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1.
  • Ragnarsson, Oskar, et al. (författare)
  • The incidence of Cushing's disease : a nationwide Swedish study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Pituitary. - : Springer. - 1386-341X .- 1573-7403. ; 22:2, s. 179-186
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Studies on the incidence of Cushing’s disease (CD) are few and usually limited by a small number of patients. The aim of this study was to assess the annual incidence in a nationwide cohort of patients with presumed CD in Sweden.Methods: Patients registered with a diagnostic code for Cushing’s syndrome (CS) or CD, between 1987 and 2013 were identified in the Swedish National Patient Registry. The CD diagnosis was validated by reviewing clinical, biochemical, imaging, and histopathological data.Results: Of 1317 patients identified, 534 (41%) had confirmed CD. One-hundred-and-fifty-six (12%) patients had other forms of CS, 41 (3%) had probable but unconfirmed CD, and 334 (25%) had diagnoses unrelated to CS. The mean (95% confidence interval) annual incidence between 1987 and 2013 of confirmed CD was 1.6 (1.4–1.8) cases per million. 1987–1995, 1996–2004, and 2005–2013, the mean annual incidence was 1.5 (1.1–1.8), 1.4 (1.0–1.7) and 2.0 (1.7–2.3) cases per million, respectively. During the last time period the incidence was higher than during the first and second time periods (P < 0.05).Conclusion: The incidence of CD in Sweden (1.6 cases per million) is in agreement with most previous reports. A higher incidence between 2005 and 2013 compared to 1987–2004 was noticed. Whether this reflects a truly increased incidence of the disease, or simply an increased awareness, earlier recognition, and earlier diagnosis can, however, not be answered. This study also illustrates the importance of validation of the diagnosis of CD in epidemiological research.
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2.
  • Ragnarsson, Oskar, et al. (författare)
  • Overall and Disease-Specific Mortality in Patients With Cushing Disease: A Swedish Nationwide Study
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. - : ENDOCRINE SOC. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 104:6, s. 2375-2384
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Whether patients with Cushing disease (CD) in remission have increased mortality is still debatable. Objective: To study overall and disease-specific mortality and predictive factors in an unselected nationwide cohort of patients with CD. Design, Patients, and Methods: A retrospective study of patients diagnosed with CD, identified in the Swedish National Patient Registry between 1987 and 2013. Medical records were systematically reviewed to verify the diagnosis. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) with 95% CIs were calculated and Cox regression models were used to identify predictors of mortality. Results: Of 502 identified patients with CD (n = 387 women; 77%), 419 (83%) were confirmed to be in remission. Mean age at diagnosis was 43 (SD, 16) years and median follow-up was 13 (interquartile range, 6 to 23) years. The observed number of deaths was 133 vs 54 expected, resulting in an overall SMR of 2.5 (95% CI, 2.1 to 2.9). The commonest cause of death was cardiovascular diseases (SMR, 3.3; 95% CI, 2.6 to 4.3). Excess mortality was also found associated with infections and suicide. For patients in remission, the SMR was 1.9 (95% CI, 1.5 to 2.3); bilateral adrenalectomy and glucocorticoid replacement therapy were independently associated with increased mortality, whereas GH replacement was associated with improved outcome. Conclusion: Findings from this large nationwide study indicate that patients with CD have excess mortality. The findings illustrate the importance of achieving remission and continued active surveillance, along with adequate hormone replacement and evaluation of cardiovascular risk and mental health.
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3.
  • Bäcklund, N., et al. (författare)
  • Reference intervals of salivary cortisol and cortisone and their diagnostic accuracy in Cushing's syndrome
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - : Society of the European Journal of Endocrinology. - 0804-4643 .- 1479-683X. ; 182:6, s. 569-582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The challenge of diagnosing Cushing's syndrome (CS) calls for high precision biochemical screening. This study aimed to establish robust reference intervals for, and compare the diagnostic accuracy of, salivary cortisol and cortisone in late-night samples and after a low-dose (1 mg) dexamethasone suppression test (DST). Design and methods: Saliva samples were collected at 08:00 and 23:00 h, and at 08:00 h, after a DST, from 22 patients with CS and from 155 adult reference subjects. We also collected samples at 20:00 and 22:00 h from 78 of the reference subjects. Salivary cortisol and cortisone were analysed with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The reference intervals were calculated as the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles of the reference population measurements. Diagnostic accuracies of different tests were compared, based on areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves. Results: The upper reference limits of salivary cortisol and cortisone at 23:00 h were 3.6 nmol/L and 13.5 nmol/L, respectively. Using these reference limits, CS was detected with a sensitivity (95% CI) of 90% (70-99%) and specificity of 96% (91-98%) for cortisol, and a 100% (84-100%) sensitivity and 95% (90-98%) specificity for cortisone. After DST, cortisol and cortisone upper reference limits were 0.79 nmol/L and 3.5 nmol/L, respectively. CS was detected with 95% (75-100%) sensitivity and 96% (92-99%) specificity with cortisol, and 100% (83-100%) sensitivity and 94% (89-97%) specificity with cortisone. No differences in salivary cortisol or cortisone levels were found between samples collected at 22:00 and 23:00 h. Conclusion: Salivary cortisol and cortisone in late-night samples and after DST showed high accuracy for diagnosing CS, salivary cortisone being slightly, but significantly better. © 2020 European Society of Endocrinology Printed in Great Britain.
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4.
  • Johannsson, G, et al. (författare)
  • Improved Cortisol Exposure-Time Profile and Outcome in Patients with Adrenal Insufficiency: A Prospective Randomized Trial of a Novel Hydrocortisone Dual-Release Formulation.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197 .- 0021-972X. ; 97:2, s. 473-481
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context:Patients with treated adrenal insufficiency (AI) have increased morbidity and mortality rate. Our goal was to improve outcome by developing a once-daily (OD) oral hydrocortisone dual-release tablet with a more physiological exposure-time cortisol profile.Objective:The aim was to compare pharmacokinetics and metabolic outcome between OD and the same daily dose of thrice-daily (TID) dose of conventional hydrocortisone tablets.Design and Setting:We conducted an open, randomized, two-period, 12-wk crossover multicenter trial with a 24-wk extension at five university hospital centers.Patients:The trial enrolled 64 adults with primary AI; 11 had concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM).Intervention:The same daily dose of hydrocortisone was administered as OD dual-release or TID.Main Outcome Measure:We evaluated cortisol pharmacokinetics.Results:Compared with conventional TID, OD provided a sustained serum cortisol profile 0-4 h after the morning intake and reduced the late afternoon and the 24-h cortisol exposure. The mean weight (difference = -0.7 kg, P = 0.005), systolic blood pressure (difference = -5.5 mm Hg, P = 0.0001) and diastolic blood pressure (difference: -2.3 mm Hg; P = 0.03), and glycated hemoglobin (absolute difference = -0.1%, P = 0.0006) were all reduced after OD compared with TID at 12 wk. Compared with TID, a reduction in glycated hemoglobin by 0.6% was observed in patients with concomitant DM during OD (P = 0.004).Conclusion:The OD dual-release tablet provided a more circadian-based serum cortisol profile. Reduced body weight, reduced blood pressure, and improved glucose metabolism were observed during OD treatment. In particular, glucose metabolism improved in patients with concomitant DM.
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5.
  • Marklund, N, et al. (författare)
  • Low and high circulating cortisol levels predict mortality and cognitive dysfunction early after stroke
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 0954-6820. ; 256, s. 15-21
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: Elevated cortisol levels are associated with confusion and poor outcome after stroke. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DS), the most abundant adrenal androgen may act as an anti-glucocorticoid. An altered regulation of these steroids may affect numerous brain functions, including neuronal survival. The purpose of this study was to investigate serum cortisol and DS levels and the cortisol/DS ratio early after stroke and relate our findings to the presence of disorientation and mortality.DESIGN: Patients with acute ischaemic stroke (n = 88, 56 men and 32 women) admitted to a stroke unit were investigated with repeated clinical assessments and scores for degree of confusion, extent of paresis and level of functioning. Serum cortisol (C) and DS were measured on day 1 and/or day 4. Data for 28-day and 1-year mortality are presented. A control group of 65 age-matched healthy individuals was used. Multivariate analyses of mortality rates in the different tertiles or sixtiles of serum cortisol were performed with logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, diabetes and level of consciousness.RESULTS: There was no difference in serum cortisol levels on day 1 for stroke patients when compared with control group values. Initial cortisol levels were significantly higher in the patients with acute disorientation versus orientated patients (P < 0.05). Cortisol levels on day 1 were an independent predictor of 28-day mortality, and patients with low cortisol levels (<270 nmol L(-1)) and increased levels (>550 nmol L(-1)) both had an increased 1-year mortality. DS levels on day 1 were significantly elevated in stroke patients.CONCLUSION: Hypercortisolism is associated with cognitive dysfunction early after ischaemic stroke. High and low circulating cortisol levels are associated with increased mortality after stroke. DS levels were not associated with clinical outcome.
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7.
  • Otten, J., et al. (författare)
  • Strong and persistent effect on liver fat with a Paleolithic diet during a two-year intervention
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Obesity. - 0307-0565 .- 1476-5497. ; 40:5, s. 747-753
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to investigate changes in liver fat and insulin sensitivity during a 2-year diet intervention. An ad libitum Paleolithic diet (PD) was compared with a conventional low-fat diet (LFD). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Seventy healthy, obese, postmenopausal women were randomized to either a PD or a conventional LFD. Diet intakes were ad libitum. Liver fat was measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated with oral glucose tolerance tests and calculated as homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)/liver insulin resistance (Liver IR) index for hepatic insulin sensitivity and oral glucose insulin sensitivity (OGIS)/Matsuda for peripheral insulin sensitivity. All measurements were performed at 0, 6 and 24 months. Forty-one women completed the examinations for liver fat and were included. RESULTS: Liver fat decreased after 6 months by 64% (95% confidence interval: 54-74%) in the PD group and by 43% (27-59%) in the LFD group (P < 0.01 for difference between groups). After 24 months, liver fat decreased 50% (25-75%) in the PD group and 49% (27-71%) in the LFD group. Weight reduction between baseline and 6 months was correlated to liver fat improvement in the LFD group (r(s) = 0.66, P < 0.01) but not in the PD group (r(s) = 0.07, P = 0.75). Hepatic insulin sensitivity improved during the first 6 months in the PD group (P < 0.001 for Liver IR index and HOMA-IR), but deteriorated between 6 and 24 months without association with liver fat changes. CONCLUSIONS: A PD with ad libitum intake had a significant and persistent effect on liver fat and differed significantly from a conventional LFD at 6 months. This difference may be due to food quality, for example, a higher content of mono-and polyunsaturated fatty acids in the PD. Changes in liver fat did not associate with alterations in insulin sensitivity.
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8.
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9.
  • Svensson, Hilda K, 1979, et al. (författare)
  • The effects of person-centered or other supportive interventions in older women with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures—a systematic review of the literature
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Osteoporosis International. - London : Springer London. - 0937-941X .- 1433-2965. ; 28, s. 2521-2540
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • © 2017 The Author(s)Vertebral compression fracture (VCF) is a common fragility fracture and the starting point of a lasting, painful, disabling condition. The aim was to summarize evidence of person-centered/non-medical interventions supporting women with VCF. Results show small numbers of studies with only probable effect on function, pain, QoL, fear of falling, and psychological symptoms. The vertebral compression fracture (VCF) caused by osteoporosis is the third most common fragility fracture worldwide. Previously, it was believed that the pain caused by VCF was self-subsiding within weeks or a few months post-fracture. However, this positive prognosis has been refuted by studies showing that, for the great majority of patients, the VCF was the starting point of a long-lasting, severely painful, and disabling condition. The low number of studies focusing on the experience of the natural course of VCF, and what support is available and how it is perceived by those affected, calls for further investigation. Strengthening older patients’ sense of security and increasing confidence in their own abilities are of great importance for successful rehabilitation following VCF. More research is needed to identify resources, possibilities, and strategies that can assist older patients to reach their goals to improve well-being. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify and summarize the current evidence of person-centered or other structured non-medical/non-surgical interventions supporting older women after experiencing an osteoporotic VCF. A systematic literature search was conducted on the MeSH terms encompassing osteoporosis and vertebral compression fractures in the PubMed-MEDLINE and Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases during March through June 2015. The initial search identified 8789 articles, but only seven articles (six randomized controlled trials and one observational study with a control group) met the inclusion criteria. It became evident from the current study that the availability of evidence on the effects of non-medical interventions aiming to support older women with VCF is limited, to say the least. The trials included in this review have few limitations and were mainly considered to be of moderate quality. This systematic literature review suggests that non-medical interventions aiming to support older women with VCF might decrease levels of pain and use of analgesic as well as promote improved physical mobility and function. These interventions would probably result in an improved difference in experiences of fear of falling and perceived psychological symptoms, but would only slightly improve quality of life. However, given the nature of the seven studies, potential biases in patient selection, issues around precision with small cohorts, and failure to control for confounders, makes it difficult to draw a definitive conclusion about the significant effects of non-medical interventions. Incurring a VCF is a complex and diverse event, necessitating equally complex interventions to identify new ways forward. However, to date, interventions struggle with a risk of selection bias in that only the needs of the healthiest of the population are addressed and the voices of the remaining majority of the people affected by VCF are unheard.
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10.
  • Al Nimer, Faiez, et al. (författare)
  • Lipocalin-2 is increased in progressive multiple sclerosis and inhibits remyelination
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - 0948-6259 .- 2332-7812. ; 3:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: We aimed to examine the regulation of lipocalin-2 (LCN2) in multiple sclerosis (MS) and its potential functional relevance with regard to myelination and neurodegeneration. Methods: We determined LCN2 levels in 3 different studies: (1) in CSF and plasma from a case-control study comparing patients with MS (n = 147) with controls (n = 50) and patients with relapsing-remitting MS (n = 75) with patients with progressive MS (n = 72); (2) in CSF and brain tissue microdialysates from a case series of 7 patients with progressive MS; and (3) in CSF at baseline and 60 weeks after natalizumab treatment in a cohort study of 17 patients with progressive MS. Correlation to neurofilament light, a marker of neuroaxonal injury, was tested. The effect of LCN2 on myelination and neurodegeneration was studied in a rat in vitro neuroglial cell coculture model. Results: Intrathecal production of LCN2 was increased predominantly in patients with progressive MS (p < 0.005 vs relapsing-remitting MS) and displayed a positive correlation to neurofilament light (p = 0.005). Levels of LCN2 in brain microdialysates were severalfold higher than in the CSF, suggesting local production in progressive MS. Treatment with natalizumab in progressive MS reduced LCN2 levels an average of 13% (p < 0.0001). LCN2 was found to inhibit remyelination in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Conclusions: LCN2 production is predominantly increased in progressive MS. Although this moderate increase does not support the use of LCN2 as a biomarker, the correlation to neurofilament light and the inhibitory effect on remyelination suggest that LCN2 might contribute to neurodegeneration through myelination-dependent pathways.
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