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1.
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2.
  • Engel, Christoph, et al. (författare)
  • Association of the variants CASP8 D302H and CASP10 V410I with breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1538-7755 .- 1055-9965. ; 19:11, s. 2859-68
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The genes caspase-8 (CASP8) and caspase-10 (CASP10) functionally cooperate and play a key role in the initiation of apoptosis. Suppression of apoptosis is one of the major mechanisms underlying the origin and progression of cancer. Previous case-control studies have indicated that the polymorphisms CASP8 D302H and CASP10 V410I are associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in the general population.
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3.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)
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4.
  • Lindqvist, Pelle G., et al. (författare)
  • Are active sun exposure habits related to lowering risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women, a prospective cohort study?
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. - : Elsevier. - 1872-8227. ; 90:1, s. 109-114
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim An inverse relationship exists between vitamin D levels and diabetes mellitus However, little is known about the correlation of sun exposure habits and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) Methods A South Swedish cohort study comprising 1000 women from each age group between 25 and 64 (n = 40,000) drawn from the Southern Swedish population registry 1990-1992 At the inception of the study 74% answered the inquiry (n = 29,518) and provided detailed information on their sun exposure habits and other variables A follow-up inquiry was sent 2000-2002 which 24,098 women answered The mean follow-up time was 11 years Logistic regression analysis was used and the main outcome was the relationship between type 2 DM and sun exposure habits. Results Our findings indicated that women with active sun exposure habits were at a 30% lower risk of having DM, as compared to those with non-active habits. There was an inverse relation between this risk reduction and BMI Conclusion Our investigation gives possible epidemiological explanation to ethnic and seasonal differences in type 2 DM and metabolic control The study supports that sunlight is involved in the glucose metabolism (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd All rights reserved.
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5.
  • Lindqvist, P. G., et al. (författare)
  • Avoidance of sun exposure as a risk factor for major causes of death : A competing risk analysis of the Melanoma in Southern Sweden cohort
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 280:4, s. 375-387
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Women with active sunlight exposure habits experience a lower mortality rate than women who avoid sun exposure; however, they are at an increased risk of skin cancer. We aimed to explore the differences in main causes of death according to sun exposure. Methods: We assessed the differences in sun exposure as a risk factor for all-cause mortality in a competing risk scenario for 29 518 Swedish women in a prospective 20-year follow-up of the Melanoma in Southern Sweden (MISS) cohort. Women were recruited from 1990 to 1992 (aged 25-64 years at the start of the study). We obtained detailed information at baseline on sun exposure habits and potential confounders. The data were analysed using modern survival statistics. Results: Women with active sun exposure habits were mainly at a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and noncancer/non-CVD death as compared to those who avoided sun exposure. As a result of their increased survival, the relative contribution of cancer death increased in these women. Nonsmokers who avoided sun exposure had a life expectancy similar to smokers in the highest sun exposure group, indicating that avoidance of sun exposure is a risk factor for death of a similar magnitude as smoking. Compared to the highest sun exposure group, life expectancy of avoiders of sun exposure was reduced by 0.6-2.1 years. Conclusion: The longer life expectancy amongst women with active sun exposure habits was related to a decrease in CVD and noncancer/non-CVD mortality, causing the relative contribution of death due to cancer to increase.
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6.
  • Lindqvist, P. G., et al. (författare)
  • Avoidance of sun exposure is a risk factor for all-cause mortality: results from the Melanoma in Southern Sweden cohort
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 1365-2796. ; 276:1, s. 77-86
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Sunlight exposure and fair skin are major determinants of human vitamin D production, but they are also risk factors for cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM). There is epidemiological evidence that all-cause mortality is related to low vitamin D levels. Methods. We assessed the avoidance of sun exposure as a risk factor for all-cause mortality for 29 518 Swedish women in a prospective 20-year follow-up of the Melanoma in Southern Sweden (MISS) cohort. Women were recruited from 1990 to 1992 and were aged 25 to 64 years at the start of the study. We obtained detailed information at baseline on their sun exposure habits and potential confounders. Multivariable flexible parametric survival analysis was applied to the data. Results. There were 2545 deaths amongst the 29 518 women who responded to the initial questionnaire. We found that all-cause mortality was inversely related to sun exposure habits. The mortality rate amongst avoiders of sun exposure was approximately twofold higher compared with the highest sun exposure group, resulting in excess mortality with a population attributable risk of 3%. Conclusion. The results of this study provide observational evidence that avoiding sun exposure is a risk factor for all-cause mortality. Following sun exposure advice that is very restrictive in countries with low solar intensity might in fact be harmful to women's health.
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7.
  • Lindqvist, Pelle G., et al. (författare)
  • Women with fair phenotypes seem to confer a survival advantage in a low UV milieu. A nested matched case control study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 15:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Sun exposure in combination with skin pigmentation is the main determinant for vitamin D status. Human skin color seems to be adapted and optimized for regional sun ultraviolet (UV) intensity. However, we do not know if fair, UV-sensitive skin is a survival advantage in regions with low UV radiation. Methods A population-based nested case-control study of 29,518 Caucasian women, ages 25 to 64 years from Southern Sweden who responded to a questionnaire regarding risk-factors for malignant melanoma in 1990 and followed for 25 years. For each fair woman, defined as having red hair or freckles (n = 11,993), a control was randomly selected from all non-fair women from within the cohort of similar age, smoking habits, education, marital status, income, and comorbidity, i.e., 11,993 pairs. The main outcome was the difference in allcause mortality between fair and non-fair women in a low UV milieu, defined as living in Sweden and having low-to-moderate sun exposure habits. Secondary outcomes were mortality by sun exposure, and among those non-overweight. Results In a low UV milieu, fair women were at a significantly lower all-cause mortality risk as compared to non-fair women (log rank test p = 0.04) with an 8% lower all-cause mortality rate (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.92, 95% CI 0.84-1.0), including a 59% greater risk of dying from skin cancer among fair women (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.26-2.0). Thus, it seem that the beneficial health effect from low skin coloration outweigh the risk of skin cancer at high latitudes. Conclusion In a region with low UV milieu, evolution seems to improve all-cause survival by selecting a fair skin phenotype, i.e., comprising fair women with a survival advantage.
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8.
  • Beral, V., et al. (författare)
  • Ovarian Cancer and Body Size: Individual Participant Meta-Analysis Including 25,157 Women with Ovarian Cancer from 47 Epidemiological Studies
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS Medicine. - : Public Library of Science. - 1549-1676 .- 1549-1277. ; 9:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Only about half the studies that have collected information on the relevance of women's height and body mass index to their risk of developing ovarian cancer have published their results, and findings are inconsistent. Here, we bring together the worldwide evidence, published and unpublished, and describe these relationships. Methods and Findings: Individual data on 25,157 women with ovarian cancer and 81,311 women without ovarian cancer from 47 epidemiological studies were collected, checked, and analysed centrally. Adjusted relative risks of ovarian cancer were calculated, by height and by body mass index. Ovarian cancer risk increased significantly with height and with body mass index, except in studies using hospital controls. For other study designs, the relative risk of ovarian cancer per 5 cm increase in height was 1.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.09; p<0.001); this relationship did not vary significantly by women's age, year of birth, education, age at menarche, parity, menopausal status, smoking, alcohol consumption, having had a hysterectomy, having first degree relatives with ovarian or breast cancer, use of oral contraceptives, or use of menopausal hormone therapy. For body mass index, there was significant heterogeneity (p<0.001) in the findings between ever-users and never-users of menopausal hormone therapy, but not by the 11 other factors listed above. The relative risk for ovarian cancer per 5 kg/m(2) increase in body mass index was 1.10 (95% CI, 1.07-1.13; p<0.001) in never-users and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.92-0.99; p = 0.02) in ever-users of hormone therapy. Conclusions: Ovarian cancer is associated with height and, among never-users of hormone therapy, with body mass index. In high-income countries, both height and body mass index have been increasing in birth cohorts now developing the disease. If all other relevant factors had remained constant, then these increases in height and weight would be associated with a 3% increase in ovarian cancer incidence per decade.
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9.
  • Björner, Sofie, et al. (författare)
  • Epithelial and Stromal MicroRNA Signatures of Columnar Cell Hyperplasia Linking Let-7c to Precancerous and Cancerous Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Plos One. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 9:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Columnar cell hyperplasia (CCH) is the earliest histologically identifiable breast lesion linked to cancer progression and is characterized by increased proliferation, decreased apoptosis and elevated oestrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) expression. The mechanisms underlying the initiation of these lesions have not been clarified but might involve early and fundamental changes in cancer progression. MiRNAs are key regulators of several biological processes, acting by influencing the post-transcriptional regulation of numerous targets, thus making miRNAs potential candidates in cancer initiation. Here we have defined novel epithelial as well as stromal miRNA signatures from columnar cell hyperplasia lesions compared to normal terminal duct lobular units by using microdissection and miRNA microarrays. Let-7c were among the identified downregulated epithelial miRNAs and its functions were delineated in unique CCH derived cells and breast cancer cell line MCF-7 suggesting anti-proliferative traits potentially due to effects on Myb and ER alpha. MiR-132 was upregulated in the stroma surrounding CCH compared to stoma surrounding normal terminal duct lobular units (TDLUs), and overexpression of miR-132 in immortalized fibroblasts and in fibroblasts co-cultured with epithelial CCH cells caused substantial expression changes of genes involved in metabolism, DNA damage and cell motility. The miRNA signatures identified in CCH indicate early changes in the epithelial and stromal compartment of CCH and could represent early key alterations in breast cancer progression that potentially could be targeted in novel prevention or treatment schedules.
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10.
  • Callaghan, Terry V., et al. (författare)
  • Multi-Decadal Changes in Tundra Environments and Ecosystems: Synthesis of the International Polar Year-Back to the Future Project (IPY-BTF)
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Ambio: a Journal of Human Environment. - : Springer. - 0044-7447 .- 1654-7209. ; 40:6, s. 705-716
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Understanding the responses of tundra systems to global change has global implications. Most tundra regions lack sustained environmental monitoring and one of the only ways to document multi-decadal change is to resample historic research sites. The International Polar Year (IPY) provided a unique opportunity for such research through the Back to the Future (BTF) project (IPY project #512). This article synthesizes the results from 13 papers within this Ambio Special Issue. Abiotic changes include glacial recession in the Altai Mountains, Russia; increased snow depth and hardness, permafrost warming, and increased growing season length in sub-arctic Sweden; drying of ponds in Greenland; increased nutrient availability in Alaskan tundra ponds, and warming at most locations studied. Biotic changes ranged from relatively minor plant community change at two sites in Greenland to moderate change in the Yukon, and to dramatic increases in shrub and tree density on Herschel Island, and in sub-arctic Sweden. The population of geese tripled at one site in northeast Greenland where biomass in non-grazed plots doubled. A model parameterized using results from a BTF study forecasts substantial declines in all snowbeds and increases in shrub tundra on Niwot Ridge, Colorado over the next century. In general, results support and provide improved capacities for validating experimental manipulation, remote sensing, and modeling studies.
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