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1.
  • Ahmad, Tashfeen, et al. (författare)
  • Peripheral quantitative computed tomography for the detection of diabetic osteopathy: a study in the Goto-Kakizaki rat.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Investigative radiology. - 0020-9996. ; 38:3, s. 171-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) in detecting trabecular and cortical bone changes in diabetes as a model of osteopenia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The tibia from 10 type-2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and 10 control Wistar rats were analyzed by DEXA, pQCT, and ash weight determination. RESULTS: DEXA of GK rats showed a significant reduction in mineral content (32%) and density (24%) of the metaphysis, but not of the diaphysis. PQCT disclosed that the reduction of density predominantly pertained to the trabecular bone (reduced by 62%). Periosteal and endosteal circumferences of the diaphyses were increased and cortical thickness was unchanged leading to increased moment of inertia. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that in osteopathic conditions, cortical and trabecular bone should be separately examined within specific subregions to obtain relevant information. Loss of metaphyseal trabecular bone seems to be a predominant feature in diabetic rats. Moreover, there is increased moment of inertia in the diaphysis implying increased strength. These diagnostic features of diabetic osteopathy can only be assessed by pQCT. It may prove that similar changes occur in human type-2 diabetes, which could explain the susceptibility to periarticular fracture and Charcot arthropathy.
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2.
  • Engstrand, Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • A novel biodegradable delivery system for bone morphogenetic protein-2.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Plastic and reconstructive surgery. - 1529-4242. ; 121:6, s. 1920-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The efficacy of recombinant growth factors in vivo is highly dependent on the delivery vehicle. The authors investigated the osteoinductive effects of recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP)-2 implanted together with a complex of heparin and chitosan. METHODS: Sixty rats were used. Three different carriers in gel formulation (type I collagen, heparin/type I collagen, and heparin/chitosan) were mixed with either 0, 10, or 50 microg of BMP-2, making the number of groups nine. The gels were injected into the quadriceps muscles of both legs in 45 rats (n = 10 per group). Freeze-dried formulations of the carriers were also tested with the same amounts of BMP-2 using 15 rats (n = 5 per group). Four weeks after implantation, the quality and amount of newly formed bone were assessed. RESULTS: Chitosan was shown to protect the heparinase-mediated degradation of heparin in vitro. The osteoinductive effects of BMP-2 in combination with heparin/chitosan were superior as compared with BMP-2 implanted together with type I collagen. Interestingly, the heparin/chitosan complex induced a small amount of bone also without BMP-2 added. The heparin/chitosan was completely absorbed after 4 weeks as determined by histologic evaluation, and a normal active bone formation was present. The freeze-dried formulations of the carriers demonstrated similar osteoinductive effects as the gels. CONCLUSIONS: An osteoinductive formula for clinical use is needed for general bone reconstruction. Heparin in complex with chitosan has the ability to stabilize or activate the growth factor in vivo and induce the generation of new bone in good yields.
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3.
  • Ahmad, T, et al. (författare)
  • Skeletal changes in type-2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: The Journal of endocrinology. - 0022-0795. ; 178:1, s. 111-6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We characterized appendicular and axial bones in rats with type-2 diabetes in five female Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats, a strain developed from the Wistar rat showing spontaneous type-2 diabetes, and five age- and sex-matched non-diabetic Wistar rats. The humerus, tibia, metatarsals and vertebral bodies were analysed by peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT). In diabetic rats, the height of the vertebral bodies and length of the humerus were decreased while the length of the metatarsals was increased. A decreased cross-sectional area was found in the vertebral end-plate region and the tibial metaphysis. Notably, the diaphysis in all long bones showed expansion of periosteal and endosteal circumference. In tibia this resulted in increased cortical thickness, whereas in humerus and metatarsal it was unchanged. Areal moment of inertia was increased in all diaphyses suggesting greater bending strength. The most conspicuous finding in diabetic rats pertained to trabecular osteopenia. Thus, trabecular bone mineral density was significantly reduced in all bones examined, by 33-53%. Our pQCT study of axial and appendicular bones suggests that the typical feature of diabetic osteopathy in the GK rat is loss of trabecular bone and expansion of the diaphysis. The loss of metaphyseal trabecular bone if also present in diabetic patients may prove to underlie the susceptibility to periarticular fracture and Charcot arthropathy. The findings suggest that the risk of fracture in diabetes varies according to the specific sub-regions of a bone. The approach described may prove to be useful in the early detection of osteopathy in diabetic patients who may be amenable to preventive treatment.
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4.
  • Amzaleg, Y., et al. (författare)
  • Estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators differentially antagonize Runx2 in ST2 mesenchymal progenitor cells
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. - 0960-0760. ; 183, s. 10-17
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Estrogens attenuate bone turnover by inhibiting both osteoclasts and osteoblasts, in part through antagonizing Runx2. Apparently conflicting, stimulatory effects in osteoblast lineage cells, however, sway the balance between bone resorption and bone formation in favor of the latter. Consistent with this dualism, 17 beta-estradiol (E2) both stimulates and inhibits Runx2 in a locus-specific manner, and here we provide evidence for such locus specific regulation of Runx2 by E2 in vivo. We also demonstrate dual, negative and positive, regulation of Runx2-driven alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity by increasing E2 concentrations in ST2 osteoblast progenitor cells. We further compared the effects of E2 to those of the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs) raloxifene (ral) and lasofoxifene (las) and the phytoestrogen puerarin. We found that E2 at the physiological concentrations of 0.1-1 nM, as well as ral and las, but not puerarin, antagonize Runx2-driven ALP activity. At >= 10 nM, E2 and puerarin, but not ral or las, stimulate ALP relative to the activity measured at 0.1-1 nM. Contrasting the difference between E2 and SERMs in ST2 cells, they all shared a similar dose-response profile when inhibiting preosteoclast proliferation. That ral and las poorly mimic the locus-and concentration-dependent effects of E2 in mesenchymal progenitor cells may help explain their limited clinical efficacy.
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5.
  • Andersson, Annica, 1983-, et al. (författare)
  • Roles of activating functions 1 and 2 of estrogen receptor α in lymphopoiesis.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: The Journal of endocrinology. - 1479-6805. ; 236:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Apart from the role of sex steroids in reproduction, sex steroids are also important regulators of the immune system. 17β-estradiol (E2) represses T and B cell development, but augments B cell function, possibly explaining the different nature of immune responses in men and women. Both E2 and selective estrogen receptors modulators (SERM) act via estrogen receptors (ER). Activating functions (AF)-1 and 2 of the ER bind to coregulators and thus influence target gene transcription and subsequent cellular response to ER activation. The importance of ERαAF-1 and AF-2 in the immunomodulatory effects of E2/SERM has previously not been reported. Thus, detailed studies of T and B lymphopoiesis were performed in ovariectomized E2-, lasofoxifene- or raloxifene-treated mice lacking either AF-1 or AF-2 domains of ERα, and their wild-type littermate controls. Immune cell phenotypes were analyzed with flow cytometry. All E2 and SERM-mediated inhibitory effects on thymus cellularity and thymic T cell development were clearly dependent on both ERαAFs. Interestingly, divergent roles of ERαAF-1 and ERαAF-2 in E2 and SERM-mediated modulation of bone marrow B lymphopoiesis were found. In contrast to E2, effects of lasofoxifene on early B cells did not require functional ERαAF-2, while ERαAF-1 was indispensable. Raloxifene reduced early B cells partly independent of both ERαAF-1 and ERαAF-2. Results from this study increase the understanding of the impact of ER modulation on the immune system, which can be useful in the clarification of the molecular actions of SERMs and in the development of new SERM.
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6.
  • Antonson, P., et al. (författare)
  • aP2-Cre-Mediated Inactivation of Estrogen Receptor Alpha Causes Hydrometra
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - 1932-6203. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this study we describe the reproductive phenotypes of a novel mouse model in which Cre-mediated deletion of ER alpha is regulated by the aP2 (fatty acid binding protein 4) promoter. ER alpha-floxed mice were crossed with transgenic mice expressing Cre-recombinase under the control of the aP2 promoter to generate aP2-Cre/ER alpha(flox/flox) mice. As expected, ER alpha mRNA levels were reduced in adipose tissue, but in addition we also detected an 80% reduction of ER alpha levels in the hypothalamus of aP2-Cre/ER alpha(flox/flox) mice. Phenotypic analysis revealed that aP2-Cre/ER alpha(flox/flox) female mice were infertile. In line with this, aP2-Cre/ER alpha(flox/flox) female mice did not cycle and presented 3.8-fold elevated estrogen levels. That elevated estrogen levels were associated with increased estrogen signaling was evidenced by increased mRNA levels of the estrogen-regulated genes lactoferrin and aquaporin 5 in the uterus. Furthermore, aP2-Cre/ER alpha(flox/flox) female mice showed an accumulation of intra-uterine fluid, hydrometra, without overt indications for causative anatomical anomalies. However, the vagina and cervix displayed advanced keratosis with abnormal quantities of accumulating squamous epithelial cells suggesting functional obstruction by keratin plugs. Importantly, treatment of aP2-Cre/ER alpha(flox/flox) mice with the aromatase inhibitor Letrozole caused regression of the hydrometra phenotype linking increased estrogen levels to the observed phenotype. We propose that in aP2-Cre/ER alpha(flox/flox) mice, increased serum estrogen levels cause over-stimulation in the uterus and genital tracts resulting in hydrometra and vaginal obstruction.
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7.
  • Antonson, P., et al. (författare)
  • Identification of proteins highly expressed in uterine fluid from mice with hydrometra
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. - 0006-291X. ; 466:4, s. 650-655
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) is an important regulator of the estrous cycle and mice with global ER alpha deletion, as well as some conditional knockout mouse lines, have an interruption in the estrous cycle. In this study we observed that conditional ERa knockout mice where the Cre gene is regulated by the rat insulin promoter (RIP), RIP-Cre/ER alpha(KO) mice, have a 3.7-fold increase in serum 17 beta-estradiol levels, blocked estrous cycle, and develop a fluid-filled uterus (hydrometra). Using a proteomics approach, we identified three proteins, lactoferrin, complement C3 and chitinase 3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1), as highly expressed proteins in hydrometra fluid. The mRNA levels of the corresponding genes were more than 50-fold higher in RIP-Cre/ER alpha(KO) uterus compared to controls. High expression of CHI3L1 in the uterine fluid was not reflected as elevated levels in the serum. The high expression of lactoferrin, complement C3 and CHI3L1 in the uterine fluid, in association with elevated estrogen levels, prompted us to address if the expression of these genes is related to reproduction. However, gonadotropin treatment of mice reduced the uterine expression of these genes in a model of in vitro fertilization. Our findings identify lactoferrin, complement C3 and CHI3L1 as highly expressed proteins in hydrometra fluid in association with chronically elevated serum estradiol levels. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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8.
  • Barban, Nicola, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide analysis identifies 12 loci influencing human reproductive behavior
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 48:12, s. 1462-1472
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The genetic architecture of human reproductive behavior—age at first birth (AFB) and number of children ever born (NEB)—has a strong relationship with fitness, human development, infertility and risk of neuropsychiatric disorders. However, very few genetic loci have been identified, and the underlying mechanisms of AFB and NEB are poorly understood. We report a large genome-wide association study of both sexes including 251,151 individuals for AFB and 343,072 individuals for NEB. We identified 12 independent loci that are significantly associated with AFB and/or NEB in a SNP-based genome-wide association study and 4 additional loci associated in a gene-based effort. These loci harbor genes that are likely to have a role, either directly or by affecting non-local gene expression, in human reproduction and infertility, thereby increasing understanding of these complex traits.
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9.
  • Botusan, I. R., et al. (författare)
  • Deficiency of liver-derived insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) does not interfere with the skin wound healing rate
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 13:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: IGF-I is a growth factor, which is expressed in virtually all tissues. The circulating IGF-I is however derived mainly from the liver. IGF-I promotes wound healing and its levels are decreased in wounds with low regenerative potential such as diabetic wounds. However, the contribution of circulating IGF-I to wound healing is unknown. Here we investigated the role of systemic IGF-I on wound healing rate in mice with deficiency of liver-derived IGF-I (LI-IGF-I-/- mice) during normal (normoglycemic) and impaired wound healing (diabetes). Methods: LI-IGF-I-/- mice with complete inactivation of the IGF-I gene in the hepatocytes were generated using the Cre/loxP recombination system. This resulted in a 75% reduction of circulating IGF-I. Diabetes was induced with streptozocin in both LI-IGF-I-/- and control mice. Wounds were made on the dorsum of the mice, and the wound healing rate and histology were evaluated. Serum IGF-I and GH were measured by RIA and ELISA respectively. The expression of IGF-I, IGF-II and the IGF-I receptor in the skin were evaluated by qRT-PCR. The local IGF-I protein expression in different cell types of the wounds during wound healing process was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Results: The wound healing rate was similar in LI-IGF-I-/- mice to that in controls. Diabetes significantly delayed the wound healing rate in both LI-IGF-I-/- and control mice. However, no significant difference was observed between diabetic animals with normal or reduced hepatic IGF-I production. The gene expression of IGF-I, IGF-II and IGF-I receptor in skin was not different between any group of animals tested. Local IGF-I levels in the wounds were similar between of LI-IGF-I-/- and WT mice although a transient reduction of IGF-I expression in leukocytes in the wounds of LI-IGF-I-/- was observed seven days post wounding. Conclusion: Deficiency in the liver-derived IGF-I does not affect wound healing in mice, neither in normo-glycemic conditions nor in diabetes.
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10.
  • Börjesson, Anna E, et al. (författare)
  • The role of estrogen receptor-alpha in growth plate cartilage for longitudinal bone growth.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of bone and mineral research. - 1523-4681. ; 25:12, s. 2414-24
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Estrogens enhance skeletal growth during early sexual maturation while high estradiol levels during late puberty result in growth plate fusion in humans. Although the growth plates do not fuse directly after sexual maturation in rodents, a reduction in growth plate height is seen by treatment with a high dose of estradiol. It is unknown whether the effects of estrogens on skeletal growth are mediated directly via estrogen receptors (ERs) in growth plate cartilage and/or indirectly via other mechanisms such as the GH/IGF-I axis. To determine the role of ERalpha in growth plate cartilage for skeletal growth, we developed a mouse model with cartilage-specific inactivation of ERalpha. Although mice with total ERalpha inactivation displayed affected longitudinal bone growth associated with alterations in the GH/IGF-I axis, the skeletal growth was normal during sexual maturation in mice with cartilage-specific ERalpha inactivation. High dose estradiol treatment of adult mice reduced the growth plate height as a consequence of attenuated proliferation of growth plate chondrocytes in control mice but not in cartilage-specific ERalpha(-/-) mice. Adult cartilage-specific ERalpha(-/-) mice continued to grow after four months of age while growth was limited in control mice, resulting in increased femur length in one-year-old cartilage-specific ERalpha(-/-) mice compared with control mice. We conclude that during early sexual maturation ERalpha in growth plate cartilage is not important for skeletal growth. In contrast, it is essential for high dose estradiol to reduce the growth plate height in adult mice and for reduction of longitudinal bone growth in elderly mice. (c) 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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