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1.
  • Jiang, Xia, et al. (författare)
  • Shared heritability and functional enrichment across six solid cancers
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases. We observed statistically significant genetic correlations between lung and head/neck cancer (rg = 0.57, p = 4.6 × 10−8), breast and ovarian cancer (rg = 0.24, p = 7 × 10−5), breast and lung cancer (rg = 0.18, p =1.5 × 10−6) and breast and colorectal cancer (rg = 0.15, p = 1.1 × 10−4). We also found that multiple cancers are genetically correlated with non-cancer traits including smoking, psychiatric diseases and metabolic characteristics. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a significant excess contribution of conserved and regulatory regions to cancer heritability. Our comprehensive analysis of cross-cancer heritability suggests that solid tumors arising across tissues share in part a common germline genetic basis. © 2019, The Author(s).
2.
  • Pulit, S. L., et al. (författare)
  • Atrial fibrillation genetic risk differentiates cardioembolic stroke from other stroke subtypes
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Neurology-Genetics. - 2376-7839. ; 4:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective We sought to assess whether genetic risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF) can explain cardioembolic stroke risk. We evaluated genetic correlations between a previous genetic study of AF and AF in the presence of cardioembolic stroke using genome-wide genotypes from the Stroke Genetics Network (N = 3,190 AF cases, 3,000 cardioembolic stroke cases, and 28,026 referents). We tested whether a previously validated AF polygenic risk score (PRS) associated with cardioembolic and other stroke subtypes after accounting for AF clinical risk factors. We observed a strong correlation between previously reported genetic risk for AF, AF in the presence of stroke, and cardioembolic stroke (Pearson r = 0.77 and 0.76, respectively, across SNPs with p < 4.4 x 10(-4) in the previous AF meta-analysis). An AF PRS, adjusted for clinical AF risk factors, was associated with cardioembolic stroke (odds ratio [OR] per SD = 1.40, p = 1.45 x 10(-48)), explaining similar to 20% of the heritable component of cardioembolic stroke risk. The AF PRS was also associated with stroke of undetermined cause (OR per SD = 1.07,p = 0.004), but no other primary stroke subtypes (all p > 0.1). Genetic risk of AF is associated with cardioembolic stroke, independent of clinical risk factors. Studies are warranted to determine whether AF genetic risk can serve as a biomarker for strokes caused by AF.
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4.
  • Aaron, F. D., et al. (författare)
  • Events with an isolated lepton and missing transverse momentum and measurement of W production at HERA
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - Springer. - 1029-8479. ; 2010:3, s. 1-19
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A search for events containing an isolated electron or muon and missing trans verse momentum produced in e(+/-)p collisions is performed with the H1 and ZEUS detectors at HERA. The data were taken in the period 1994-2007 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 0.98 fb(-1). The observed event yields are in good overall agreement with the Standard Model prediction, which is dominated by single W production. In the e(+)p data, at large hadronic transverse momentum P-T(X) > 25GeV, a total of 23 events are observed compared to a prediction of 14.0 +/- 1.9. The total single W boson production cross section is measured as 1.06 +/- 0.16 (stat.) +/- 0.07 (sys.) pb, in agreement with an Standard Model (SM) expectation of 1.26 +/- 0.19 pb.
5.
  • Mavaddat, Nasim, et al. (författare)
  • Polygenic Risk Scores for Prediction of Breast Cancer and Breast Cancer Subtypes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: American journal of human genetics. - 1537-6605. ; 104:1, s. 21-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Stratification of women according to their risk of breast cancer based on polygenic risk scores (PRSs) could improve screening and prevention strategies. Our aim was to develop PRSs, optimized for prediction of estrogen receptor (ER)-specific disease, from the largest available genome-wide association dataset and to empirically validate the PRSs in prospective studies. The development dataset comprised 94,075 case subjects and 75,017 control subjects of European ancestry from 69 studies, divided into training and validation sets. Samples were genotyped using genome-wide arrays, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected by stepwise regression or lasso penalized regression. The best performing PRSs were validated in an independent test set comprising 11,428 case subjects and 18,323 control subjects from 10 prospective studies and 190,040 women from UK Biobank (3,215 incident breast cancers). For the best PRSs (313 SNPs), the odds ratio for overall disease per 1 standard deviation in ten prospective studies was 1.61 (95%CI: 1.57–1.65) with area under receiver-operator curve (AUC) = 0.630 (95%CI: 0.628–0.651). The lifetime risk of overall breast cancer in the top centile of the PRSs was 32.6%. Compared with women in the middle quintile, those in the highest 1% of risk had 4.37- and 2.78-fold risks, and those in the lowest 1% of risk had 0.16- and 0.27-fold risks, of developing ER-positive and ER-negative disease, respectively. Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that this PRS was well calibrated and predicts disease risk accurately in the tails of the distribution. This PRS is a powerful and reliable predictor of breast cancer risk that may improve breast cancer prevention programs. © 2018 The Authors
6.
  • Aaron, F. D., et al. (författare)
  • Combined measurement and QCD analysis of the inclusive e(+/-)p scattering cross sections at HERA
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of High Energy Physics. - Springer. - 1029-8479. ; :1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A combination is presented of the inclusive deep inelastic cross sections measured by the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations in neutral and charged current unpolarised e(+/-)p scattering at HERA during the period 1994-2000. The data span six orders of magnitude in negative four-momentum-transfer squared, Q(2), and in Bjorken x. The combination method used takes the correlations of systematic uncertainties into account, resulting in an improved accuracy. The combined data are the sole input in a NLO QCD analysis which determines a new set of parton distributions, HERAPDF1.0, with small experimental uncertainties. This set includes an estimate of the model and parametrisation uncertainties of the fit result.
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8.
  • Aaron, F. D., et al. (författare)
  • Combined inclusive diffractive cross sections measured with forward proton spectrometers in deep inelastic ep scattering at HERA
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 72:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A combination of the inclusive diffractive cross section measurements made by the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations at HERA is presented. The analysis uses samples of diffractive deep inelastic ep scattering data at a centre-of-mass energy root s = 318 GeV where leading protons are detected by dedicated spectrometers. Correlations of systematic uncertainties are taken into account, resulting in an improved precision of the cross section measurement which reaches 6 % for the most precise points. The combined data cover the range 2.5 < Q(2) < 200 GeV2 in photon virtuality, 0.00035 < x(P) < 0.09 in proton fractional momentum loss, 0.09 < vertical bar t vertical bar < 0.55 GeV2 in squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex and 0.0018 < beta < 0.816 in beta = x/x(P), where x is the Bjorken scaling variable.
9.
  • Abramowicz, H., et al. (författare)
  • Combination and QCD analysis of charm production cross section measurements in deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 73:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Measurements of open charm production cross sections in deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA from the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations are combined. Reduced cross sections sigma(c (c) over bar)(red) for charm production are obtained in the kinematic range of photon virtuality 2.5 <= Q(2) <= 2000 GeV2 and Bjorken scaling variable 3 . 10(-5) <= x <= 5 . 10(-2). The combination method accounts for the correlations of the systematic uncertainties among the different data sets. The combined charm data together with the combined inclusive deep-inelastic scattering cross sections from HERA are used as input for a detailed NLO QCD analysis to study the influence of different heavy flavour schemes on the parton distribution functions. The optimal values of the charm mass as a parameter in these different schemes are obtained. The implications on the NLO predictions for W-+/- and Z production cross sections at the LHC are investigated. Using the fixed flavour number scheme, the running mass of the charm quark is determined.
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