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1.
  • Chikovore, Jeremiah, et al. (författare)
  • HIV/AIDS and sexuality : concerns of youths in rural Zimbabwe
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: African Journal of AIDS Research. - Grahamstown : National inquiry services centre. - 1608-5906. ; 8:4, s. 503-513
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Concerns regarding HIV and AIDS were elicited from 546 school youths (51% female, age range 9-25 years) in a Zimbabwean rural district, through a self-generated question-writing process. Concerns emerged around how to avoid HIV infection at a time when they were undergoing secondary sexual development, had growing feelings of love, and were even engaging in sexual activity, while they had limited access to preventive methods due to denial by the adult world. Fears were expressed in regard to how to tell one's HIV status, even just after sex. HIV and AIDS were visualised in terms of suffering, loneliness, quarantine and death. The youths stressed they would have difficulties communicating with other people should they suspect or find they were infected with HIV, as this would imply they had been sexually active. They seemed to have knowledge about HIV and AIDS which either was incomplete or they could not apply, given a context of silence and denial about their sexuality. Some of their knowledge was coloured with misconceptions, suggesting contradictory information from multiple sources. After more than two decades of the epidemic in Zimbabwe, the scenario portrayed raises questions about HIV/AIDS interventions targeting young people. The question posed is why is the situation of these youths in this state when several stakeholders are actively participating in debates and interventions for the sake of their wellbeing? HIV/AIDS campaigns and interventions may need to consider young people's complex social contexts, the factors generating and sustaining their situation, and what role diverse actors and social-change processes play in this.
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2.
  • Chikovore, Jeremiah, et al. (författare)
  • "How Can I Gain Skills if I Don't Practice?'' The Dynamics of Prohibitive Silence against Pre-Marital Pregnancy and Sex in Zimbabwe
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 8:1, s. e53058
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Young people face sexual and reproductive health (SRH) problems including Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is critical to continue documenting their situation including the contexts they live in. As part of a larger study that explored perspectives of men to SRH and more specifically abortion and contraceptive use, 546 pupils (51% female; age range 9-25 years) from a rural area in Zimbabwe were invited to write anonymously questions about growing up or other questions they could not ask adults for fear or shame. The pupils were included following descriptions by adults of the violence that is unleashed on unmarried young people who engaged in sex, used contraceptives, or simply suggested doing so. The questions by the young people pointed to living in a context of prohibitive silence; their sexuality was silenced and denied. As a consequence they had poor knowledge and their fears and internal conflicts around sexuality and pregnancy were not addressed. Current action suggests concerted effort at the policy level to deal with young people's SRH in Zimbabwe. It nevertheless remains necessary, as a way to provide support to these efforts, to continue examining what lessons can be drawn from the past, and how the past continues to reflect in and shape present dynamics and relations. There is also need to look more critically at life skill education, which has previously been described as having failed to address adequately the practical needs of young people. Life skill education in Zimbabwe has rarely been systematically evaluated. A fuller understanding is also needed of the different factors co-existing in contemporary African societies and how they have been and continue to be constituted within history, and the implications to the promotion of adolescent SRH.
3.
  • Frumence, Gasto, et al. (författare)
  • Access to social capital and risk of HIV infectionin Bukoba urban district, Kagera region, Tanzania
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Archives of Public Health. - BioMed Central. - 0778-7367. ; 72:38, s. 1-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND:Kagera is one of the 22 regions of Tanzania mainland, which has witnessed a decline in HIV prevalence during the past two decades; decreasing from 24% in 1987 to 4.7 in 2009 in the urban district of Bukoba. Access to social capital, both structural and cognitive, might have played a role in this development. The aim was to examine the association between individual structural and cognitive social capital and socio-economic characteristics and the likelihood of being HIV infected.METHODS:We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of 3586 participants, of which 3423 (95%) agreed to test for HIV following pre-test counseling. The HIV testing was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibody detection tests. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the impact of socio-economic factors, individual structural and cognitive social capital and HIV sero-status.RESULTS:Individuals who had access to low levels of both structural and cognitive individual social capital were four and three times more likely to be HIV positive compared to individuals who had access to high levels. The associations remained statistically significant for both individual structural and cognitive social capital after adjusting for potential confounding factors such as age, sex, marital status, occupation, level of education and wealth index (OR =8.6, CI: 5.7-13.0 and OR =2.4, CI: 1.6-3.5 for individual structural and cognitive social capital respectively). For both women and men access to high levels of individual structural and cognitive social capital decreased the risk of being HIV infected. This study confirms previous qualitative studies indicating that access to structural and cognitive social capital is protective to HIV infection.CONCLUSIONS:We suggest that policy makers and programme managers of HIV interventions may consider strengthening and facilitating access to social capital as a way of promoting HIV preventive information and interventions in order to reduce new HIV infections in Tanzania.
4.
  • Frumence, Gasto, et al. (författare)
  • Exploring the role of cognitive and structural forms of social capital in HIV/AIDS trends in the Kagera region of Tanzania - a grounded theory study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: African Journal of AIDS Research. - Taylor & Francis. - 1608-5906. ; 10:1, s. 1-13
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The article presents a synthesis of data from three village case studies focusing on how structural and cognitive social capital may have influenced the progression of the HIV epidemic in the Kagera region of Tanzania. Grounded theory was used to develop a theoretical model describing the possible links between structural and cognitive social capital and the impact on sexual health behaviours. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews were carried out to represent the range of experiences of existing social capital. Both structural and cognitive social capital were active avenues for community members to come together, empower each other, and develop norms, values, trust and reciprocal relations. This empowerment created an enabling environment in which members could adopt protective behaviours against HIV infection. On the one hand, we observed that involvement in formal and informal organisations resulted in a reduction of numbers of sexual partners, led people to demand abstinence from sexual relations until marriage, caused fewer opportunities for casual sex, and gave individuals the agency to demand the use of condoms. On the other hand, strict membership rules and regulations excluded some members, particularly excessive alcohol drinkers and debtors, from becoming members of the social groups, which increased their vulnerability in terms of exposure to HIV. Social gatherings (especially those organised during the night) were also found to increase youths' risk of HIV infection through instances of unsafe sex. We conclude that even though social capital may at times have negative effects on individuals' HIV-prevention efforts, this study provides initial evidence that social capital is largely protective through empowering vulnerable groups such as women and the poor to protect against HIV infection and by promoting protective sexual behaviours.
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5.
  • Hellquist, Barbro Numan, et al. (författare)
  • Effectiveness of population-based service screening with mammography for women ages 40 to 49 years evaluation of the Swedish Mammography Screening in Young Women (SCRY) cohort
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Cancer. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0008-543X. ; 117:4, s. 714-722
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of mammography screening for women ages 40 to 49 years still is questioned, and few studies of the effectiveness of service screening for this age group have been conducted.METHODS: Breast cancer mortality was compared between women who were invited to service screening at ages 40 to 49 years (study group) and women in the same age group who were not invited during 1986 to 2005 (control group). Together, these women comprise the Mammography Screening of Young Women (SCRY) cohort, which includes all Swedish counties. A prescreening period was defined to facilitate a comparison of mortality in the absence of screening. The outcome measure was refined mortality, ie, breast cancer death for women who were diagnosed during follow-up at ages 40 to 49 years. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated.RESULTS: There was no significant difference in breast cancer mortality during the prescreening period. During the study period, there were 803 breast cancer deaths in the study group (7.3 million person-years) and 1238 breast cancer deaths in the control group (8.8 million person-years). The average follow-up was 16 years. The estimated RR for women who were invited to screening was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.66-0.83), and the RR for women who attended screening was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.62-0.80).CONCLUSIONS: In this comprehensive study, mammography screening for women ages 40 to 49 years was efficient for reducing breast cancer mortality.
6.
  • Kidanto, Hussein Lesio, et al. (författare)
  • Improved quality of management of eclampsia patients through criteria based audit at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Bridging the quality gap
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. - BioMed Central. - 1471-2393. ; 12, s. Article nr 134
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Criteria-based audits (CBA) have been used to improve clinical management in developed countries, but have only recently been introduced in the developing world. This study discusses the use of a CBA to improve quality of care among eclampsia patients admitted at a University teaching hospital in Dar es Salaam Tanzania.Objective: The prevalence of eclampsia in MNH is high (approximate to 6%) with the majority of cases arriving after start of convulsions. In 2004-2005 the case-fatality rate in eclampsia was 5.1% of all pregnant women admitted for delivery (MNH obstetric data base). A criteria-based audit (CBA) was used to evaluate the quality of care for eclamptic mothers admitted at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania after implementation of recommendations of a previous audit.Methods: A CBA of eclampsia cases was conducted at MNH. Management practices were evaluated using evidence-based criteria for appropriate care. The Ministry of Health (MOH) guidelines, local management guidelines, the WHO manual supplemented by the WHO Reproductive Health Library, standard textbooks, the Cochrane database and reviews in peer reviewed journals were adopted. At the initial audit in 2006, 389 case notes were assessed and compared with the standards, gaps were identified, recommendations made followed by implementation. A re-audit of 88 cases was conducted in 2009 and compared with the initial audit.Results: There was significant improvement in quality of patient management and outcome between the initial and re-audit: Review of management plan by senior staff (76% vs. 99%; P=0.001), urine for albumin test (61% vs. 99%; P=0.001), proper use of partogram to monitor labour (75% vs. 95%; P=0.003), treatment with steroids for lung maturity (2.0% vs. 24%; P=0.001), Caesarean section within 2 hours of decision (33% vs. 61%; P=0.005), full blood count (28% vs. 93%; P=0.001), serum urea and creatinine (44% vs. 86%; P=0.001), liver enzymes (4.0% vs. 86%; P=0.001), and specialist review within 2 hours of admission (25% vs. 39%; P=0.018). However, there was no significant change in terms of delivery within 24 hours of admission (69% vs. 63%; P=0.33). There was significant reduction of maternal deaths (7.7% vs. 0%; P=0.001).Conclusion: CBA is applicable in low resource setting and can help to improve quality of care in obstetrics including management of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia.
7.
  • Kidanto, Hussein L, et al. (författare)
  • Introduction of a qualitative perinatal audit at Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. - 1471-2393. ; 9, s. 45
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Perinatal death is a devastating experience for the mother and of concern in clinical practice. Regular perinatal audit may identify suboptimal care related to perinatal deaths and thus appropriate measures for its reduction. The aim of this study was to perform a qualitative perinatal audit of intrapartum and early neonatal deaths and propose means of reducing the perinatal mortality rate (PMR).METHODS: From 1st August, 2007 to 31st December, 2007 we conducted an audit of perinatal deaths (n = 133) with birth weight 1500 g or more at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH). The audit was done by three obstetricians, two external and one internal auditors. Each auditor independently evaluated the cases narratives. Suboptimal factors were identified in the antepartum, intrapartum and early neonatal period and classified into three levels of delay (community, infrastructure and health care). The contribution of each suboptimal factor to adverse perinatal outcome was identified and the case graded according to possible avoidability. Degree of agreement between auditors was assessed by the kappa coefficient.RESULTS: The PMR was 92 per 1000 total births. Suboptimal factors were identified in 80% of audited cases and half of suboptimal factors were found to be the likely cause of adverse perinatal outcome and were preventable. Poor foetal heart monitoring during labour was indirectly associated with over 40% of perinatal death. There was a poor to fair agreement between external and internal auditors.CONCLUSION: There are significant areas of care that need improvement. Poor monitoring during labour was a major cause of avoidable perinatal mortality. This type of audit was a good starting point for quality assurance at MNH. Regular perinatal audits to identify avoidable causes of perinatal deaths with feed back to the staff may be a useful strategy to reduce perinatal mortality.
8.
  • Kidanto, Hussein L., et al. (författare)
  • Risks for preterm delivery and low birth weight are independently increased by severity of maternal anaemia
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: SAMJ South African Medical Journal. - 0256-9574. ; 99:2, s. 98-102
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of the severity of maternal anaemia on various perinatal outcomes. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Labour Ward, Muhimbili National Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: The haemoglobin of eligible pregnant women admitted for delivery between 15 November 2002 and 15 February 2003 was measured. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, iron supplementation, malaria prophylaxis, blood transfusion during current pregnancy, and current and previous pregnancy outcomes were collected and analysed. Anaemia was classified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards: normal--Hb > or = 11.0 g/dl; mild--Hb 9.0-10.9 g/dl; moderate--Hb 7.0-8.9 g/dl; and severe--Hb < 7.0 g/dl. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the severity of anaemia. The following outcome measures were used: preterm delivery (<37 weeks), Apgar score, stillbirth, early neonatal death, low birth weight (LBW) (<2500 g) and very low birth weight (VLBW) (<1500 g). RESULTS: A total of 1174 anaemic and 547 non-anaemic women were enrolled. Their median age was 24 years (range 14-46 years) and median parity was 2 (range 0-17). The prevalence of anaemia and severe anaemia was 68% and 5.8%, respectively. The risk of preterm delivery increased significantly with the severity of anaemia, with odds ratios of 1.4, 1.4 and 4.1 respectively for mild, moderate and severe anaemia. The corresponding risks for LBW and VLBW were 1.2 and 1.7, 3.8 and 1.5, and 1.9 and 4.2 respectively. CONCLUSION: The risks of preterm delivery and LBW increased in proportion to the severity of maternal anaemia.
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9.
  • Kisanga, Felix, et al. (författare)
  • Child Sexual Abuse: Community Concerns in Urban Tanzania
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse. - Taylor & Francis. - 1053-8712. ; 20:2, s. 196-217
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to explore community perceptions about child sexual abuse in Tanzania. Thirteen focus group discussions were conducted with adult community members. The core category, children's rights challenged by lack of agency, was supported by eight categories. Aware but distressed portrayed feelings of hopelessness, lack of trust in the healthcare and legal systems reflected perceived malpractice, decreased respect for children's rights referred to poor parental care and substance abuse, myths justifying CSA illustrated cultural beliefs to rationalize child sexual abuse, disclosure threatened by fear of stigma and discrimination aligned the manifestations that prevent disclosure, actions driven by economic circumstances described the economical dependence of victims, urging a change in procedures reflected informants' wish to ally with local governance and pressure groups, and willingness to act indicated the community's role in supporting victims. The study showed how lack of agency calls for efforts to increase children's human rights at all levels.
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10.
  • Kisanga, Felix, et al. (författare)
  • Parents' Experiences of Reporting Child Sexual Abuse in Urban Tanzania
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse. - Taylor & Francis. - 1053-8712. ; 22:5, s. 481-498
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This article reports parental experiences of legally reporting child sexual abuse in Tanzania. Based on in-depth interviews, four types of sexual abuse incidents are portrayed. Each evokes different reactions from parents and the community. An incident characterized as the innocent child was associated with a determination to seek justice. The forced-sex youth elicited feelings of parental betrayal of their child. The consenting curious youth resulted in uncertainty of how to proceed, while the transactional-sex youth evoked a sense of parental powerlessness to control the child because of low economic status. Differentiating between types of sexual abuse incidents may increase awareness of the complexities of child sexual abuse reporting. Education on laws regulating sexual offenses and a functional national child protection system are needed to address child sexual abuse complexities and safeguard the rights of children in Tanzania.
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