcohol - obliterated effectiveness, revealing synergism between compounds. Although volatiles did not stimulate oviposition, they significantly contributed to the distribution of eggs by increasing the landing rates on treated artificial leaves.
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7.
  • Nylin, Sören, et al. (författare)
  • Embracing Colonizations : A New Paradigm for Species Association Dynamics
  • Ingår i: Trends in Ecology and Evolution. - Elsevier : Elsevier. - 0169-5347 .- 1872-8383. ; 33:1, s. 4-14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Parasite-host and insect-plant research have divergent traditions despite the fact that most phytophagous insects live parasitically on their host plants. In parasitology it is a traditional assumption that parasites are typically highly specialized; cospeciation between parasites and hosts is a frequently expressed default expectation. Insect-plant theory has been more concerned with host shifts than with cospeciation, and more with hierarchies among hosts than with extreme specialization. We suggest that the divergent assumptions in the respective fields have hidden a fundamental similarity with an important role for potential as well as actual hosts, and hence for host colonizations via ecological fitting. A common research program is proposed which better prepares us for the challenges from introduced species and global change. Parasites are typically assumed to be highly specialized on their hosts and well adapted to them, yet they frequently colonize new hosts - including humans, causing EIDs.This parasite paradox has caused a growing unease with the traditional assumptions in parasitology, which differ markedly from those in the field of insect-plant studies.We report the results of a workshop where parasitologists and insect-plant researchers met to explore the possibility that the two systems may be more similar than the divergent research traditions suggest, so that a common research program can be developed to better prepare us for future challenges.
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8.
  • Ah-King, Malin, 1973-, et al. (författare)
  • Sex in an Evolutionary Perspective : Just Another Reaction Norm
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Evolutionary biology. - 0071-3260 .- 1934-2845. ; 37:4, s. 234-246
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is common to refer to all sorts of clear-cut differences between the sexes as something that is biologically almost inevitable. Although this does not reflect the status of evolutionary theory on sex determination and sexual dimorphism, it is probably a common view among evolutionary biologists as well, because of the impact of sexual selection theory. To get away from thinking about biological sex and traits associated with a particular sex as something static, it should be recognized that in an evolutionary perspective sex can be viewed as a reaction norm, with sex attributes being phenotypically plastic. Sex determination itself is fundamentally plastic, even when it is termed “genetic”. The phenotypic expression of traits that are statistically associated with a particular sex always has a plastic component. This plasticity allows for much more variation in the expression of traits according to sex and more overlap between the sexes than is typically acknowledged. Here we review the variation and frequency of evolutionary changes in sex, sex determination and sex roles and conclude that sex in an evolutionary time-frame is extremely variable. We draw on recent findings in sex determination mechanisms, empirical findings of morphology and behaviour as well as genetic and developmental models to explore the concept of sex as a reaction norm. From this point of view, sexual differences are not expected to generally fall into neat, discrete, pre-determined classes. It is important to acknowledge this variability in order to increase objectivity in evolutionary research.
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9.
  • Andersson, Mathias H., 1976- (författare)
  • Man-made structures as habitat for marine faunal assemblages
  • 2008
  • Licentiatavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Artificial reefs are structures placed in the sea to promote marine life. Although constructions such as oil-rigs, wind farms, bridges and pier pilings are built for other purposes, they could be regarded as artificial reefs as they add new surfaces in the oceans, susceptible to colonization by marine organism. One of the most common constructions in the oceans is cylindrical structures of different materials. Most research of artificial reefs has been conducted in tropical and temperate water and experience and conclusions cannot always be applied to colder waters. Man-made constructions are common in northern European seas, however, few studies are presented in the scientific literature on their impact on the marine ecosystem. The aim of this thesis was to study cylindrical structures of different scale and materials, in order to determine their effect on local fish, algae and sessile invertebrate assemblages. These structures were offshore wind turbines, and pillars of different materials (concrete and steel), situated at the Swedish east and west coast, respectively. They add vertical surfaces into the otherwise empty water column, increasing the probability for fish and invertebrate larvae as well as algae spores and propagules to encounter these high structures, compared to low profile natural or other artificial reefs. Fish species usually associated with rocky reefs and algae communities, i.e. the two spotted goby and the goldsinny-wrasse, showed an increase in abundance  around the introduced cylindrical structures. Similar effect on fish species were found on both the Swedish east and west coast. The observed increase in fish densities  seemed to be caused by added habitat since the pillars and wind turbines provide shelter from predators as well as increased food availability. The latter was either due to the fouling assemblage or change in water movement. The environment created by the introduced structures functions both as nursery and spawning areas since juveniles, adults and gravid fish were recorded in close association with the structures. The fouling community on the vertical surfaces did not resemble the natural assemblages and a difference in recruitment and succession on the pillars of different materials were observed. Further, dissimilar fouling assemblages were observed with other species dominating the assemblages on a fifty year old light-house foundation compared to the seven year old wind turbines, both located in the same area. The sessile filter feeding invertebrates located on the foundations have an advantage in food accessibility towards individuals at the seabed, as the organisms on the foundations are constantly susceptible to the water passing by. In addition, by adding offshore structures in areas previously lacking hard surfaces, non-indigenous species could find new available habitat or the foundations can function as stepping stones into new geographical regions.
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10.
  • Andersson, Mathias H., 1976- (författare)
  • Offshore wind farms - ecological effects of noise and habitat alteration on fish
  • 2011
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • There are large gaps in our understanding how fish populations are affected by the anthropogenic noise and the alteration of habitat caused by the construction and operation of offshore wind farms. These issues are of great importance as the construction of offshore wind farms will increase all over the world in the near future. This thesis studies these effects with a focus on fish. The wind turbine foundations function as artificial reefs and are colonized by invertebrates, algae and fish. The epibenthic assemblages are influenced by factors such as hydrographical parameters, time of submergence, distance to natural hard bottom, material and texture (PAPER I, II). Once an epibenthic assemblage has been developed, fish utilize it for different ecosystem services such as food, shelter, and spawning and nursery area. Benthic and semi-pelagic species show a stronger response to the introduced foundation than pelagic species, as it is the bottom habitat that has mainly been altered (PAPER I, II). Pelagic species could be positively affected by the increased food availability - but it takes time and the effect is local. Construction noise like pile driving creates high levels of sound pressure and acoustic particle motion in the water and seabed. This noise induces behavioural reactions in cod (Gadus morhua) and sole (Solea solea). These reactions could occur up to tens of kilometres distance from the source (PAPER III). During power production, the wind turbines generate a broadband noise with a few dominating tones (PAPER IV, V), which are detectable by sound pressure sensitive fish at a distance of several kilometres even though intense shipping occurs in the area. Motion sensitive species will only detect the turbine noise at around a ten meter distance. Sound levels are only high enough to possibly cause a behavioural reaction within meters from a turbine (PAPER IV, V).
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