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Sökning: WFRF:(Ober Carole)

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1.
  • Amundadottir, Laufey T., et al. (författare)
  • A common variant associated with prostate cancer in European and African populations
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - DeCODE Genet, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland. Univ Iceland, Landspitali Hosp, Dept Pathol, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland. Univ Iceland, Landspitali Hosp, Dept Urol, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland. Univ Michigan, Dept Human Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA. Orebro Univ Hosp, Dept Urol & Clin Med, Orebro, Sweden. Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden. Univ Michigan, Dept Urol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA. Northwestern Univ, Feinberg Sch Med, Dept Urol, Chicago, IL 60611 USA. Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, St Louis, MO 63110 USA. Univ Chicago, Dept Human Genet, Chicago, IL 60637 USA. Univ Michigan, Dept Internal Med, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA. : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 38:6, s. 652-658
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • With the increasing incidence of prostate cancer, identifying common genetic variants that confer risk of the disease is important. Here we report such a variant on chromosome 8q24, a region initially identified through a study of Icelandic families. Allele -8 of the microsatellite DG8S737 was associated with prostate cancer in three case-control series of European ancestry from Iceland, Sweden and the US. The estimated odds ratio (OR) of the allele is 1.62 (P = 2.7 x 10(-11)). About 19% of affected men and 13% of the general population carry at least one copy, yielding a population attributable risk (PAR) of approximately 8%. The association was also replicated in an African American case-control group with a similar OR, in which 41% of affected individuals and 30% of the population are carriers. This leads to a greater estimated PAR (16%) that may contribute to higher incidence of prostate cancer in African American men than in men of European ancestry.
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2.
  • Demenais, Florence, et al. (författare)
  • Multiancestry association study identifies new asthma risk loci that colocalize with immune-cell enhancer marks
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 50:1, s. 42-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We examined common variation in asthma risk by conducting a meta-analysis of worldwide asthma genome-wide association studies (23,948 asthma cases, 118,538 controls) of individuals from ethnically diverse populations. We identified five new asthma loci, found two new associations at two known asthma loci, established asthma associations at two loci previously implicated in the comorbidity of asthma plus hay fever, and confirmed nine known loci. Investigation of pleiotropy showed large overlaps in genetic variants with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The enrichment in enhancer marks at asthma risk loci, especially in immune cells, suggested a major role of these loci in the regulation of immunologically related mechanisms.
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  • Joshi, Peter K, et al. (författare)
  • Directional dominance on stature and cognition in diverse human populations
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 523:7561, s. 459-462
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Homozygosity has long been associated with rare, often devastating, Mendelian disorders, and Darwin was one of the first to recognize that inbreeding reduces evolutionary fitness. However, the effect of the more distant parental relatedness that is common in modern human populations is less well understood. Genomic data now allow us to investigate the effects of homozygosity on traits of public health importance by observing contiguous homozygous segments (runs of homozygosity), which are inferred to be homozygous along their complete length. Given the low levels of genome-wide homozygosity prevalent in most human populations, information is required on very large numbers of people to provide sufficient power. Here we use runs of homozygosity to study 16 health-related quantitative traits in 354,224 individuals from 102 cohorts, and find statistically significant associations between summed runs of homozygosity and four complex traits: height, forced expiratory lung volume in one second, general cognitive ability and educational attainment (P < 1 × 10(-300), 2.1 × 10(-6), 2.5 × 10(-10) and 1.8 × 10(-10), respectively). In each case, increased homozygosity was associated with decreased trait value, equivalent to the offspring of first cousins being 1.2 cm shorter and having 10 months' less education. Similar effect sizes were found across four continental groups and populations with different degrees of genome-wide homozygosity, providing evidence that homozygosity, rather than confounding, directly contributes to phenotypic variance. Contrary to earlier reports in substantially smaller samples, no evidence was seen of an influence of genome-wide homozygosity on blood pressure and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, or ten other cardio-metabolic traits. Since directional dominance is predicted for traits under directional evolutionary selection, this study provides evidence that increased stature and cognitive function have been positively selected in human evolution, whereas many important risk factors for late-onset complex diseases may not have been.
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  • Hart, Michael W., et al. (författare)
  • Positive selection on human gamete-recognition genes
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: PeerJ. - 2167-8359 .- 2167-8359. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Coevolution of genes that encode interacting proteins expressed on the surfaces of sperm and eggs can lead to variation in reproductive compatibility between mates and reproductive isolation between members of different species. Previous studies in mice and other mammals have focused in particular on evidence for positive or diversifying selection that shapes the evolution of genes that encode sperm-binding proteins expressed in the egg coat or zona pellucida (ZP). By fitting phylogenetic models of codon evolution to data from the 1000 Genomes Project, we identified candidate sites evolving under diversifying selection in the human genes ZP3 and ZP2. We also identified one candidate site under positive selection in C4BPA, which encodes a repetitive protein similar to the mouse protein ZP3R that is expressed in the sperm head and binds to the ZP at fertilization. Results from several additional analyses that applied population genetic models to the same data were consistent with the hypothesis of selection on those candidate sites leading to coevolution of sperm- and egg-expressed genes. By contrast, we found no candidate sites under selection in a fourth gene (ZP1) that encodes an egg coat structural protein not directly involved in sperm binding. Finally, we found that two of the candidate sites (in C4BPA and ZP2) were correlated with variation in family size and birth rate among Hutterite couples, and those two candidate sites were also in linkage disequilibrium in the same Hutterite study population. All of these lines of evidence are consistent with predictions from a previously proposed hypothesis of balancing selection on epistatic interactions between C4BPA and ZP3 at fertilization that lead to the evolution of co-adapted allele pairs. Such patterns also suggest specific molecular traits that may be associated with both natural reproductive variation and clinical infertility.
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7.
  • Sakabe, Noboru J, et al. (författare)
  • Transcriptome and regulatory maps of decidua-derived stromal cells inform gene discovery in preterm birth.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Science advances. - 2375-2548. ; 6:49
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • While a genetic component of preterm birth (PTB) has long been recognized and recently mapped by genome-wide association studies (GWASs), the molecular determinants underlying PTB remain elusive. This stems in part from an incomplete availability of functional genomic annotations in human cell types relevant to pregnancy and PTB. We generated transcriptome (RNA-seq), epigenome (ChIP-seq of H3K27ac, H3K4me1, and H3K4me3 histone modifications), open chromatin (ATAC-seq), and chromatin interaction (promoter capture Hi-C) annotations of cultured primary decidua-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells and in vitro differentiated decidual stromal cells and developed a computational framework to integrate these functional annotations with results from a GWAS of gestational duration in 56,384 women. Using these resources, we uncovered additional loci associated with gestational duration and target genes of associated loci. Our strategy illustrates how functional annotations in pregnancy-relevant cell types aid in the experimental follow-up of GWAS for PTB and, likely, other pregnancy-related conditions.
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