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Sökning: WFRF:(Olsson Bob 1969)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 78
  • [1]234567...8Nästa
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1.
  • Malmeström, Clas, 1965, et al. (författare)
  • Serum levels of LIGHT in MS
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Multiple sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England). - 1477-0970. ; 19:7, s. 871-876
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Recently, a polymorphism in the LIGHT gene was shown to increase the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) in a genome-wide association study (GWAS). OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate if serum levels of LIGHT were affected by this polymorphism and by the disease itself. METHODS: Serum levels of LIGHT were investigated in four cohorts; 1) MS (n = 159) and controls (n = 160) in relation to rs1077667 genotype; 2) MS at relapse (n = 30) vs. healthy controls (n = 26); 3) MS (n = 27) vs. other neurological disease (OND, n = 33); and 4) MS patients before and after one year of treatment with natalizumab (n = 30). RESULTS: Carriers of the GG genotype had the lowest serum levels of LIGHT (p=0.02). Serum levels of LIGHT were increased in MS at relapse in two separate cohorts: vs. healthy controls (p=0.00005) and vs. remission (p=0.00006), other neurological disease (OND) (p=0.002) and OND with signs of inflammation (iOND; p=0.00005). Furthermore, serum levels of LIGHT were decreased by natalizumab treatment (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Soluble LIGHT is an inhibitor of T-cell activation and GG carriers of rs1077667, with the highest risk for MS, had the lowest serum levels. The increased levels of LIGHT at times of increased MS activity suggest that soluble LIGHT is protective and may act to limit inflammation.
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2.
  • Ahlin, Sofie, 1985, et al. (författare)
  • No Evidence for a Role of Adipose Tissue-Derived Serum Amyloid A in the Development of Insulin Resistance or Obesity-Related Inflammation in hSAA1(+/)- Transgenic Mice
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - 1932-6203. ; 8:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity is associated with a low-grade inflammation including moderately increased serum levels of the acute phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA). In obesity, SAA is mainly produced from adipose tissue and serum levels of SAA are associated with insulin resistance. SAA has been described as a chemoattractant for inflammatory cells and adipose tissue from obese individuals contains increased numbers of macrophages. However, whether adipose tissue-derived SAA can have a direct impact on macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue or the development of insulin resistance is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adipose tissue-derived SAA1 on the development of insulin resistance and obesity-related inflammation. We have previously established a transgenic mouse model expressing human SAA1 in the adipose tissue. For this report, hSAA1(+/-) transgenic mice and wild type mice were fed with a high fat diet or normal chow. Effects of hSAA1 on glucose metabolism were assessed using an oral glucose tolerance test. Real-time PCR was used to measure the mRNA levels of macrophage markers and genes related to insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Cytokines during inflammation were analyzed using a Proinflammatory 7-plex Assay. We found similar insulin and glucose levels in hSAA1 mice and wt controls during an oral glucose tolerance test and no decrease in mRNA levels of genes related to insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue in neither male nor female hSAA1 animals. Furthermore, serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and mRNA levels of macrophage markers in adipose tissue were not increased in hSAA1 mice. Hence, in this model we find no evidence that adipose tissue-derived hSAA1 influences the development of insulin resistance or obesity-related inflammation.
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3.
  • Hägg, Daniel, 1974, et al. (författare)
  • Expression profiling of macrophages from subjects with atherosclerosis to identify novel susceptibility genes.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: International journal of molecular medicine. - 1107-3756. ; 21:6, s. 697-704
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although a number of environmental risk factors for atherosclerosis have been identified, heredity seems to be a significant independent risk factor. The aim of our study was to identify novel susceptibility genes for atherosclerosis. The screening process consisted of three steps. First, expression profiles of macrophages from subjects with atherosclerosis were compared to macrophages from control subjects. Secondly, the subjects were genotyped for promoter region polymorphisms in genes with altered gene expression. Thirdly, a population of subjects with coronary heart disease and control subjects were genotyped to test for an association with identified polymorphisms that affected gene expression. Twenty-seven genes were differentially expressed in both macrophages and foam cells from subjects with atherosclerosis. Three of these genes, IRS2, CD86 and SLC11A1 were selected for further analysis. Foam cells from subjects homozygous for the C allele at the -765C-->T SNP located in the promoter region of IRS2 had increased gene expression compared to foam cells from subjects with the nonCC genotype. Also, macrophages and foam cells from subjects homozygous for allele 2 at a repeat element in the promoter region of SLC11A1 had increased gene expression compared to macrophages and foam cells from subjects with the non22 genotype. Genotyping of 512 pairs of subjects with coronary heart disease (CHD) and matched controls revealed that subjects homozygous for C of the IRS2 SNP had an increased risk for CHD; odds ratio 1.43, p=0.010. Immunohistochemical staining of human carotid plaques showed that IRS2 expression was localised to macrophages and endothelial cells in vivo. Our method provides a reliable approach for identifying susceptibility genes for atherosclerosis, and we conclude that elevated IRS2 gene expression in macrophages may be associated with an increased risk of CHD.
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4.
  • Olsson, Maja, 1975, et al. (författare)
  • Establishment of a transgenic mouse model specifically expressing human serum amyloid a in adipose tissue.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PloS one. - 1932-6203. ; 6:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Obesity and obesity co-morbidities are associated with a low grade inflammation and elevated serum levels of acute phase proteins, including serum amyloid A (SAA). In the non-acute phase in humans, adipocytes are major producers of SAA but the function of adipocyte-derived SAA is unknown. To clarify the role of adipocyte-derived SAA, a transgenic mouse model expressing human SAA1 (hSAA) in adipocytes was established. hSAA expression was analysed using real-time PCR analysis. Male animals were challenged with a high fat (HF) diet. Plasma samples were subjected to fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) separation. hSAA, cholesterol and triglyceride content were measured in plasma and in FPLC fractions. Real-time PCR analysis confirmed an adipose tissue-specific hSAA gene expression. Moreover, the hSAA gene expression was not influenced by HF diet. However, hSAA plasma levels in HF fed animals (37.7±4.0 µg/mL, n = 7) were increased compared to those in normal chow fed animals (4.8±0.5 µg/mL, n = 10; p<0.001), and plasma levels in the two groups were in the same ranges as in obese and lean human subjects, respectively. In FPLC separated plasma samples, the concentration of hSAA peaked in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) containing fractions. In addition, cholesterol distribution over the different lipoprotein subfractions as assessed by FPLC analysis was similar within the two experimental groups. The established transgenic mouse model demonstrates that adipose tissue produced hSAA enters the circulation, resulting in elevated plasma levels of hSAA. This new model will enable further studies of metabolic effects of adipose tissue-derived SAA.
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5.
  • Palsdottir, Vilborg, 1979, et al. (författare)
  • Postnatal deficiency of essential fatty acids in mice results in resistance to diet-induced obesity and low plasma insulin during adulthood
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids. - 1532-2823. ; 84:3-4, s. 85-92
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Our objective was to investigate the long-term metabolic effects of postnatal essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD). Mouse dams were fed an EFAD diet or an isoenergetic control diet 4 days before delivery and throughout lactation. The pups were weaned to standard diet (STD) and were later subdivided into two groups: receiving high fat diet (HFD) or STD. Body composition, energy expenditure, food intake and leptin levels were analyzed in adult offspring. Blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations were measured before and during a glucose tolerance test. EFAD offspring fed STD were leaner with lower plasma leptin and insulin concentrations compared to controls. EFAD offspring fed HFD were resistant to diet-induced obesity, had higher energy expenditure and lower levels of plasma leptin and insulin compared to controls. These results indicate that the fatty acid composition during lactation is important for body composition and glucose tolerance in the adult offspring.
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6.
  • Palsdottir, Vilborg, 1979, et al. (författare)
  • Prenatal essential fatty acid deficiency in mice results in long-term gender-specific effects on body weight and glucose metabolism
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Molecular Medicine Reports. - 1791-2997 .- 1791-3004. ; 4:4, s. 731-737
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Essential fatty acids are important for normal growth and development in early life. However, the long-term effects of prenatal essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) on the adult metabolism remain to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an EFAD diet given to mice during late gestation on body weight and body composition, and metabolism in the adult offspring. Pregnant dams were given an EFAD or a control diet during the last 10 days of gestation. After delivery, all mice were fed normal chow and the body weight of the offspring was measured weekly. Furthermore, food intake, energy expenditure and intraperitoneal glucose tolera-nce were analysed in the adult offspring in addition to body composition (analysed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), plasma levels of leptin, triglycerides and cholesterol. The body weight was lower in the EFAD offspring as compared to the controls during the first 4 weeks of age, and remained lower in the females throughout the study. Lean body mass and plasma leptin levels were also lower in the female EFAD offspring as compared to the controls. Male EFAD offspring were found to have higher fasting glucose and insulin levels as well as higher insulin levels during the glucose tolerance test compared to the controls. However, no differences were found in blood lipids, food intake or energy expenditure between EFAD and control mice of either gender. These results demonstrate that an EFAD diet given during the last 10 days of gestation results in long-term gender-specific effects on body weight and insulin sensitivity in the adult offspring.
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7.
  • Saiki, Atsuhito, et al. (författare)
  • Tenomodulin is highly expressed in adipose tissue, increased in obesity, and down-regulated during diet-induced weight loss.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - 1945-7197. ; 94:10, s. 3987-94
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • CONTEXT: Tenomodulin (TNMD), a putative angiogenesis inhibitor, is expressed in hypovascular connective tissues. Global gene expression scans show that the TNMD gene also is expressed in human adipose tissue and that its expression is regulated in response to weight reduction; however, more detailed information is lacking. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate TNMD tissue distribution and TNMD gene expression in human adipose tissue in relation to obesity and metabolic disease. DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: TNMD gene expression, tissue distribution, and TNMD gene expression in adipose tissue from different depots, from lean and obese subjects, and during diet-induced weight reduction were analyzed by DNA microarray and real-time PCR. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: We primarily measured TNMD gene expression. RESULTS: The TNMD gene was predominantly expressed in sc adipose tissue. TNMD gene expression was higher in sc than omental adipose tissue both in lean (P = 0.002) and obese subjects (P = 0.014). In both women and men, TNMD gene expression was significantly higher in the obese subjects compared to the lean subjects (P = 1.1 x 10(-26) and P = 0.010, respectively). In a multiple linear regression analysis, BMI was a significant independent predictor of TNMD gene expression. TNMD gene expression was down-regulated during diet-induced weight loss, with a 65% decrease after 18 wk of diet (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that human adipose tissue TNMD gene expression is highly affected by obesity, adipose tissue location, and weight loss, indicating that TNMD may play a role in adipose tissue function.
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8.
  • Ahlin, Sofie, 1985, et al. (författare)
  • Macrophage Gene Expression in Adipose Tissue is Associated with Insulin Sensitivity and Serum Lipid Levels Independent of Obesity.
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.). - 1930-739X. ; 21:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Obesity is linked to both increased metabolic disturbances and increased adipose tissue macrophage infiltration. However, whether macrophage infiltration directly influences human metabolism is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are obesity-independent links between adipose tissue macrophages and metabolic disturbances. Design and Methods: Expression of macrophage markers in adipose tissue was analyzed by DNA microarrays in the SOS Sib Pair study and in patients with type 2 diabetes and a BMI-matched healthy control group. Results: The expression of macrophage markers in adipose tissue was increased in obesity and associated with several metabolic and anthropometric measurements. After adjustment for BMI, the expression remained associated with insulin sensitivity, serum levels of insulin, C-peptide, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) and triglycerides. In addition, the expression of most macrophage markers was significantly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our study shows that infiltration of macrophages in human adipose tissue, estimated by the expression of macrophage markers, is increased in subjects with obesity and diabetes and associated with insulin sensitivity and serum lipid levels independent of BMI. This indicates that adipose tissue macrophages may contribute to the development of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.
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9.
  • Bjarnason, Ragnar, 1959, et al. (författare)
  • Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein increases in serum after the start of growth hormone treatment in prepubertal children
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 89:10, s. 5156-60
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Both GH and IGF-I stimulate bone growth, but the molecular mechanisms mediating their effects on the growth plate are not fully understood. We measured gene expression by microarray analysis in primary cultured human chondrocytes treated with either GH or IGF-I. One of the genes found to be up-regulated by both GH and IGF-I was that encoding cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP). This protein is predominantly found in the extracellular matrix of cartilage. Mutations in the COMP gene have been associated with syndromes of short stature. To verify that COMP is regulated by GH in vivo, we measured COMP levels in serum in short children treated with GH. The study included 113 short prepubertal children (14 girls and 99 boys) with a mean (+/- sd) age of 8.84 +/- 2.76 yr, height sd score of -2.74 +/- 0.67, and IGF-I sd score of -1.21 +/- 1.07 at the start of GH administration. Serum levels of COMP were 1.58 +/- 0.28, 1.83 +/- 0.28 (P < 0.0001), 1.91 +/- 0.28 (P < 0.0001), 1.78 +/- 0.28 (P < 0.001), and 1.70 +/- 0.24 (P < 0.05) microg/ml at baseline and after 1 wk and 1, 3, and 12 months, respectively.In conclusion, we have demonstrated that COMP expression is up-regulated by both GH and IGF-I in primary cultured human chondrocytes. Furthermore, serum levels of COMP increase after the start of GH treatment in short children.
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10.
  • Bohlooly-Yeganeh, Mohammad, 1966, et al. (författare)
  • Growth hormone overexpression in the central nervous system results in hyperphagia-induced obesity associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - : American Diabetes Association Inc.. - 0012-1797 .- 1939-327X. ; 54:1, s. 51-62
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It is well known that peripherally administered growth hormone (GH) results in decreased body fat mass. However, GH-deficient patients increase their food intake when substituted with GH, suggesting that GH also has an appetite stimulating effect. Transgenic mice with an overexpression of bovine GH in the central nervous system (CNS) were created to investigate the role of GH in CNS. This study shows that overexpression of GH in the CNS differentiates the effect of GH on body fat mass from that on appetite. The transgenic mice were not GH-deficient but were obese and showed increased food intake as well as increased hypothalamic expression of agouti-related protein and neuropeptide Y. GH also had an acute effect on food intake following intracerebroventricular injection of C57BL/6 mice. The transgenic mice were severely hyperinsulinemic and showed a marked hyperplasia of the islets of Langerhans. In addition, the transgenic mice displayed alterations in serum lipid and lipoprotein levels and hepatic gene expression. In conclusion, GH overexpression in the CNS results in hyperphagia-induced obesity indicating a dual effect of GH with a central stimulation of appetite and a peripheral lipolytic effect.
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