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1.
  • Fränneby, Ulf, et al. (författare)
  • Validation of an Inguinal Pain Questionnaire for assessment of chronic pain after groin hernia repair.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Surgery. - : Wiley. - 0007-1323 .- 1365-2168. ; 95:4, s. 488-493
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Long-term pain is an important outcome after inguinal hernia repair. The aim of this study was to test the validity and reliability of a specific Inguinal Pain Questionnaire (IPQ). METHODS: The study recruited patients aged between 15 and 85 years who had undergone primary inguinal or femoral hernia repair. To test the validity of the questionnaire, 100 patients received the IPQ and the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) 1 and 4 weeks after surgery (group 1). To test reliability and internal consistency, 100 patients received the IPQ on two occasions 1 month apart, 3 years after surgery (group 2). Non-surgery-related pain was analysed in group 3 (2853 patients). RESULTS: A significant decrease in IPQ-rated pain intensity was observed in the first 4 weeks after surgery (P < 0.001). Significant correlations with corresponding BPI pain intensity items corroborated the criterion validity (P < 0.050). Logical incoherence did not exceed 5.5 per cent for any item. Values for kappa in the test-retest in group 2 were higher than 0.5 for all but three items. Cronbach's alpha was 0.83 for questions on pain intensity and 0.74 for interference with daily activities. CONCLUSION: This study found good validity and reliability for the IPQ, making it a useful instrument for assessing pain following groin hernia repair.
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2.
  • Raposo, S. E., et al. (författare)
  • Intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, zinc and polyunsaturated fatty acids and upper respiratory tract infection-a prospective cohort study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 0954-3007 .- 1476-5640. ; 71:4, s. 450-457
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Antioxidants and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have a role in the human immune defense and may affect the susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infection (URTI). To examine dietary intake of vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, zinc and PUFAs in relation to URTI incidence in a prospective cohort study. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 1533 Swedish women and men aged 25-64 years were followed for nine months during 2011-2012. Information on dietary intake was assessed through a web-based food frequency questionnaire, and events of URTI were self-reported prospectively as they occurred. Cox proportional hazards regression was applied to obtain incidence rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The mean number of URTI events was 0.9 among all participants, 1.0 among women and 0.7 among men. In women, the incidence rate ratios ( 95% confidence interval) for high compared with low intake were 0.69 (0.55-0.88) for vitamin C, 0.77 (0.62-0.96) for vitamin E, 0.57 (0.39-0.83) for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and 0.80 (0.65-0.99) for arachidonic acid ( AA). No association was found for selenium or zinc among women. In men, an increased URTI incidence was seen with medium vitamin E intake (1.42 (1.09-1.85)) and high zinc intake (1.50 (1.04-2.16)). No association was found for vitamin C, selenium or PUFAs among men. CONCLUSIONS: We found an inverse association of URTI incidence among women for vitamin C, vitamin E, DHA and AA intake and a positive association among men for vitamin E and zinc intake. The observed gender differences warrant further investigation.
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3.
  • Bergström, A., et al. (författare)
  • Occupational physical activity and renal cell cancer : a nationwide cohort study in Sweden
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - New York, USA : John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136 .- 1097-0215. - 0020-7136 (Print) 0020-7136 (Linking) ; 83:2, s. 186-91
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The causes of renal cell cancer remain incompletely understood. In one previous retrospective case-control study, high occupational physical activity has been associated with a decreased risk among men, but not among women. Our aim was to investigate the association between occupational physical activity and renal cell cancer in a large cohort in Sweden. A cohort of Swedish men and women was identified in the nationwide censuses in 1960 and 1970, and the reported occupations were classified into 4 levels of physical demands. Follow-up from 1971 through 1989 was accomplished through record linkages to the Swedish Cancer Registry. Multivariate Poisson regression models were used to estimate relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). We found a monotonic increase in risk of renal cell cancer with decreasing level of occupational physical activity among men (p for trend <0.001). After adjustment for socio-economic status, place of residence, and calendar year of follow-up, men with long-term sedentary jobs had a 25% (RR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.02-1.53) increased risk compared to men with physically demanding occupations. Among women there was no association, the dose-risk trend was not significant (p for trend >0.50). Occupational physical activity was inversely associated with renal cell cancer among men. The absence of association among women might be due to smaller range of exposure, confounding by household work or reproductive factors, or to a difference in biological response to physical activity in men and women.
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4.
  • Chow, W. H., et al. (författare)
  • Risk of urinary tract cancers following kidney or ureter stones
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - Oxford, United Kingdom : Oxford University Press. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. - 0027-8874 (Print) 0027-8874 (Linking) ; 89:19, s. 1453-1457
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: A relationship has been suggested between kidney or ureter stones and the development of urinary tract cancers. In this study, a population-based cohort of patients hospitalized for kidney or ureter stones in Sweden was followed for up to 25 years to examine subsequent risks for developing renal cell, renal pelvis/ureter, or bladder cancer.Methods: Data from the national Swedish In-patient Register and the national Swedish Cancer Registry were linked to follow 61,144 patients who were hospitalized for kidney or ureter stones from 1965 through 1983. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed on the basis of nationwide cancer incidence rates, after adjustment for age, sex, and calendar year.Results: Risk of renal cell cancer was not elevated in this cohort. Significant excesses of renal pelvis/ureter cancer (SIR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.8-3.3) and bladder cancer (SIR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.3-1.6) were observed, but the SIRs for women were more than twice those for men. Risks varied little by age or duration of follow-up. Risks of renal pelvis/ureter cancer and bladder cancer among patients with an associated diagnosis of urinary tract infection were more than double those among patients without such infection, although the risks were significantly elevated in both groups.Conclusions: Individuals hospitalized for kidney or ureter stones are at increased risk of developing renal pelvis/ureter or bladder cancer, even beyond 10 years of follow-up. Chronic irritation and infection may play a role, since kidney or ureter stones were located on the same side of the body as the tumors in most patients with renal pelvis/ureter cancer evaluated in our study.
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5.
  • Ejerblad, E., et al. (författare)
  • Association between smoking and chronic renal failure in a nationwide population-based case-control study
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. - Philadelphia, USA : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1046-6673 .- 1533-3450. - 1046-6673 (Print) 1046-6673 (Linking) ; 15:8, s. 2178-2185
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • For determining whether smoking is associated with an increased risk for chronic renal failure (CRF) overall and by type of renal disease, smoking data were analyzed from a nationwide population-based case-control study. Eligible as cases were native 18- to 74-yr-old Swedes whose serum creatinine for the first time and permanently exceeded 3.4 mg/dl (men) or 2.8 mg/dl (women). A total of 926 cases (78% of all eligible) and 998 control subjects (75% of 1330 randomly selected subjects from the source population), frequency matched to the cases by gender and age within 10 yr, were included. A face-to-face interview and a self-administered questionnaire provided information about smoking habits and other lifestyle factors. Logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (OR) as measures of relative risk for disease-specific types of CRF among smokers compared with never-smokers. Despite a modest and nonsignificant overall association, the risk increased with high daily doses (OR among smokers of >20 cigarettes/d, 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 2.15), long duration (OR among smokers for >40 yr, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.09), and a high cumulative dose (OR among smokers with >30 pack-years, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.14). Smoking increased risk most strongly for CRF classified as nephrosclerosis (OR among smokers with >20 pack-years, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.3 to 3.8), but significant positive associations were also noted with glomerulonephritis. This study thus suggests that heavy cigarette smoking increases the risk of CRF for both men and women, at least CRF classified as nephrosclerosis and glomerulonephritis.
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6.
  • Fored, C. M., et al. (författare)
  • Absence of association between organic solvent exposure and risk of chronic renal failure : a nationwide population-based case-control study
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. - Philadelphia, USA : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 1046-6673 .- 1533-3450. - 1046-6673 (Print) 1046-6673 (Linking) ; 15:1, s. 180-186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Exposure to organic solvents has been suggested to cause or exacerbate renal disease, but methodologic concerns regarding previous studies preclude firm conclusions. We examined the role of organic solvents in a population-based case-control study of early-stage chronic renal failure (CRF). All native Swedish residents aged 18 to 74 yr, living in Sweden between May 1996 and May 1998, formed the source population. Incident cases of CRF in a pre-uremic stage (n = 926) and control subjects (n = 998), randomly selected from the study base, underwent personal interviews that included a detailed occupational history. Expert rating by a certified occupational hygienist was used to assess organic solvent exposure intensity and duration. Relative risks were estimated by odds ratios (OR) in logistic regression models, with adjustment for potentially important covariates. The overall risk for CRF among subjects ever exposed to organic solvents was virtually identical to that among never-exposed (OR, 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81 to 1.25). No dose-response relationships were observed for lifetime cumulative solvent exposure, average dose, or exposure frequency or duration. The absence of association pertained to all subgroups of CRF: glomerulonephritis (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.34), diabetic nephropathy (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.41), renal vascular disease (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.75), and other renal CRF (OR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.27). The results from a nationwide, population-based study do not support the hypothesis of an adverse effect of organic solvents on CRF development, in general. Detrimental effects from subclasses of solvents or on specific renal diseases cannot be ruled out.
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7.
  • Fored, C. M., et al. (författare)
  • Socio-economic status and chronic renal failure : a population-based case-control study in Sweden
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation. - Oxford, United Kingdom : Oxford University Press. - 0931-0509 .- 1460-2385. - 0931-0509 (Print) 0931-0509 (Linking) ; 18:1, s. 82-88
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Low socio-economic status is associated with the occurrence of several different chronic diseases, but evidence regarding renal disease is scant. To explore whether the risk of chronic renal failure varies by socio-economic status, we performed a population-based case-control study in Sweden.Methods: All native residents from May 1996 to May 1998, aged 18-74 years, formed the source population. Cases (n = 926) were incident patients with chronic renal failure in a pre-uraemic stage. Control subjects (n = 998) were randomly selected within the source population. Exposures were assessed at personal interviews and relative risks were estimated by odds ratios (OR) in logistic regression models, with adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption and regular analgesics use. Results: In families with unskilled workers only, the risk of chronic renal failure was increased by 110% [OR = 2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-4.0] and 60% (OR = 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0-2.6) among women and men, respectively, relative to subjects living in families in which at least one member was a professional. Subjects with 9 years or less of schooling had a 30% (OR = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.7) higher risk compared with those with a university education. The excess risk was of similar magnitude regardless of underlying renal disease.Conclusions: Low socio-economic status is associated with an increased risk of chronic renal failure. The moderate excess was not explained by age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol or analgesic intake. Thus, socio-economic status appears to be an independent risk indicator for chronic renal failure in Sweden.
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8.
  • Johansson, J., et al. (författare)
  • Diagnosing Barrett's oesophagus : Factors related to agreement between endoscopy and histology
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepathology. - 0954-691X .- 1473-5687. ; 19:10, s. 870-877
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Few previous studies have addressed the agreement between endoscopy and histology regarding Barrett's oesophagus in unselected endoscopy patients. Our aim was to quantify this agreement, and to study its relation to clinical and endoscopic characteristics in consecutive patients coming for first-time gastroscopy. METHODS: We invited consecutive patients aged 18-79 years and endoscoped for the first time at endoscopy units exclusively serving defined catchment areas in southeast Sweden. Endoscopic and clinical data were recorded according to a predetermined protocol, and biopsies were taken from the distal oesophagus in all patients. RESULTS: Among 705 patients included, 17% [95% confidence interval (CI): 14-20] had endoscopically visible columnar mucosa above the oesophagogastric junction and 38% (95% CI: 34-42) had columnar mucosa in at least one biopsy irrespective of the endoscopic finding. The overall concordance between endoscopy and histology regarding presence (or absence) of columnar mucosa above the oesophagogastric junction was 74% (95% CI: 71-77) and the agreement beyond chance, as measured by Kappa (?) statistics, was fair, ?=0.38 (95% CI: 0.32-0.45). The agreement between the endoscopic assessment and intestinal metaplasia at biopsy was 86% (95% CI: 83-88), but ? was only 0.31 (95% CI: 0.21-0.41). Our data were consistent with a lower threshold for macroscopic detection of columnar epithelium above the oesophagogastric junction, when risk factors for Barrett's oesophagus were present. CONCLUSION: The agreement between macroscopic and microscopic assessments of Barrett's oesophagus is no more than fair, and partly dependent on the presence of patient characteristics suggestive of pathology in this region. © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
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9.
  • Johansson, J., et al. (författare)
  • Risk factors for Barrett's oesophagus : A population-based approach
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. - 0036-5521 .- 1502-7708. ; 42:2, s. 148-156
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. Given its often subclinical course, Barrett's oesophagus (BO) hardly lends itself to epidemiologically stringent evaluations. The objective of this study was to investigate risk factors for incident BO diagnosed in a defined population in southeast Sweden while paying particular attention to epidemiological aspects of the study design. Material and methods. Consecutive patients (aged 18-79 years) who were endoscoped with new indications at units exclusively responsible for all gastroscopies in defined catchment area populations were invited to take part in the study. Biopsies were taken above and immediately below the gastro-oesophageal junction, and exposure information was collected through self-administered questionnaires. Endoscopy-room-based cross-sectional data from 604 patients were supplemented with exposure data from 160 population controls. Associations, expressed as odds ratios (ORs), were modelled by means of multivariable logistic regression. Results. In the comparison with population controls, reflux symptoms and smoking indicated a 10.7- and 3.3-fold risk, respectively, for BO (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5-33.4 and 1.1-9.9, respectively). Body mass was unrelated to risk. In the cross-sectional analysis among endoscopy-room patients, reflux symptoms were associated with an OR of 2.0 (95% CI 0.8-5.0). This association was, however, modified by the subjunctional presence of Helicobacter pylori, although the infection was not in itself significantly connected with risk, a combination of reflux symptoms and H. pylori infection was linked to an almost 5-fold risk (95% CI 1.4-16.5) as compared with the absence of both factors. The BO prevalence increased by 5% per year of age (95% CI 1-9%). Conclusions. Reflux is the predominant risk factor for BO, and proximal gastric colonization of H. pylori seems to amplify this risk. © 2007 Taylor & Francis.
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10.
  • Lagerros, Y. T., et al. (författare)
  • Validity and reliability of self-reported total energy expenditure using a novel instrument
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden. Harvard Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA. Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Stat, Milan, Italy. Royal Inst Technol, Sch Comp Sci & Commun, Stockholm, Sweden. : SPRINGER. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284. ; 21:3, s. 227-236
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Improved methods for quantitative self-reports of total physical activity in epidemiological studies are needed. We evaluated randomly selected individuals' ability to integrate their perception of physical activity over time to produce an estimate of the usual level, using a novel instrument for self-quantification of energy expenditure. A population-based sample of 418 Swedish men and women, age 20-59, completed a questionnaire containing the new instrument. For validation, three 24 hour recalls by phone served as gold standard. Reproducibility was assessed through administering the instrument another three times. The validation involved 133 subjects and another 160 completed the reproducibility evaluation. Pearson correlation between usual daily energy expenditure measured by the instrument and the mean of the 24 hour recalls was 0.73. After subdividing the self-reported daily energy expenditure and the mean of the 24 hour recalls into quintiles, 83.5% of the participants remained in the same quintile, or one quintile apart. There was a tendency towards overestimation of usual daily physical activity. This was significantly associated with low education. Reproducibility showed an intraclass correlation of 0.55. Although integrated reports of usual daily energy expenditure over longer periods seem to be afflicted with a tendency of overestimation, total energy expenditure can be estimated with reasonable validity and reproducibility using our instrument.
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