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  • van Doorn, Ljcv, et al. (författare)
  • Improved Cerebrospinal Fluid-Based Discrimination between Alzheimer's Disease Patients and Controls after Correction for Ventricular Volumes
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimers Disease. - : IOS Press. - 1387-2877 .- 1875-8908. ; 56:2, s. 543-555
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers may support the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We studied if the diagnostic power of AD CSF biomarker concentrations, i.e., A beta(42), total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau), is affected by differences in lateral ventricular volume (VV), using CSF biomarker data and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 730 subjects, from 13 European Memory Clinics. We developed a Matlab-algorithm for standardized automated segmentation analysis of T1 weighted MRI scans in SPM8 for determining VV, and computed its ratio with total intracranial volume (TIV) as proxy for total CSF volume. The diagnostic power of CSF biomarkers (and their combination), either corrected for VV/TIV ratio or not, was determined by ROC analysis. CSF A beta(42) levels inversely correlated to VV/TIV in the whole study population (A beta(42): r = -0.28; p < 0.0001). For CSF t-tau and p-tau, this association only reached statistical significance in the combined MCI and AD group (t-tau: r = -0.15; p-tau: r = -0.13; both p < 0.01). Correction for differences in VV/TIV improved the differentiation of AD versus controls based on CSF A beta(42) alone (AUC: 0.75 versus 0.81) or in combination with t-tau (AUC: 0.81 versus 0.91). In conclusion, differences in VV may be an important confounder in interpreting CSF A beta(42) levels.
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  • Langhorne, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Practice patterns and outcomes after stroke across countries at different economic levels (INTERSTROKE): an international observational study.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Lancet (London, England). - 1474-547X. ; 391:10134, s. 2019-2027
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Stroke disproportionately affects people in low-income and middle-income countries. Although improvements in stroke care and outcomes have been reported in high-income countries, little is known about practice and outcomes in low and middle-income countries. We aimed to compare patterns of care available and their association with patient outcomes across countries at different economic levels.We studied the patterns and effect of practice variations (ie, treatments used and access to services) among participants in the INTERSTROKE study, an international observational study that enrolled 13 447 stroke patients from 142 clinical sites in 32 countries between Jan 11, 2007, and Aug 8, 2015. We supplemented patient data with a questionnaire about health-care and stroke service facilities at all participating hospitals. Using univariate and multivariate regression analyses to account for patient casemix and service clustering, we estimated the association between services available, treatments given, and patient outcomes (death or dependency) at 1 month.We obtained full information for 12 342 (92%) of 13 447 INTERSTROKE patients, from 108 hospitals in 28 countries; 2576 from 38 hospitals in ten high-income countries and 9766 from 70 hospitals in 18 low and middle-income countries. Patients in low-income and middle-income countries more often had severe strokes, intracerebral haemorrhage, poorer access to services, and used fewer investigations and treatments (p<0·0001) than those in high-income countries, although only differences in patient characteristics explained the poorer clinical outcomes in low and middle-income countries. However across all countries, irrespective of economic level, access to a stroke unit was associated with improved use of investigations and treatments, access to other rehabilitation services, and improved survival without severe dependency (odds ratio [OR] 1·29; 95% CI 1·14-1·44; all p<0·0001), which was independent of patient casemix characteristics and other measures of care. Use of acute antiplatelet treatment was associated with improved survival (1·39; 1·12-1·72) irrespective of other patient and service characteristics.Evidence-based treatments, diagnostics, and stroke units were less commonly available or used in low and middle-income countries. Access to stroke units and appropriate use of antiplatelet treatment were associated with improved recovery. Improved care and facilities in low-income and middle-income countries are essential to improve outcomes.Chest, Heart and Stroke Scotland.
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  • O'Donnell, M., et al. (författare)
  • Variations in knowledge, awareness and treatment of hypertension and stroke risk by country income level
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Heart. - 1355-6037. ; 107:4, s. 282-289
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for stroke globally. We hypothesised that country-income level variations in knowledge, detection and treatment of hypertension may contribute to variations in the association of blood pressure with stroke. Methods We undertook a standardised case-control study in 32 countries (INTERSTROKE). Cases were patients with acute first stroke (n=13 462) who were matched by age, sex and site to controls (n=13 483). We evaluated the associations of knowledge, awareness and treatment of hypertension with risk of stroke and its subtypes and whether this varied by gross national income (GNI) of country. We estimated OR and population attributable risk (PAR) associated with treated and untreated hypertension. Results Hypertension was associated with a graded increase in OR by reducing GNI, ranging from OR 1.92 (99% CI 1.48 to 2.49) to OR 3.27 (2.72 to 3.93) for highest to lowest country-level GNI (p-heterogeneity<0.0001). Untreated hypertension was associated with a higher OR for stroke (OR 5.25; 4.53 to 6.10) than treated hypertension (OR 2.60; 2.32 to 2.91) and younger age of first stroke (61.4 vs 65.4 years; p<0.01). Untreated hypertension was associated with a greater risk of intracerebral haemorrhage (OR 6.95; 5.61 to 8.60) than ischaemic stroke (OR 4.76; 3.99 to 5.68). The PAR associated with untreated hypertension was higher in lower-income regions, PAR 36.3%, 26.3%, 19.8% to 10.4% by increasing GNI of countries. Lifetime non-measurement of blood pressure was associated with stroke (OR 1.80; 1.32 to 2.46). Conclusions Deficits in knowledge, detection and treatment of hypertension contribute to higher risk of stroke, younger age of onset and larger proportion of intracerebral haemorrhage in lower-income countries.
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  • Dehghan, M., et al. (författare)
  • Associations of fats and carbohydrate intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in 18 countries from five continents (PURE): a prospective cohort study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Lancet. - 0140-6736. ; 390:10107, s. 2050-2062
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The relationship between macronutrients and cardiovascular disease and mortality is controversial. Most available data are from European and North American populations where nutrition excess is more likely, so their applicability to other populations is unclear. Methods The Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study is a large, epidemiological cohort study of individuals aged 35-70 years (enrolled between Jan 1, 2003, and March 31, 2013) in 18 countries with a median followup of 7.4 years (IQR 5.3-9.3). Dietary intake of 135 335 individuals was recorded using validated food frequency questionnaires. The primary outcomes were total mortality and major cardiovascular events (fatal cardiovascular disease, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure). Secondary outcomes were all myocardial infarctions, stroke, cardiovascular disease mortality, and non-cardiovascular disease mortality. Participants were categorised into quintiles of nutrient intake (carbohydrate, fats, and protein) based on percentage of energy provided by nutrients. We assessed the associations between consumption of carbohydrate, total fat, and each type of fat with cardiovascular disease and total mortality. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) using a multivariable Cox frailty model with random intercepts to account for centre clustering. Findings During follow-up, we documented 5796 deaths and 4784 major cardiovascular disease events. Higher carbohydrate intake was associated with an increased risk of total mortality (highest [quintile 5] vs lowest quintile [quintile 1] category, HR 1.28 [95% CI 1.12-1.46], p(trend) = 0.0001) but not with the risk of cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular disease mortality. Intake of total fat and each type of fat was associated with lower risk of total mortality (quintile 5 vs quintile 1, total fat: HR 0.77 [95% CI 0.67-0.87], p(trend) < 0.0001; saturated fat, HR 0.86 [0.76-0.99], p(trend) = 0.0088; monounsaturated fat: HR 0.81 [0.71-0.92], p(trend) < 0.0001; and polyunsaturated fat: HR 0.80 [0.71-0.89], p(trend) < 0.0001). Higher saturated fat intake was associated with lower risk of stroke (quintile 5 vs quintile 1, HR 0.79 [95% CI 0.64-0.98], p(trend) = 0.0498). Total fat and saturated and unsaturated fats were not significantly associated with risk of myocardial infarction or cardiovascular disease mortality. Interpretation High carbohydrate intake was associated with higher risk of total mortality, whereas total fat and individual types of fat were related to lower total mortality. Total fat and types of fat were not associated with cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, or cardiovascular disease mortality, whereas saturated fat had an inverse association with stroke. Global dietary guidelines should be reconsidered in light of these findings.
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  • Judge, C., et al. (författare)
  • Urinary Sodium and Potassium, and Risk of Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke (INTERSTROKE): A Case-Control Study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Hypertension. - 0895-7061. ; 34:4, s. 414-425
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND Although low sodium intake (<2 g/day) and high potassium intake (>3.5 g/day) are proposed as public health interventions to reduce stroke risk, there is uncertainty about the benefit and feasibility of this combined recommendation on prevention of stroke. METHODS We obtained random urine samples from 9,275 cases of acute first stroke and 9,726 matched controls from 27 countries and estimated the 24-hour sodium and potassium excretion, a surrogate for intake, using the Tanaka formula. Using multivariable conditional logistic regression, we determined the associations of estimated 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion with stroke and its subtypes. RESULTS Compared with an estimated urinary sodium excretion of 2.8-3.5 g/ day (reference), higher (>4.26 g/day) (odds ratio [OR] 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.65-2.00) and lower (<2.8 g/day) sodium excretion (OR 1.39; 95% CI, 1.26-1.53) were significantly associated with increased risk of stroke. The stroke risk associated with the highest quartile of sodium intake (sodium excretion >4.26 g/day) was significantly greater (P < 0.001) for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) (OR 2.38; 95% CI, 1.93-2.92) than for ischemic stroke (OR 1.67; 95% CI, 1.50-1.87). Urinary potassium was inversely and linearly associated with risk of stroke, and stronger for ischemic stroke than ICH (P = 0.026). In an analysis of combined sodium and potassium excretion, the combination of high potassium intake (>1.58 g/day) and moderate sodium intake (2.8-3.5 g/day) was associated with the lowest risk of stroke. CONCLUSIONS The association of sodium intake and stroke is J-shaped, with high sodium intake a stronger risk factor for ICH than ischemic stroke. Our data suggest that moderate sodium intake-rather than low sodium intake-combined with high potassium intake may be associated with the lowest risk of stroke and expected to be a more feasible combined dietary target.
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