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Sökning: WFRF:(Nyrén Olof)

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  • Blom, Johannes, et al. (författare)
  • A 9-year follow-up study of participants and nonparticipants in sigmoidoscopy screening: Importance of self-selection
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1538-7755 .- 1055-9965. ; 17:5, s. 1163-1168
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Self-selection may compromise cost-effectiveness of screening programs. We hypothesized that nonparticipants have generally higher morbidity and mortality than participants. Methods: A Swedish population-based random sample of 1,986 subjects ages 59 to 61 years was invited to sigmoidoscopy screening and followed up for 9 years by means of multiple record linkages to health and population registers. Gender-adjusted cancer incidence rate ratio (IRR) and overall and disease group-specific and mortality rate ratio (MRR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CD were estimated for nonparticipants relative to participants. Cancer and mortality rates were also estimated relative to the age-matched, gender-matched, and calendar period-matched Swedish population using standardized incidence ratios and standardized mortality ratios. Results: Thirty-nine percent participated. The incidence of colorectal cancer (IRR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.8-5.9), other gastrointestinal cancer (IRR, 2.7; 95% CI, 0.6-12.8), lung cancer (IRR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.8-5.9), and smoking-related cancer overall (IRR, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.7-2.5) tended to be increased among nonparticipants relative to participants. Standardized incidence ratios for most of the studied cancers tended to be >1.0 among nonparticipants and <1.0 among participants. Mortality from all causes (MRR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.7-3.4), neoplastic diseases (MRR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.5), gastrointestinal cancer (MRR, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.120.7), and circulatory diseases (MRR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.2) was significantly higher among nonparticipants than among participants. Standardized mortality ratio for the studied outcomes tended to be increased among nonparticipants and was generally decreased among participants. Conclusion: Individuals who might benefit most from screening are overrepresented among nonparticipants. This self-selection may attenuate the cost-effectiveness of screening programs on a population level.
  • Capella, Gabriel, et al. (författare)
  • DNA repair polymorphisms and the risk of stomach adenocarcinoma and severe chronic gastritis in the EPIC-EURGAST study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - : Oxford University Press. - 1464-3685. ; 37:6, s. 1316-1325
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The contribution of genetic variation in DNA repair genes to gastric cancer (GC) risk remains essentially unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the relative contribution of DNA repair gene polymorphisms to GC risk and severe chronic atrophic gastritis (SCAG). Method A nested case control study within the EPIC cohort was performed including 246 gastric adenocarcinomas and 1175 matched controls. Controls with SCAG (n 91), as defined by low pepsinogen A (PGA) levels, and controls with no SCAG (n 1061) were also compared. Twelve polymorphisms at DNA repair genes (MSH2, MLH1, XRCC1, OGG1 and ERCC2) and TP53 gene were analysed. Antibodies against Helicobacter pylori were measured. Results No association was observed for any of these polymorphisms with stomach cancer risk. However, ERCC2 K751Q polymorphism was associated with an increased risk for non-cardial neoplasm [odds ratio (OR) 1.78; 95 confidence interval (CI) 1.023.12], being ERCC2 K751Q and D312N polymorphisms associated with the diffuse type. ERCC2 D312N (OR 2.0; 95 CI 1.093.65) and K751Q alleles (OR 1.82; 95 CI 1.013.30) and XRCC1 R399Q (OR 1.69; 95 CI 1.022.79) allele were associated with an increased risk for SCAG. Conclusion Our study supports a role of ERCC2 in non-cardial GC but not in cardial cancer. A concordant result was observed for subjects with low PGA levels. XRCC1 allele was associated also with SCAG. This is the first prospective study suggesting that individual variation in DNA repair may be relevant for gastric carcinogenesis, a finding that will require further confirmation validation in larger independent studies.
  • Fränneby, Ulf, et al. (författare)
  • Self-reported adverse events after groin hernia repair, a study based on a national register.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Value in Health. - : Wiley. - 1098-3015 .- 1524-4733. ; 11:5, s. 927-932
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: In most clinics, follow-up after inguinal hernia surgery is not a routine procedure and complications may pass unnoticed, thus impairing quality assessment. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency, spectrum, and risk factors of short-term adverse events after groin hernia repair. METHODS: All patients aged 15 years or older with a primary unilateral inguinal or femoral hernia repair recorded in the Swedish Hernia Register (SHR) between November 1 and December 31, 2002 were sent a questionnaire asking about complications within the first 30 postoperative days. RESULTS: Of the 1643 recorded patients, 1448 (88.1%) responded: 1341 (92.6%) were men and 107 (7.4%) women, mean age 59 years. There were 195 (11.9%) nonresponders. Postoperative complications reported in the questionnaire were hematoma in 203 (14.0%) patients, severe pain in 168 (11.6%), testicular pain in 120 (8.3%), and infection in 105 (7.3%). Adverse events were reported in the questionnaire by 391 (23.8%) patients, whereas only 85 (5.2%) were affected according to the SHR. Risk factors for postoperative complications were age below the median (59 years) among the studied hernia patients (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.06-1.74) and laparoscopic repair (OR 2.66; 95% CI 1.17-6.05). CONCLUSION: Questionnaires provide valuable additional information concerning postoperative complications. We recommend that they become an integrated part of routine postoperative assessment.
  • Fränneby, Ulf, et al. (författare)
  • Validation of an Inguinal Pain Questionnaire for assessment of chronic pain after groin hernia repair.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Surgery. - : Wiley. - 0007-1323 .- 1365-2168. ; 95:4, s. 488-493
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Long-term pain is an important outcome after inguinal hernia repair. The aim of this study was to test the validity and reliability of a specific Inguinal Pain Questionnaire (IPQ). METHODS: The study recruited patients aged between 15 and 85 years who had undergone primary inguinal or femoral hernia repair. To test the validity of the questionnaire, 100 patients received the IPQ and the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) 1 and 4 weeks after surgery (group 1). To test reliability and internal consistency, 100 patients received the IPQ on two occasions 1 month apart, 3 years after surgery (group 2). Non-surgery-related pain was analysed in group 3 (2853 patients). RESULTS: A significant decrease in IPQ-rated pain intensity was observed in the first 4 weeks after surgery (P < 0.001). Significant correlations with corresponding BPI pain intensity items corroborated the criterion validity (P < 0.050). Logical incoherence did not exceed 5.5 per cent for any item. Values for kappa in the test-retest in group 2 were higher than 0.5 for all but three items. Cronbach's alpha was 0.83 for questions on pain intensity and 0.74 for interference with daily activities. CONCLUSION: This study found good validity and reliability for the IPQ, making it a useful instrument for assessing pain following groin hernia repair.
  • Huang, Jiaqi, et al. (författare)
  • Helicobacter pylori infection, chronic corpus atrophic gastritis and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort : A nested case-control study
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - : John Wiley and Sons. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. ; 140:8, s. 1727-1735
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The association between H. pylori infection and pancreatic cancer risk remains controversial. We conducted a nested case-control study with 448 pancreatic cancer cases and their individually matched control subjects, based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, to determine whether there was an altered pancreatic cancer risk associated with H. pylori infection and chronic corpus atrophic gastritis. Conditional logistic regression models were applied to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for matching factors and other potential confounders. Our results showed that pancreatic cancer risk was neither associated with H. pylori seropositivity (OR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.70, 1.31) nor CagA seropositivity (OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.48). We also did not find any excess risk among individuals seropositive for H. pylori but seronegative for CagA, compared with the group seronegative for both antibodies (OR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.63, 1.38). However, we found that chronic corpus atrophic gastritis was non-significantly associated with an increased pancreatic cancer risk (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.77, 2.37), and although based on small numbers, the excess risk was particularly marked among individuals seronegative for both H. pylori and CagA (OR = 5.66; 95% CI: 1.59, 20.19, p value for interaction < 0.01). Our findings provided evidence supporting the null association between H. pylori infection and pancreatic cancer risk in western European populations. However, the suggested association between chronic corpus atrophic gastritis and pancreatic cancer risk warrants independent verification in future studies, and, if confirmed, further studies on the underlying mechanisms.
  • Song, Huan, et al. (författare)
  • Increase in the Prevalence of Atrophic Gastritis Among Adults Age 35 to 44 Years Old in Northern Sweden Between 1990 and 2009
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. - 1542-3565 .- 1542-7714. ; 13:9, s. 1592-1600
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Atrophic corpus gastritis (ACG) is believed to be an early precursor of gastric adenocarcinoma. We aimed to investigate trends of ACG in Northern Sweden, from 1990 through 2009, and to identify possible risk factors.METHODS: We randomly selected serum samples collected from 5284 participants in 1990, 1994, 1999, 2004, and 2009, as part of the population-based, cross-sectional Northern Sweden Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease study (ages 35-64 y). Information was collected on sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle, and medical factors using questionnaires. Serum samples were analyzed for levels of pepsinogen I, to identify participants with functional ACG; data from participants with ACG were compared with those from frequency-matched individuals without ACG (controls). Blood samples were analyzed for antibodies against H pylori and CagA. Associations were estimated with unconditional logistic regression models.RESULTS: Overall, 305 subjects tested positive for functional ACG, based on level of pepsinogen I. The prevalence of ACG in participants 55-64 y old decreased, from 124/1000 to 49/1000 individuals, between 1990 and 2009. However, the prevalence of ACG increased, from 22/1000 to 64/1000 individuals among participants 35-44 y old during this time period. CagA seropositivity was associated with risk for ACG (odds ratio, 2.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.69-3.12). Other risk factors included diabetes, low level of education, and high body mass index. The association between body mass index and ACG was confined to individuals 35-44 y old; in this group, overweight and obesity were associated with a 2.8-fold and 4.7-fold increased risk of ACG, respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Among residents of Northern Sweden, the prevalence of ACG increased from 1990 through 2009 specifically among adults 35-44 y old. The stabilizing seroprevalence of H pylori and increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity might contribute to this unexpected trend; studies are needed to determine whether these changes have affected the incidence of gastric cancer.
  • Ejerblad, E., et al. (författare)
  • Association between smoking and chronic renal failure in a nationwide population-based case-control study
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. - Philadelphia, USA : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1046-6673 .- 1533-3450. - 1046-6673 (Print) 1046-6673 (Linking) ; 15:8, s. 2178-2185
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For determining whether smoking is associated with an increased risk for chronic renal failure (CRF) overall and by type of renal disease, smoking data were analyzed from a nationwide population-based case-control study. Eligible as cases were native 18- to 74-yr-old Swedes whose serum creatinine for the first time and permanently exceeded 3.4 mg/dl (men) or 2.8 mg/dl (women). A total of 926 cases (78% of all eligible) and 998 control subjects (75% of 1330 randomly selected subjects from the source population), frequency matched to the cases by gender and age within 10 yr, were included. A face-to-face interview and a self-administered questionnaire provided information about smoking habits and other lifestyle factors. Logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (OR) as measures of relative risk for disease-specific types of CRF among smokers compared with never-smokers. Despite a modest and nonsignificant overall association, the risk increased with high daily doses (OR among smokers of >20 cigarettes/d, 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 2.15), long duration (OR among smokers for >40 yr, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.09), and a high cumulative dose (OR among smokers with >30 pack-years, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.14). Smoking increased risk most strongly for CRF classified as nephrosclerosis (OR among smokers with >20 pack-years, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3 to 3.8), but significant positive associations were also noted with glomerulonephritis. This study thus suggests that heavy cigarette smoking increases the risk of CRF for both men and women, at least CRF classified as nephrosclerosis and glomerulonephritis.
  • Fored, C. M., et al. (författare)
  • Absence of association between organic solvent exposure and risk of chronic renal failure : a nationwide population-based case-control study
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. - Philadelphia, USA : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1046-6673 .- 1533-3450. - 1046-6673 (Print) 1046-6673 (Linking) ; 15:1, s. 180-186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Exposure to organic solvents has been suggested to cause or exacerbate renal disease, but methodologic concerns regarding previous studies preclude firm conclusions. We examined the role of organic solvents in a population-based case-control study of early-stage chronic renal failure (CRF). All native Swedish residents aged 18 to 74 yr, living in Sweden between May 1996 and May 1998, formed the source population. Incident cases of CRF in a pre-uremic stage (n = 926) and control subjects (n = 998), randomly selected from the study base, underwent personal interviews that included a detailed occupational history. Expert rating by a certified occupational hygienist was used to assess organic solvent exposure intensity and duration. Relative risks were estimated by odds ratios (OR) in logistic regression models, with adjustment for potentially important covariates. The overall risk for CRF among subjects ever exposed to organic solvents was virtually identical to that among never-exposed (OR, 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81 to 1.25). No dose-response relationships were observed for lifetime cumulative solvent exposure, average dose, or exposure frequency or duration. The absence of association pertained to all subgroups of CRF: glomerulonephritis (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.34), diabetic nephropathy (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.41), renal vascular disease (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.75), and other renal CRF (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.27). The results from a nationwide, population-based study do not support the hypothesis of an adverse effect of organic solvents on CRF development, in general. Detrimental effects from subclasses of solvents or on specific renal diseases cannot be ruled out.
  • Fored, C. M., et al. (författare)
  • Socio-economic status and chronic renal failure : a population-based case-control study in Sweden
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation. - Oxford, United Kingdom : Oxford University Press. - 0931-0509 .- 1460-2385. - 0931-0509 (Print) 0931-0509 (Linking) ; 18:1, s. 82-88
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Low socio-economic status is associated with the occurrence of several different chronic diseases, but evidence regarding renal disease is scant. To explore whether the risk of chronic renal failure varies by socio-economic status, we performed a population-based case-control study in Sweden.Methods: All native residents from May 1996 to May 1998, aged 18-74 years, formed the source population. Cases (n = 926) were incident patients with chronic renal failure in a pre-uraemic stage. Control subjects (n = 998) were randomly selected within the source population. Exposures were assessed at personal interviews and relative risks were estimated by odds ratios (OR) in logistic regression models, with adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption and regular analgesics use. Results: In families with unskilled workers only, the risk of chronic renal failure was increased by 110% [OR = 2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-4.0] and 60% (OR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0-2.6) among women and men, respectively, relative to subjects living in families in which at least one member was a professional. Subjects with 9 years or less of schooling had a 30% (OR = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.7) higher risk compared with those with a university education. The excess risk was of similar magnitude regardless of underlying renal disease.Conclusions: Low socio-economic status is associated with an increased risk of chronic renal failure. The moderate excess was not explained by age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol or analgesic intake. Thus, socio-economic status appears to be an independent risk indicator for chronic renal failure in Sweden.
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