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Sökning: WFRF:(Olsson Petter)

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1.
  • Cardell, Lars-Olaf, et al. (författare)
  • TOTALL: high cost of allergic rhinitis-a national Swedish population-based questionnaire study.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2055-1010. ; 26, s. 15082-15082
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Allergic rhinitis is a global illness with a well-recognised impact on quality of life and work performance. Comparatively little is known about the extent of its economic impact on society. The TOTALL study estimates the total cost of allergic rhinitis using a sample representing the entire Swedish population of working age. A questionnaire focused on allergic rhinitis was mailed out to a random population of Swedish residents, aged 18-65 years. Health-care contacts, medications, absenteeism (absence from work) and presenteeism (reduced working capacity at work) were assessed, and the direct and indirect costs of allergic rhinitis were calculated. Medication use was evaluated in relation to the ARIA guidelines. In all, 3,501 of 8,001 (44%) answered the questionnaire, and 855 (24%) of these reported allergic rhinitis. The mean annual direct and indirect costs because of allergic rhinitis were €210.3 and €750.8, respectively, resulting in a total cost of €961.1 per individual/year. Presenteeism represented 70% of the total cost. Antihistamines appear to be used in excess in relation to topical steroids, and the use of nasal decongestants was alarmingly high. The total cost of allergic rhinitis in Sweden, with a population of 9.5 million, was estimated at €1.3 billion annually. These unexpectedly high costs could be related to the high prevalence of disease, in combination with the previously often underestimated indirect costs. Improved adherence to guidelines might ease the economic burden on society.
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3.
  • Giustacchini, Alice, et al. (författare)
  • Single-cell transcriptomics uncovers distinct molecular signatures of stem cells in chronic myeloid leukemia
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Medicine. - NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1078-8956 .- 1546-170X. ; 23:6, s. 692-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Recent advances in single-cell transcriptomics are ideally placed to unravel intratumoral heterogeneity and selective resistance of cancer stem cell (SC) subpopulations to molecularly targeted cancer therapies. However, current single-cell RNA-sequencing approaches lack the sensitivity required to reliably detect somatic mutations. We developed a method that combines high-sensitivity mutation detection with whole-transcriptome analysis of the same single cell. We applied this technique to analyze more than 2,000 SCs from patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) throughout the disease course, revealing heterogeneity of CML-SCs, including the identification of a subgroup of CML-SCs with a distinct molecular signature that selectively persisted during prolonged therapy. Analysis of nonleukemic SCs from patients with CML also provided new insights into cell-extrinsic disruption of hematopoiesis in CML associated with clinical outcome. Furthermore, we used this single-cell approach to identify a blast-crisis-specific SC population, which was also present in a subclone of CML-SCs during the chronic phase in a patient who subsequently developed blast crisis. This approach, which might be broadly applied to any malignancy, illustrates how single-cell analysis can identify subpopulations of therapy-resistant SCs that are not apparent through cell-population analysis.
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6.
  • Akselsson, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Weathering rates in Swedish forest soils
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Biogeosciences. - Copernicus Publications. - 1726-4170. ; 16:22, s. 4429-4450
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Soil and water acidification was internationally recognised as a severe environmental problem in the late 1960s. The interest in establishing “critical loads” led to a peak in weathering research in the 1980s and 1990s, since base cation weathering is the long-term counterbalance to acidification pressure. Assessments of weathering rates and associated uncertainties have recently become an area of renewed research interest, this time due to demand for forest residues to provide renewable bioenergy. Increased demand for forest fuels increases the risk of depleting the soils of base cations produced in situ by weathering. This is the background to the research programme Quantifying Weathering Rates for Sustainable Forestry (QWARTS), which ran from 2012 to 2019. The programme involved research groups working at different scales, from laboratory experiments to modelling. The aims of this study were to (1) investigate the variation in published weathering rates of base cations from different approaches in Sweden, with consideration of the key uncertainties for each method; (2) assess the robustness of the results in relation to sustainable forestry; and (3) discuss the results in relation to new insights from the QWARTS programme and propose ways to further reduce uncertainties. In the study we found that the variation in estimated weathering rates at single-site level was large, but still most sites could be placed reliably in broader classes of weathering rates. At the regional level, the results from the different approaches were in general agreement. Comparisons with base cation losses after stem-only and whole-tree harvesting showed sites where whole-tree harvesting was clearly not sustainable and other sites where variation in weathering rates from different approaches obscured the overall balance. Clear imbalances appeared mainly after whole-tree harvesting in spruce forests in southern and central Sweden. Based on the research findings in the QWARTS programme, it was concluded that the PROFILE/ForSAFE family of models provides the most important fundamental understanding of the contribution of weathering to long-term availability of base cations to support forest growth. However, these approaches should be continually assessed against other approaches. Uncertainties in the model approaches can be further reduced, mainly by finding ways to reduce uncertainties in input data on soil texture and associated hydrological parameters but also by developing the models, e.g. to better represent biological feedbacks under the influence of climate change.
7.
  • Akselsson, Cecilia, et al. (författare)
  • Weathering rates in Swedish forest soils
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Biogeosciences. - 1726-4170 .- 1726-4189. ; 16:22, s. 4429-4450
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Soil and water acidification was internationally recognised as a severe environmental problem in the late 1960s. The interest in establishing critical loads led to a peak in weathering research in the 1980s and 1990s, since base cation weathering is the long-term counterbalance to acidification pressure. Assessments of weathering rates and associated uncertainties have recently become an area of renewed research interest, this time due to demand for forest residues to provide renewable bioenergy. Increased demand for forest fuels increases the risk of depleting the soils of base cations produced in situ by weathering. This is the background to the research programme Quantifying Weathering Rates for Sustainable Forestry (QWARTS), which ran from 2012 to 2019. The programme involved research groups working at different scales, from laboratory experiments to modelling. The aims of this study were to (1) investigate the variation in published weathering rates of base cations from different approaches in Sweden, with consideration of the key uncertainties for each method; (2) assess the robustness of the results in relation to sustainable forestry; and (3) discuss the results in relation to new insights from the QWARTS programme and propose ways to further reduce uncertainties. In the study we found that the variation in estimated weathering rates at single-site level was large, but still most sites could be placed reliably in broader classes of weathering rates. At the regional level, the results from the different approaches were in general agreement. Comparisons with base cation losses after stem-only and whole-tree harvesting showed sites where whole-tree harvesting was clearly not sustainable and other sites where variation in weathering rates from different approaches obscured the overall balance. Clear imbalances appeared mainly after whole-tree harvesting in spruce forests in southern and central Sweden. Based on the research findings in the QWARTS programme, it was concluded that the PROFILE/ForSAFE family of models provides the most important fundamental understanding of the contribution of weathering to long-term availability of base cations to support forest growth. However, these approaches should be continually assessed against other approaches. Uncertainties in the model approaches can be further reduced, mainly by finding ways to reduce uncertainties in input data on soil texture and associated hydrological parameters but also by developing the models, e.g. to better represent biological feedbacks under the influence of climate change.</p>
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8.
  • Aurell, Emelie, et al. (författare)
  • Mikroplaster Redovisning av regeringsuppdrag om källor till mikroplaster och förslag på åtgärder för minskade utsläpp i Sverige
  • 2017
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>I augusti 2015 fick Naturvårdsverket i uppdrag från regeringen att identifiera viktigare källor i Sverige till utsläpp av mikroplaster till havet och verka för att reducera utsläppen från dessa källor. I den här rapporten redovisar Naturvårdsverket uppdraget. Vi presenterar resultaten från den första, övergripande kartläggningen av källor till och spridning av mikroplaster i Sverige, en bedömning av vilka av de kartlagda källorna som primärt bör åtgärdas samt vilka steg som behöver tas för att förebygga utsläpp och minska spridning av mikroplaster till hav, sjöar och vattendrag från dessa källor.</p><p>Förekomsten av mikroplast i den marina miljön har uppmärksammats allt mer under senare år, inte minst på global nivå. Mikroplast är ett samlingsnamn för små, små plastfragment (1 nm till 5 mm). De mikroplaster som hittats i världshaven, men även i sötvattensystem, har olika ursprung. Mikroplast kan bildas oavsiktligt när plastföremål slits och plastpartiklar frigörs, eller när vi inte återanvänder, återvinner eller slänger plastmaterial på rätt sätt utan plasten blir skräp som succesivt bryts ned till mindre och mindre bitar i naturen. Det finns också plast som från början tillverkas som små pellets eller korn.</p><p>Utgångspunkten för arbetet har varit miljökvalitetsmålen <em>Hav i balans samt levande </em><em>kust </em>och <em>Levande sjöar och vattendrag </em>samt målet om <em>Giftfri miljö</em>. Reduceradeutsläpp av mikroplaster till hav, sjöar och vattendrag bidrar till att nå dessa mål.</p><p>Uppdraget har genomförts av Naturvårdsverket i samarbete med Havs- och vattenmyndigheten, andra berörda myndigheter, samt med deltagande av berörda organisationer och andra intressenter mellan augusti 2015 och maj 2017. Slutsatserna är Naturvårdsverkets egna.</p>
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9.
  • Bjermer, Leif, et al. (författare)
  • Indacaterol/glycopyrronium is cost-effective compared to salmeterol/fluticasone in COPD FLAME-based modelling in a Swedish population
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Respiratory Research. - 1465-9921 .- 1465-993X. ; 18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY) versus salmeterol/fluticasone (SFC) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with moderate to very severe airflow limitation and ≥1 exacerbation in the preceding year.</p><p>Methods: A previously published and validated patient-level simulation model was adapted using clinical data from the FLAME trial and real-world cost data from the ARCTIC study. Costs (total monetary costs comprising drug, maintenance, exacerbation, and pneumonia costs) and health outcomes (life-years (LYs), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs)) were projected over various time horizons (1, 5, 10 years, and lifetime) from the Swedish payer’s perspective and were discounted at 3% annually. Uncertainty in model input values was studied through one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Subgroup analyses were also performed.</p><p>Results: IND/GLY was associated with lower costs and better outcomes compared with SFC over all the analysed time horizons. Use of IND/GLY resulted in additional 0.192 LYs and 0.134 QALYs with cost savings of €1211 compared with SFC over lifetime. The net monetary benefit (NMB) was estimated to be €8560 based on a willingness-to-pay threshold of €55,000/QALY. The NMB was higher in the following subgroups: severe (GOLD 3), high risk and more symptoms (GOLD D), females, and current smokers.</p><p>Conclusion: IND/GLY is a cost-effective treatment compared with SFC in COPD patients with mMRC dyspnea grade ≥ 2, moderate to very severe airflow limitation, and ≥1 exacerbation in the preceding year.</p>
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10.
  • Bjermer, Leif, et al. (författare)
  • Indacaterol/glycopyrronium is cost-effective compared to salmeterol/fluticasone in COPD : FLAME-based modelling in a Swedish population
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Respiratory Research. - BioMed Central (BMC). - 1465-9921. ; 18:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY) versus salmeterol/fluticasone (SFC) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with moderate to very severe airflow limitation and ≥1 exacerbation in the preceding year. Methods: A previously published and validated patient-level simulation model was adapted using clinical data from the FLAME trial and real-world cost data from the ARCTIC study. Costs (total monetary costs comprising drug, maintenance, exacerbation, and pneumonia costs) and health outcomes (life-years (LYs), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs)) were projected over various time horizons (1, 5, 10 years, and lifetime) from the Swedish payer's perspective and were discounted at 3% annually. Uncertainty in model input values was studied through one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Subgroup analyses were also performed. Results: IND/GLY was associated with lower costs and better outcomes compared with SFC over all the analysed time horizons. Use of IND/GLY resulted in additional 0.192 LYs and 0.134 QALYs with cost savings of €1211 compared with SFC over lifetime. The net monetary benefit (NMB) was estimated to be €8560 based on a willingness-to-pay threshold of €55,000/QALY. The NMB was higher in the following subgroups: severe (GOLD 3), high risk and more symptoms (GOLD D), females, and current smokers. Conclusion: IND/GLY is a cost-effective treatment compared with SFC in COPD patients with mMRC dyspnea grade ≥ 2, moderate to very severe airflow limitation, and ≥1 exacerbation in the preceding year.
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