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Sökning: WFRF:(Olafsson Isleifur)

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  • Gretarsdottir, Solveig, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies a sequence variant within the DAB2IP gene conferring susceptibility to abdominal aortic aneurysm
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 42:8, s. 71-692
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We performed a genome-wide association study on 1,292 individuals with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) and 30,503 controls from Iceland and The Netherlands, with a follow-up of top markers in up to 3,267 individuals with AAAs and 7,451 controls. The A allele of rs7025486 on 9q33 was found to associate with AAA, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.21 and P = 4.6 x 10(-10). In tests for association with other vascular diseases, we found that rs7025486[A] is associated with early onset myocardial infarction (OR = 1.18, P = 3.1 x 10(-5)), peripheral arterial disease (OR = 1.14, P = 3.9 x 10(-5)) and pulmonary embolism (OR = 1.20, P = 0.00030), but not with intracranial aneurysm or ischemic stroke. No association was observed between rs7025486[A] and common risk factors for arterial and venous diseases-that is, smoking, lipid levels, obesity, type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Rs7025486 is located within DAB2IP, which encodes an inhibitor of cell growth and survival.
  • Helgadottir, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Apolipoprotein(a) Genetic Sequence Variants Associated With Systemic Atherosclerosis and Coronary Atherosclerotic Burden But Not With Venous Thromboembolism
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - Elsevier USA. - 0735-1097. ; 60:8, s. 722-729
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives The purpose of this study is investigate the effects of variants in the apolipoprotein(a) gene (LPA) on vascular diseases with different atherosclerotic and thrombotic components. Background It is unclear whether the LPA variants rs10455872 and rs3798220, which correlate with lipoprotein(a) levels and coronary artery disease (CAD), confer susceptibility predominantly via atherosclerosis or thrombosis. Methods The 2 LPA variants were combined and examined as LPA scores for the association with ischemic stroke (and TOAST [Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment] subtypes) (effective sample size [n(e)] = 9,396); peripheral arterial disease (n(e) = 5,215); abdominal aortic aneurysm (ne = 4,572); venous thromboembolism (ne = 4,607); intracranial aneurysm (ne = 1,328); CAD (n(e) = 12,716), carotid intima-media thickness (n = 3,714), and angiographic CAD severity (n = 5,588). Results LPA score was associated with ischemic stroke subtype large artery atherosclerosis (odds ratio [OR]: 1.27; p = 6.7 X 10(-4)), peripheral artery disease (OR: 1.47; p = 2.9 x 10(-14)), and abdominal aortic aneurysm (OR: 1.23; p = 6.0 x 10(-5)), but not with the ischemic stroke subtypes cardioembolism (OR: 1.03; p = 0.69) or small vessel disease (OR: 1.06; p = 0.52). Although the LPA variants were not associated with carotid intima-media thickness, they were associated with the number of obstructed coronary vessels (p = 4.8 x 10(-12)). Furthermore, CAD cases carrying LPA risk variants had increased susceptibility to atherosclerotic manifestations outside of the coronary tree (OR: 1.26; p = 0.0010) and had earlier onset of CAD (-1.58 years/allele; p = 8.2 x 10(-8)) than CAD cases not carrying the risk variants. There was no association of LPA score with venous thromboembolism (OR: 0.97; p = 0.63) or intracranial aneurysm (OR: 0.85; p = 0.15). Conclusions LPA sequence variants were associated with atherosclerotic burden, but not with primarily thrombotic phenotypes. (J Am Coll Cardiol 2012; 60: 722-9) (C) 2012 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation
  • Helgadottir, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide analysis yields new loci associating with aortic valve stenosis
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is the most common valvular heart disease, and valve replacement is the only definitive treatment. Here we report a large genome-wide association (GWA) study of 2,457 Icelandic AS cases and 349,342 controls with a follow-up in up to 4,850 cases and 451,731 controls of European ancestry. We identify two new AS loci, on chromosome 1p21 near PALMD (rs7543130; odds ratio (OR) = 1.20, P = 1.2 × 10-22) and on chromosome 2q22 in TEX41 (rs1830321; OR = 1.15, P = 1.8 × 10-13). Rs7543130 also associates with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) (OR = 1.28, P = 6.6 × 10-10) and aortic root diameter (P = 1.30 × 10-8), and rs1830321 associates with BAV (OR = 1.12, P = 5.3 × 10-3) and coronary artery disease (OR = 1.05, P = 9.3 × 10-5). The results implicate both cardiac developmental abnormalities and atherosclerosis-like processes in the pathogenesis of AS. We show that several pathways are shared by CAD and AS. Causal analysis suggests that the shared risk factors of Lp(a) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol contribute substantially to the frequent co-occurence of these diseases.
  • Jonsson, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of sequence variants influencing immunoglobulin levels
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 49:8, s. 1182-1191
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Immunoglobulins are the effector molecules of the adaptive humoral immune system. In a genome-wide association study of 19,219 individuals, we found 38 new variants and replicated 5 known variants associating with IgA, IgG or IgM levels or with composite immunoglobulin traits, accounted for by 32 loci. Variants at these loci also affect the risk of autoimmune diseases and blood malignancies and influence blood cell development. Notable associations include a rare variant at RUNX3 decreasing IgA levels by shifting isoform proportions (rs188468174[C>T]: P = 8.3 × 10(-55), β = -0.90 s.d.), a rare in-frame deletion in FCGR2B abolishing IgG binding to the encoded receptor (p.Asn106del: P = 4.2 × 10(-8), β = 1.03 s.d.), four IGH locus variants influencing class switching, and ten new associations with the HLA region. Our results provide new insight into the regulation of humoral immunity.
  • Swaminathan, Bhairavi, et al. (författare)
  • Variants in ELL2 influencing immunoglobulin levels associate with multiple myeloma.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 6, s. 1-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by an uninhibited, clonal growth of plasma cells. While first-degree relatives of patients with MM show an increased risk of MM, the genetic basis of inherited MM susceptibility is incompletely understood. Here we report a genome-wide association study in the Nordic region identifying a novel MM risk locus at ELL2 (rs56219066T; odds ratio (OR)=1.25; P=9.6 × 10(-10)). This gene encodes a stoichiometrically limiting component of the super-elongation complex that drives secretory-specific immunoglobulin mRNA production and transcriptional regulation in plasma cells. We find that the MM risk allele harbours a Thr298Ala missense variant in an ELL2 domain required for transcription elongation. Consistent with a hypomorphic effect, we find that the MM risk allele also associates with reduced levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and G (IgG) in healthy subjects (P=8.6 × 10(-9) and P=6.4 × 10(-3), respectively) and, potentially, with an increased risk of bacterial meningitis (OR=1.30; P=0.0024).
  • Teumer, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association meta-analyses and fine-mapping elucidate pathways influencing albuminuria
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increased levels of the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) are associated with higher risk of kidney disease progression and cardiovascular events, but underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we conduct trans-ethnic (n = 564,257) and European-ancestry specific meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies of UACR, including ancestry- and diabetes-specific analyses, and identify 68 UACR-associated loci. Genetic correlation analyses and risk score associations in an independent electronic medical records database (n = 192,868) reveal connections with proteinuria, hyperlipidemia, gout, and hypertension. Fine-mapping and trans-Omics analyses with gene expression in 47 tissues and plasma protein levels implicate genes potentially operating through differential expression in kidney (including TGFB1, MUC1, PRKCI, and OAF), and allow coupling of UACR associations to altered plasma OAF concentrations. Knockdown of OAF and PRKCI orthologs in Drosophila nephrocytes reduces albumin endocytosis. Silencing fly PRKCI further impairs slit diaphragm formation. These results generate a priority list of genes and pathways for translational research to reduce albuminuria.
  • Abrahamson, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Efficient production of native, biologically active human cystatin C by Escherichia coli
  • 1988
  • Ingår i: FEBS Letters. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1873-3468. ; 236:1, s. 14-18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A cDNA encoding the mature human cysteine proteinase inhibitor cystatin C was fused to the coding sequence for the Escherichia coli outer membrane protein A signal peptide, and the recombinant gene was expressed in E. coli under the control of the λ PR promoter, an optimized Shine-Dalgarno sequence and the λ cI 857 repressor. When induced at 42°C, such cells expressed large amounts of recombinant cystatin C. The recombinant protein was isolated in high yield and characterized. All physicochemical properties investigated, including the positions of disulfide bonds, indicated that the E. coli derived cystatin C was identical to cystatin C isolated from human biological fluids, except that the proline residue in position three was not hydroxylated. The recombinant protein displayed full biological activity against papain, cathepsin B and dipeptidyl peptidase I.
  • Abrahamson, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA coding for the precursor of the human cysteine proteinase inhibitor cystatin C
  • 1987
  • Ingår i: FEBS Letters. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1873-3468. ; 216:2, s. 229-233
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recombinant cystatin C producing clones were isolated from a human placenta λgt11 cDNA library. The cDNA insert of one of the clones, containing 777 base pairs, encodes the complete mature cystatin C (120 amino acids) and a hydrophobic leader sequence of 26 amino acids, indicating an extracellular function of the inhibitor. The deduced protein sequence confirms the protein sequence of cystatin C isolated from human urine, but differs in one position from the sequence of the cystatin C fragment deposited as amyloid in hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis.
  • Abrahamson, Magnus, et al. (författare)
  • Structure and expression of the human cystatin C gene
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: Biochemical Journal. - Portland Press Limited. - 1470-8728. ; 268:2, s. 287-294
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The structural organization of the gene for the human cysteine-proteinase inhibitor cystatin C was studied. Restriction-endonuclease digests of human genomic DNA hybridized with human cystatin C cDNA and genomic probes produced patterns consistent with a single cystatin C gene and, also, the presence of six closely related sequences in the human genome. A 30 kb restriction map covering the genomic region of the cystatin C gene was constructed. The positions of three polymorphic restriction sites, found at examination of digests of genomic DNA from 79 subjects, were localized in the flanking regions of the gene. The gene was cloned and the nucleotide sequence of a 7.3 kb genomic segment was determined, containing the three exons of the cystatin C structural gene as well as 1.0 kb of 5'-flanking and 2.0 kb of 3'-flanking sequences. Northern-blot experiments revealed that the cystatin C gene is expressed in every human tissue examined, including kidney, liver, pancreas, intestine, stomach, antrum, lung and placenta. The highest cystatin C expression was seen in seminal vesicles. The apparently non-tissue-specific expression of this cysteine-proteinase inhibitor gene is discussed with respect to the structure of its 5'-flanking region, which shares several features with those of housekeeping genes.
  • Arnardottir, Erna S I F, et al. (författare)
  • Sleep-related sweating in obstructive sleep apnoea: association with sleep stages and blood pressure
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH. - 0962-1105. ; 19:1, s. 122-130
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Pandgt;The aim of this study was to investigate sleep-related sweating as a symptom of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Fifteen otherwise healthy male non-smoking patients with untreated moderate-to-severe OSA underwent polysomnography, including measurements of skin and core body temperature and electrodermal activity (EDA) as an objective indicator of sweating. Evening and morning blood pressure was measured as well as catecholamines in nocturnal urine. All measurements were repeated after 3 months on successful continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment. The untreated OSA subjects had a mean (+/- SD) apnoea-hypopnoea index of 45.3 +/- 3.9 and a mean EDA index during sleep of 131.9 +/- 22.4 events per hour. Patients with higher EDA indices had higher systolic blood pressure in the evening and morning (P = 0.001 and 0.006) and lower rapid eye movement (REM) sleep percentage (P = 0.003). The EDA index decreased significantly to 78.5 +/- 17.7 in the patients on CPAP treatment (P = 0.04). The decrease correlated with lower evening systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.05 and 0.006) and an increase in REM% (P = 0.02). No relationship was observed between EDA and skin or core body temperature, or to catecholamine levels in urine. OSA patients who experience sleep-related sweating may have increased blood pressure and decreased REM sleep compared with other OSA patients. CPAP treatment appears to lower blood pressure and increase REM sleep to a higher extent in these patients compared with other OSA patients.</p>
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