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1.
  • Hetland, M. L., et al. (författare)
  • Active conventional treatment and three different biological treatments in early rheumatoid arthritis: phase IV investigator initiated, randomised, observer blinded clinical trial
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Bmj-British Medical Journal. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 1756-1833. ; 371
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE To evaluate and compare benefits and harms of three biological treatments with different modes of action versus active conventional treatment in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. DESIGN Investigator initiated, randomised, open label, blinded assessor, multiarm, phase IV study. SETTING Twenty nine rheumatology departments in Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Finland, the Netherlands, and Iceland between 2012 and 2018. PARTICIPANTS Patients aged 18 years and older with treatment naive rheumatoid arthritis, symptom duration less than 24 months, moderate to severe disease activity, and rheumatoid factor or anti-citrullinated protein antibody positivity, or increased C reactive protein. INTERVENTIONS Randomised 1:1:1:1, stratified by country, sex, and anti-citrullinated protein antibody status. All participants started methotrexate combined with (a) active conventional treatment (either prednisolone tapered to 5 mg/day, or sulfasalazine combined with hydroxychloroquine and intraarticular corticosteroids), (b) certolizumab pegol, (c) abatacept, or (d) tocilizumab. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome was adjusted clinical disease activity index remission (CDAI <= 2.8) at 24 weeks with active conventional treatment as the reference. Key secondary outcomes and analyses included CDAI remission at 12 weeks and over time, other remission criteria, a non-inferiority analysis, and harms. RESULTS 812 patients underwent randomisation. The mean age was 54.3 years (standard deviation 14.7) and 68.8% were women. Baseline disease activity score of 28 joints was 5.0 (standard deviation 1.1). Adjusted 24 week CDAI remission rates were 42.7% (95% confidence interval 36.1% to 49.3%) for active conventional treatment, 46.5% (39.9% to 53.1%) for certolizumab pegol, 52.0% (45.5% to 58.6%) for abatacept, and 42.1% (35.3% to 48.8%) for tocilizumab. Corresponding absolute differences were 3.9% (95% confidence interval -5.5% to 13.2%) for certolizumab pegol, 9.4% (0.1% to 18.7%) for abatacept, and -0.6% (-10.1% to 8.9%) for tocilizumab. Key secondary outcomes showed no major differences among the four treatments. Differences in CDAI remission rates for active conventional treatment versus certolizumab pegol and tocilizumab, but not abatacept, remained within the prespecified non-inferiority margin of 15% (per protocol population). The total number of serious adverse events was 13 (percentage of patients who experienced at least one event 5.6%) for active conventional treatment, 20 (8.4%) for certolizumab pegol, 10 (4.9%) for abatacept, and 10 (4.9%) for tocilizumab. Eleven patients treated with abatacept stopped treatment early compared with 20-23 patients in the other arms. CONCLUSIONS All four treatments achieved high remission rates. Higher CDAI remission rate was observed for abatacept versus active conventional treatment, but not for certolizumab pegol or tocilizumab versus active conventional treatment. Other remission rates were similar across treatments. Non-inferiority analysis indicated that active conventional treatment was non-inferior to certolizumab pegol and tocilizumab, but not to abatacept. The results highlight the efficacy and safety of active conventional treatment based on methotrexate combined with corticosteroids, with nominally better results for abatacept, in treatment naive early rheumatoid arthritis.
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2.
  • Gyllenberg, A, et al. (författare)
  • Age-dependent variation of genotypes in MHC II transactivator gene (CIITA) in controls and association to type 1 diabetes
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Genes and Immunity. - Stockholm : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5470 .- 1466-4879. ; 13:8, s. 632-640
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The major histocompatibility complex class II transactivator (CIITA) gene (16p13) has been reported to associate with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and myocardial infarction, recently also to celiac disease at genome-wide level. However, attempts to replicate association have been inconclusive. Previously, we have observed linkage to the CIITA region in Scandinavian type 1 diabetes (T1D) families. Here we analyze five Swedish T1D cohorts and a combined control material from previous studies of CIITA. We investigate how the genotype distribution within the CIITA gene varies depending on age, and the association to T1D. Unexpectedly, we find a significant difference in the genotype distribution for markers in CIITA (rs11074932, P=4 × 10(-5) and rs3087456, P=0.05) with respect to age, in the collected control material. This observation is replicated in an independent cohort material of about 2000 individuals (P=0.006, P=0.007). We also detect association to T1D for both markers, rs11074932 (P=0.004) and rs3087456 (P=0.001), after adjusting for age at sampling. The association remains independent of the adjacent T1D risk gene CLEC16A. Our results indicate an age-dependent variation in CIITA allele frequencies, a finding of relevance for the contrasting outcomes of previously published association studies.
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3.
  • Malmeström, Clas, 1965, et al. (författare)
  • Serum levels of LIGHT in MS
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Multiple sclerosis (Houndmills, Basingstoke, England). - 1477-0970. ; 19:7, s. 871-876
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Recently, a polymorphism in the LIGHT gene was shown to increase the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) in a genome-wide association study (GWAS). OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate if serum levels of LIGHT were affected by this polymorphism and by the disease itself. METHODS: Serum levels of LIGHT were investigated in four cohorts; 1) MS (n = 159) and controls (n = 160) in relation to rs1077667 genotype; 2) MS at relapse (n = 30) vs. healthy controls (n = 26); 3) MS (n = 27) vs. other neurological disease (OND, n = 33); and 4) MS patients before and after one year of treatment with natalizumab (n = 30). RESULTS: Carriers of the GG genotype had the lowest serum levels of LIGHT (p=0.02). Serum levels of LIGHT were increased in MS at relapse in two separate cohorts: vs. healthy controls (p=0.00005) and vs. remission (p=0.00006), other neurological disease (OND) (p=0.002) and OND with signs of inflammation (iOND; p=0.00005). Furthermore, serum levels of LIGHT were decreased by natalizumab treatment (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Soluble LIGHT is an inhibitor of T-cell activation and GG carriers of rs1077667, with the highest risk for MS, had the lowest serum levels. The increased levels of LIGHT at times of increased MS activity suggest that soluble LIGHT is protective and may act to limit inflammation.
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4.
  • Olsson, Tomas T., et al. (författare)
  • Delayed Clinical Manifestation of Parkinson's Disease among Physically Active : Do Participants in a Long-Distance Ski Race Have a Motor Reserve?
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Parkinson's Disease. - : IOS Press. - 1877-7171 .- 1877-718X. ; 10:1, s. 267-274
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). The explanations for this association are not completely elucidated. We use long-term PD-incidence data from long-distance skiers to study the relationship between exercise and PD. Objective: We aimed to investigate if physical activity is associated with long-term lower risk of PD and if this association could be explained by physically active people being able to sustain more PD neuropathology before clinical symptoms, a motor reserve. Methods: Using a prospective observational design, we studied whether long-distance skiers of the Swedish Vasaloppet (n = 197,685), exhibited reduced incidence of PD compared to matched individuals from the general population (n = 197,684) during 21 years of follow-up (median 10, interquartile range (IQR) 5-15 years). Results: Vasaloppet skiers (median age 36.0 years [IQR 29.0-46.0], 38% women) had lower incidence of PD (HR: 0.71; 95 % CI 0.56-0.90) compared to non-skiers. When reducing risk for reverse causation by excluding PD cases within the first five years from race participation, there was still a trend for lower risk of PD (HR: 0.80; 95 % CI 0.62-1.03). Further, the PD prevalence converged between skiers and non-skiers after 15 years of follow-up, which is more consistent with a motor reserve in the physically active rather than neuroprotection. Conclusions: A physical active lifestyle is associated with reduced risk for PD. This association weakens with time and might be explained by a motor reserve among the physically active.
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5.
  • Sundström, Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Rationale for a Swedish cohort consortium.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Upsala journal of medical sciences. - : TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD. - 2000-1967 .- 0300-9734. ; 124:1, s. 21-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We herein outline the rationale for a Swedish cohort consortium, aiming to facilitate greater use of Swedish cohorts for world-class research. Coordination of all Swedish prospective population-based cohorts in a common infrastructure would enable more precise research findings and facilitate research on rare exposures and outcomes, leading to better utilization of study participants' data, better return of funders' investments, and higher benefit to patients and populations. We motivate the proposed infrastructure partly by lessons learned from a pilot study encompassing data from 21 cohorts. We envisage a standing Swedish cohort consortium that would drive development of epidemiological research methods and strengthen the Swedish as well as international epidemiological competence, community, and competitiveness.
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6.
  • Ahlsson, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Is There a Weekend Effect in Surgery for Type A Dissection? : Results From the Nordic Consortium for Acute Type A Aortic Dissection Database
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Annals of Thoracic Surgery. - : Elsevier. - 0003-4975 .- 1552-6259. ; 108:3, s. 770-776
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Aortic dissection type A requires immediate surgery. In general surgery populations, patients operated on during weekends have higher mortality rates compared with patients whose operations occur on weekdays. The weekend effect in aortic dissection type A has not been studied in detail.Methods: The Nordic Consortium for Acute Type A Aortic Dissection (NORCAAD) registry includes data for 1,159 patients who underwent type A dissection surgery at 8 Nordic centers during 2005 to 2014. This study is based on data relating to surgery conducted during weekdays versus weekends and starting between 8:00 AM and 8:00 Pm ("daytime") versus from 8:00 Pm to 8:00 AM ("nighttime"), as well as time from symptoms, admittance, and diagnosis to surgery. The influence of timing of surgery on the 30-day mortality rate was assessed using logistic regression analysis.Results: The 30-day mortality was 18% (204 of 1,159), with no difference in mortality between surgery performed on weekdays (17% [150 of 889]) and on weekends (20% [54 of 270], p = 0.45), or during nighttime (19% [87 of 467]) versus daytime (17% [117 of 680], p = 0.54). Time from symptoms to surgery (median 7.0 hours vs 6.5 hours, p = 0.31) did not differ between patients who survived and those who died at 30 days. Multivariable regression analysis of risk factors for 30-day mortality showed no weekend effect (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 60.67 to 1.60; p = 0.875), but nighttime surgery was a risk factor (odds ratio, 2.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.29 to 4.56; p = 0.006).Conclusions: The 30-day mortality in surgical repair of aortic dissection type A was not significantly affected by timing of surgery during weekends versus weekdays. Nighttime surgery seems to predict increased 30-day mortality, after correction for other risk factors.
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7.
  • Bereczky-Veress, Biborka, et al. (författare)
  • Host strain-dependent difference in susceptibility in a rat model of herpes simplex type 1 encephalitis.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of neurovirology. - 1538-2443. ; 14:2, s. 102-18
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is characterized by severe focal brain inflammation leading to substantial loss of nervous tissue. The authors established a model of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV)-1-induced acute encephalitis in the rat by injecting into the whiskers' area a virus strain isolated from a fatal human HSE case. The model might resemble natural propagation of HSV-1 in humans; spreading from the mouth and lips via the trigeminal nerve to trigeminal ganglia and subsequently entering the central nervous system (CNS). HSV-1 infected Dark Agouti (DA) rats developed a well-synchronized disease and died 5 days after inoculation. HSV-1 detection by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), virus isolation and immunohistochemistry, magnetic resonance imaging, and histopathological examination verified dramatic encephalitis mainly in the brainstem, but also in the olfactory bulb and other segments of the brain of diseased rats. In contrast, Piebald Virol Glaxo (PVG) rats were completely resistant to disease, displaying a more rapid clearance of peripheral infection and no evidence of virus entering into neither the trigeminal ganglia nor the CNS. These results suggest a regulation of susceptibility to HSV-1-induced encephalitis at the level of peripheral infection and subsequent neuronal uptake/transport of the virus. This provides a basis for future positioning of genetic polymorphisms regulating HSE and for dissection of important pathogenetic mechanisms of this severe human disease.
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8.
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9.
  • Biström, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • Epstein-Barr virus infection after adolescence and Human herpesvirus 6A as risk factors for multiple sclerosis
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Neurology. - : Blackwell Publishing. - 1351-5101 .- 1468-1331. ; 28:2, s. 579-586
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and purpose: Infections with human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) have been linked to multiple sclerosis (MS) development. For EBV, late infection has been proposed as a risk factor, but serological support is lacking. The objective of this study was to investigate how age affects the EBV and HHV-6A associated risks of developing MS.Methods: In this nested case–control study, Swedish biobanks were accessed to find pre-symptomatically collected blood samples from 670 individuals who later developed relapsing MS and 670 matched controls. A bead-based multiplex assay was used to determine serological response against EBV and HHV-6A. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals.Results: Seropositivity against EBV exhibited a pattern where associations switched from a decreased risk of developing MS in the group below 20 years of age to an increased risk amongst individuals aged 20–29 and 30–39 years (p for trend 0.020). The age of transition was estimated to be 18.8 years. In contrast, HHV-6A was associated with increased MS risk in all age groups (total cohort odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.6–2.7).Conclusions: This study suggests EBV infection after adolescence and age independent HHV-6A infection as risk factors for MS.
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10.
  • Engert, Andreas, et al. (författare)
  • The European Hematology Association Roadmap for European Hematology Research : a consensus document
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Haematologica. - Pavia, Italy : Fondazione Ferrata Storti. - 0390-6078 .- 1592-8721. ; 101:2, s. 115-208
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The European Hematology Association (EHA) Roadmap for European Hematology Research highlights major achievements in diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and identifies the greatest unmet clinical and scientific needs in those areas to enable better funded, more focused European hematology research. Initiated by the EHA, around 300 experts contributed to the consensus document, which will help European policy makers, research funders, research organizations, researchers, and patient groups make better informed decisions on hematology research. It also aims to raise public awareness of the burden of blood disorders on European society, which purely in economic terms is estimated at (sic)23 billion per year, a level of cost that is not matched in current European hematology research funding. In recent decades, hematology research has improved our fundamental understanding of the biology of blood disorders, and has improved diagnostics and treatments, sometimes in revolutionary ways. This progress highlights the potential of focused basic research programs such as this EHA Roadmap. The EHA Roadmap identifies nine 'sections' in hematology: normal hematopoiesis, malignant lymphoid and myeloid diseases, anemias and related diseases, platelet disorders, blood coagulation and hemostatic disorders, transfusion medicine, infections in hematology, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. These sections span 60 smaller groups of diseases or disorders. The EHA Roadmap identifies priorities and needs across the field of hematology, including those to develop targeted therapies based on genomic profiling and chemical biology, to eradicate minimal residual malignant disease, and to develop cellular immunotherapies, combination treatments, gene therapies, hematopoietic stem cell treatments, and treatments that are better tolerated by elderly patients.
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