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  • Resultat 1-10 av 29
  • [1]23Nästa
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  • Harbst, Katja, et al. (författare)
  • Molecular and genetic diversity in the metastatic process of melanoma.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Pathology. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0022-3417. ; 233:1, s. 39-50
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Diversity between metastatic melanoma tumours in individual patients is known; however, the molecular and genetic differences remain unclear. To examine the molecular and genetic differences between metastatic tumours, we performed gene-expression profiling of 63 melanoma tumours obtained from 28 patients (two or three tumours/patient), followed by analysis of their mutational landscape, using targeted deep sequencing of 1697 cancer genes and DNA copy number analysis. Gene-expression signatures revealed discordant phenotypes between tumour lesions within a patient in 50% of the cases. In 18 of 22 patients (where matched normal tissue was available), we found that the multiple lesions within a patient were genetically divergent, with one or more melanoma tumours harbouring 'private' somatic mutations. In one case, the distant subcutaneous metastasis of one patient occurring 3 months after an earlier regional lymph node metastasis had acquired 37 new coding sequence mutations, including mutations in PTEN and CDH1. However, BRAF and NRAS mutations, when present in the first metastasis, were always preserved in subsequent metastases. The patterns of nucleotide substitutions found in this study indicate an influence of UV radiation but possibly also DNA alkylating agents. Our results clearly demonstrate that metastatic melanoma is a molecularly highly heterogeneous disease that continues to progress throughout its clinical course. The private aberrations observed on a background of shared aberrations within a patient provide evidence of continued evolution of individual tumours following divergence from a common parental clone, and might have implications for personalized medicine strategies in melanoma treatment. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. www.pathsoc.org.uk.
  • Augsten, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Expressing CXCL14 Rely upon NOS1-Derived Nitric Oxide Signaling for Their Tumor-Supporting Properties
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Cancer Research. - American Association for Cancer Research Inc.. - 1538-7445. ; 74:11, s. 2999-3010
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) stimulate tumor growth and metastasis. Signals supporting CAF function are thus emerging as candidate therapeutic targets in the tumor microenvironment. The chemokine CXCL14 is a potent inducer of CAF protumorigenic functions. This study is aimed at learning how the protumoral functions of CXCL14-expressing CAF are maintained. We found that the nitric oxide synthase NOS1 is upregulated in CXCL14-expressing CAF and in fibroblasts stimulated with CXCL14. Induction of Nos1 was associated with oxidative stress and occurred together with activation of NRF2 and HIF1 alpha signaling in CXCL14-expressing CAF. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of NOS1 reduced the growth of CXCL14-expressing fibroblasts along with their ability to promote tumor formation following coinjection with prostate or breast cancer cells. Tumor analysis revealed reduced macrophage infiltration, with NOS1 downregulation in CXCL14-expressing CAF and lymphangiogenesis as a novel component of CXCL14-promoted tumor growth. Collectively, our findings defined key components of a signaling network that maintains the protumoral functions of CXCL14-stimulated CAF, and they identified NOS1 as intervention target for CAF-directed cancer therapy. (C) 2014 AACR.
  • Augsten, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • CXCL14 is an autocrine growth factor for fibroblasts and acts as a multi-modal stimulator of prostate tumor growth
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 106:9, s. 3414-3419
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study explored the role of secreted fibroblast-derived factors in prostate cancer growth. Analyses of matched normal and tumor tissue revealed up-regulation of CXCL14 in cancer-associated fibroblasts of a majority of prostate cancer. Fibroblasts over-expressing CXCL14 promoted the growth of prostate cancer xenografts, and increased tumor angiogenesis and macrophage infiltration. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that autocrine CXCL14-stimulation of fibroblasts stimulate migration and ERK-dependent proliferation of fibroblasts. CXCL14-stimulation of monocyte migration was also demonstrated. Furthermore, CXCL14-producing fibroblasts, but not recombinant CXCL14, enhanced in vitro proliferation and migration of prostate cancer cells and in vivo angiogenesis. These studies thus identify CXCL14 as a novel autocrine stimulator of fibroblast growth and migration, with multi-modal tumor-stimulatory activities. In more general terms, our findings suggest autocrine stimulation of fibroblasts as a previously unrecognized mechanism for chemokine-mediated stimulation of tumor growth, and suggest a novel mechanism whereby cancer-associated fibroblasts achieve their pro-tumorigenic phenotype.
  • Blad, Karin, 1982-, et al. (författare)
  • Sweden
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Corporate Tax Residence and Mobility. - Amsterdam, Netherlands : International Bureau of Fiscal Documentation (IBFD). - 978-90-8722-451-6 - 978-90-8722-440-0 ; s. 573-590
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • Chen, Yilun, et al. (författare)
  • Identification and use of personalized genomic markers for monitoring circulating tumor DNA
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Methods in Molecular Biology. - Humana Press. - 1064-3745. ; 1768, s. 303-322
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Digital PCR techniques are ideally suited for accurately quantifying trace amounts of target DNA sequences, such as tumor-derived mutant DNA that is present in the blood circulation of patients with cancer. Here, we describe an approach marrying low-coverage whole-genome sequencing of tumor tissues, to enumerate chromosomal rearrangement breakpoints, together with droplet digital PCR (ddPCR)-based personalized rearrangement assays to cost-effectively monitor circulating tumor DNA levels at multiple time-points during the clinical course. The method is generally applicable to essentially any cancer patient, as all cancers harbor unstable genomes, and may have uses for measuring minimal residual disease, response to therapy, and early detection of metastasis.
  • Frings, Oliver, et al. (författare)
  • Prognostic Significance in Breast Cancer of a Gene Signature Capturing Stromal PDGF Signaling
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Pathology. - 0002-9440. ; 182:6, s. 2037-2047
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this study, we describe a novel gene expression signature of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) activated fibroblasts, which is able to identify breast cancers with a PDGF-stimulated fibroblast stroma and displays an independent and strong prognostic significance. Global gene expression was compared between PDGF-stimulated human fibroblasts and cultured resting fibroblasts. The most differentially expressed genes were reduced to a gene expression signature of 113 genes. The biological significance and prognostic capacity of this signature were investigated using four independent clinical breast cancer data sets. Concomitant high expression of PDGF beta receptor and its cognate Ligands is associated with a high PDGF signature score. This supports the notion that the signature detects tumors with PDGF-activated stroma. Subsequent analyses indicated significant associations between high PDGF signature score and clinical characteristics, including human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positivity, estrogen receptor negativity, high tumor grade, and large tumor size. A high PDGF signature score is associated with shorter survival in univariate analysis. Furthermore, the high PDGF signature score acts as a significant marker of poor prognosis in multivariate survival analyses, including classic prognostic markers, Ki-67 status, a proliferation gene signature, or other recently described stroma-derived gene expression signatures.
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