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4.
  • Berg, Svante, 1953- (författare)
  • On Total Disc Replacement
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Low back pain consumes a large part of the community’s resources dedicated to health care and sick leave. Back disorders also negatively affect the individual leading to pain suffering, decreased quality-of-life and disability. Chronic low back pain (CLBP) due to degenerative disc disease (DDD) is today often treated with fusion when conservative treatment has failed and symptoms are severe. This treatment is as successful as arthroplasty is for hip arthritis in restoring the patient’s quality of life and reducing disability. Even so, there are some problems with this treatment, one of these being recurrent CLBP from an adjacent segment (ASD) after primarily successful surgery. This has led to the development of alternative surgical treatments and devices that maintain or restore mobility, in order to reduce the risk for ASD. Of these new devices, the most frequently used are the disc prostheses used in Total Disc Replacement (TDR).</p><p>This thesis is based on four studies comparing total disc replacement with posterior fusion. The studies are all based on a material of 152 patients with DDD in one or two segments, aged 20-55 years that were randomly treated with either posterior fusion or TDR.</p><p>The first study concerned clinical outcome and complications. Follow-up was 100% at both one and two years. It revealed that both treatment groups had a clear benefit from treatment and that patients with TDR were better in almost all outcome scores at one-year follow-up. Fusion patients continued to improve during the second year. At two-year follow-up there was a remaining difference in favour of TDR for back pain. 73% in the TDR group and 63% in the fusion group were much better or totally pain-free (n.s.), while twice as many patients in the TDR group were totally pain free (30%) compared to the fusion group (15%).</p><p>Time of surgery and total time in hospital were shorter in the TDR group.</p><p>There was no difference in complications and reoperations, except that seventeen of the patients in the fusion group were re-operated for removal of their implants.</p><p>The second study concerned sex life and sexual function. TDR is performed via an anterior approach, an approach that has been used for a long time for various procedures on the lumbar spine. A frequent complication reported in males when this approach is used is persistent retrograde ejaculation. The TDR group in this material was operated via an extra-peritoneal approach to the retroperitoneal space, and there were no cases of persistent retrograde ejaculation. There was a surprisingly high frequency of men in the fusion group reporting deterioration in ability to have an orgasm postoperatively.</p><p>Preoperative sex life was severely hampered in the majority of patients in the entire material, but sex life underwent a marked improvement in both treatment groups by the two-year follow-up that correlated with reduction in back pain.</p><p>The third study was on mobility in the lumbar spinal segments, where X-rays were taken in full extension and flexion prior to surgery and at two-year follow-up. Analysis of the films showed that 78% of the patients in the fusion group reached the surgical goal (non-mobility) and that 89% of the TDR patients maintained mobility.</p><p>Preoperative disc height was lower than in a normative database in both groups, and remained lower in the fusion group, while it became higher in the TDR group. Mobility in the operated segment increased in the TDR group postoperatively. Mobility at the rest of the lumbar spine increased in both treatment groups. Mobility in adjacent segments was within the norm postoperatively, but slightly larger in the fusion group.</p><p>In the fourth study the health economics of TDR vs Fusion was analysed. The hospital costs for the procedure were higher for patients in the fusion group compared to the TDR group, and the TDR patients were on sick-leave two months less.</p><p>In all, these studies showed that the results in the TDR group were as good as in the fusion group. Patients are more likely to be totally pain-free when treated with TDR compared to fusion. Treatment with this new procedure seems justified in selected patients at least in the short-term perspective. Long-term follow-up is underway and results will be published in due course.</p>
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5.
  • Berg, Svante, et al. (författare)
  • Total disc replacement compared to lumbar fusion : a randomised controlled trial with 2-year follow-up
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: European spine journal. - 0940-6719 .- 1432-0932. ; 18:10, s. 1512-19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The study design includes a prospective, randomised controlled study comparing total disc replacement (TDR) with posterior fusion. The main objective of this study is to compare TDR with lumbar spinal fusion, in terms of clinical outcome, in patients referred to a spine clinic for surgical evaluation. Fusion is effective for treating chronic low back pain (LBP), but has drawbacks, such as stiffness and possibly adjacent level degradation. Motion-preserving options have emerged, of which TDR is frequently used because of these drawbacks. How the results of TDR compare to fusion, however, is uncertain. One hundred and fifty-two patients with a mean age of 40 years (21-55) were included: 90 were women, and 80 underwent TDR. The patients had not responded to a conservative treatment programme and suffered from predominantly LBP, with varying degrees of leg pain. Diagnosis was based on clinical examination, radiographs, MRI, and in unclear cases, diagnostic injections. Outcome measures were global assessment (GA), VAS for back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, SF36 and EQ5D at 1 and 2 years. Follow-up rate was 100%, at both 1 and 2 years. All outcome variables improved in both groups between preoperative and follow-up assessment. The primary outcome measure, GA, revealed that 30% in the TDR group and 15% in the fusion group were totally pain-free at 2 years (P = 0.031). TDR patients had reached maximum recovery in virtually all variables at 1 year, with significant differences compared to the fusion group. The fusion patients continued to improve and at 2 years had results similar to TDR patients apart from numbers of pain-free. Complications and reoperations were similar in both groups, but pedicle screw removal as additive surgery, was frequent in the fusion group. One year after surgery, TDR was superior to spinal fusion in clinical outcome, but this difference had diminished by 2 years, apart from (VAS for back pain and) numbers of pain-free. The long-term benefits have yet to be examined.</p>
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6.
  • Berg, Svante, et al. (författare)
  • Total disc replacement compared to lumbar fusion : a randomised controlled trial with 2-year follow-up
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: EUROPEAN SPINE JOURNAL. - 0940-6719. ; 18:10, s. 1512-1519
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The study design includes a prospective, randomised controlled study comparing total disc replacement (TDR) with posterior fusion. The main objective of this study is to compare TDR with lumbar spinal fusion, in terms of clinical outcome, in patients referred to a spine clinic for surgical evaluation. Fusion is effective for treating chronic low back pain (LBP), but has drawbacks, such as stiffness and possibly adjacent level degradation. Motion-preserving options have emerged, of which TDR is frequently used because of these drawbacks. How the results of TDR compare to fusion, however, is uncertain. One hundred and fifty-two patients with a mean age of 40 years (21-55) were included: 90 were women, and 80 underwent TDR. The patients had not responded to a conservative treatment programme and suffered from predominantly LBP, with varying degrees of leg pain. Diagnosis was based on clinical examination, radiographs, MRI, and in unclear cases, diagnostic injections. Outcome measures were global assessment (GA), VAS for back and leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index, SF36 and EQ5D at 1 and 2 years. Follow-up rate was 100%, at both 1 and 2 years. All outcome variables improved in both groups between preoperative and follow-up assessment. The primary outcome measure, GA, revealed that 30% in the TDR group and 15% in the fusion group were totally pain-free at 2 years (P = 0.031). TDR patients had reached maximum recovery in virtually all variables at 1 year, with significant differences compared to the fusion group. The fusion patients continued to improve and at 2 years had results similar to TDR patients apart from numbers of pain-free. Complications and reoperations were similar in both groups, but pedicle screw removal as additive surgery, was frequent in the fusion group. One year after surgery, TDR was superior to spinal fusion in clinical outcome, but this difference had diminished by 2 years, apart from (VAS for back pain and) numbers of pain-free. The long-term benefits have yet to be examined.</p>
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7.
  • Bodon, Gergely, et al. (författare)
  • Anatomical changes in occipitalization : is there an increased risk during the standard posterior approach?
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European spine journal. - 0940-6719 .- 1432-0932. ; 22:3 suppl., s. 512-516
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>PURPOSE:</strong></p><p>The purpose of this study was to examine the anatomic changes in a case of occipitalization of the atlas.</p><p><strong>METHODS:</strong></p><p>Occipitalization of the atlas was found accidentally in a 64-year-old male cadaver. Anatomic dissection was carried out to examine the posterior aspect of the upper cervical region and craniocervical junction. The occipitalized atlas was then harvested and macerated to study the bony anomaly.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong></p><p>In this case of occipitalization, fusion was observed at both lateral masses and at the left posterior hemiarch of the atlas. We found the following soft tissue changes: the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle was lacking on the left side and was atrophic on the right, the obliquus capitis superior muscle was present on both sides showing moderate atrophy and fatty changes. The posterior atlanto-axial membrane was thinner and asymmetric, had a free edge on the right side. Lateral to this edge the dura was lying free. We believe that these changes of the posterior atlanto-axial membrane together with the increased distance between the fused posterior arch of the atlas and the lamina of the axis could cause the observed "dura bulge" at this level. The vertebral artery was entering the skull through a canal on the left side.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong></p><p>In our case, occipitalization considerably changed the anatomy of the upper cervical spine and craniocervical junction. Special care must be taken when using the posterior approach to avoid neurovascular injury in cases with occipitalization.</p>
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8.
  • Bodon, Gergely, et al. (författare)
  • Applied anatomy of a minimally invasive muscle-splitting approach to posterior C1-C2 fusion : an anatomical feasibility study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy. - 0930-1038 .- 1279-8517. ; 36:10, s. 1063-1069
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>PURPOSE:</strong></p><p>To describe the applied anatomy of a minimally invasive muscle-splitting approach used to reach the posterior aspect of the C1-C2 complex.</p><p><strong>SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:</strong></p><p>Atlantoaxial fusion using a midline posterior approach and polyaxial screw and rod system is widely used. Although minimally invasive variations of this technique have been recently reported, the complex applied anatomy of these approaches has not been described. The C1-C2 complex represents an unique challenge because of its bony and vascular anatomy. In this study, the applied anatomy and feasibility of this technique are examined on cadavers.</p><p><strong>METHODS:</strong></p><p>The microsurgical anatomy of the upper cervical spine is examined on a formalin-fixed and on a fresh cadaver. The muscle-splitting approach is performed on 12 fresh cadavers using this technique.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong></p><p>The minimally invasive muscle-splitting approach is described in detail. Relevant anatomy and bony landmarks that aid screw placement in C1 and C2 could be well visualized. Using this approach, we were able to reach the lateral mass of the atlas and the inferior articular process and pars interarticularis of the axis in all of the nine cadavers. We placed mini polyaxial screws in C1 lateral mass and C2 pars interarticularis in four cadavers according to the technique described by Harms and Melcher.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSIONS:</strong></p><p>Using this approach, it was possible to reach the posterior aspect of C1 and C2; the relevant anatomy needed to perform a C1-C2 fusion could be well visualized.</p>
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9.
  • Carrwik, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • Predictive Scores Underestimate Survival of Patients With Metastatic Spine Disease : A Retrospective Study of 315 Patients in Sweden.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Spine. - 0362-2436 .- 1528-1159. ; 45:6, s. 414-419
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>STUDY DESIGN:</strong> Retrospective cohort study.</p><p><strong>OBJECTIVE:</strong> To validate the precision of four predictive scoring systems for spinal metastatic disease and evaluate whether they underestimate or overestimate survival.</p><p><strong>SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:</strong> Metastatic spine disease is a common complication to malignancies. Several scoring systems are available to predict survival and to help the clinician to select surgical or nonsurgical treatment.</p><p><strong>METHODS:</strong> Three hundred fifteen adult patients (213 men, 102 women, mean age 67 yr) undergoing spinal surgery at Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden, due to metastatic spine disease 2006 to 2012 were included. Data were collected prospectively for the Swedish Spine Register and retrospectively from the medical records. Tokuhashi scores, Revised Tokuhashi Scores, Tomita scores, and Modified Bauer Scores were calculated and compared with actual survival data from the Swedish Population Register.</p><p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> The mean estimated survival time after surgery for all patients included was 12.4 months (confidence interval 10.6-14.2) and median 5.9 months (confidence interval 4.5-7.3). All four scores had significant correlation to survival (P &lt; 0.0001) but tended to underestimate rather than overestimate survival. Modified Bauer Score was the best of the four scores to predict short survival, both regarding median and mean survival. Tokuhashi score was found to be the best of the scores to predict long survival, even though the predictions were inaccurate in 42% of the cases.</p><p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> Predictive scores underestimate survival for the patients which might affect important clinical decisions.</p><p><strong>LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:</strong> 3.</p>
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10.
  • Carrwik, Christian, et al. (författare)
  • Predictive Scores Underestimate Survival of Patients with Metastatic Spine Disease: A Retrospective Study of 315 Patients in Sweden.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Spine. - 1528-1159. ; 45:6, s. 414-419
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study OBJECTIVE: To validate the precision of four predictive scoring systems for spinal metastatic disease and evaluate whether they underestimate or overestimate survival. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Metastatic spine disease is a common complication to malignancies. Several scoring systems are available to predict survival and helping the clinician to select surgical or non-surgical treatment. METHODS: 315 adult patients (213 men, 102 women, mean age 67 years) undergoing spinal surgery at Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden, due to metastatic spine disease 2006-2012 were included. Data was collected prospectively for the Swedish Spine Register and retrospectively from the medical records. Tokuhashi scores, Revised Tokuhashi Scores, Tomita scores and modified Bauer scores were calculated and compared with actual survival data from the Swedish Population Register. RESULTS: The mean estimated survival time after surgery for all patients included was 12.4 months (CI 10.6-14.2) and median 5.9 months (CI 4.5-7.3). All four scores had significant correlation to survival (p < 0.0001) but tended to underestimate rather than overestimate survival. Modified Bauer score was the best of the four scores to predict short survival, both regarding median and mean survival. Tokuhashi score was found to be the best of the scores to predict long survival, even though the predictions were inaccurate in 42% of the cases. CONCLUSION: Predictive scores underestimate survival for the patients which might affect important clinical decisions.
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